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FL0RIDx4 STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

E. H. SELLARDS, Ph. D., State Geologist 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



Published For 

THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
Tallahassee, 1913 


/ 




The Record Company 

ST. AUGCSTINE 
FLORIDA 

52194 


CONTENTS. 


page:. 

Administrative report . 7 

Origin of the' Hard Rock Phosphates of Florida, by E. H. Sellards.. 23 

Eist of Elevations in Florida, by E. H. Sellards .. 81 

Artesian Water Supply of Eastern and Southern Florida, by E. H. 

Sellards and Herman Gunter . 103 

Production of Phosphate in Florida during 1912, by E. H. Sellards... 291 

Statistics on Public Roads in Florida, by E. H. Sellards.'295 

Index . 299 


Plate 

No. 

1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 

9. 


PLATES. 


Phosphate boulder showing secondary deposition. 

Laminated phosphate boulder. 

Phosphate rock. 

Teeth of mastodon from the phosphate deposits. 

Teeth and foot bone of horse, and teeth of mastodon. 

Sharks’ teeth from the phosphate deposits. 

Sharks’ teeth from the phosphate deposits. 

Phosphate washer and prospect drill. 

Phosphate pit after the removal of the phosphate. 

Palmetto flatwoods, Amelia Island. 

Palmetto flatwoods, Ft. Myers. 

Scrub, east side of Lake Kingsley, Clay County. 

Sandy pineland, DeLeon Springs. 

Open flatwoods, three miles east of DeLeon Springs. 
Everglades west of Ft. Lauderdale. 

Small prairie, four miles west of Sebastian. 

Turnbull Hammock, one mile west of Daytona. 

Sand dune near Mayport. 

Ancient sand dune, two miles west of Daytona. 

Exposure at Saw Pit landing, St. Marys River. 

Exposure of hardpan at Black Bluff on Clark’s Creek eight 
miles from Fernandina. 

Artesian well used for power, Melbourne, in Brevard County. 


10. 

Fig. 

1. 


Fig. 

2. 

11. 

Fig. 

i. 


Fig. 

2. 


Fig. 

3. 

12. 

Fig. 

1. 


Fig. 

2. 


Fig. 

3. 

13. 

Fig. 

1. 


Fig. 

2. 


Fig. 

3. 

14. 

Fig. 

1. 


Fig. 

2. 


FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Artesian basin. 

Fig. 2. Artesian slope. 

Fig. 3. Artesian water from unconfined horizontal beds. 

Fig. 4. Artesian water from solution passages in limestone. 

Fig. 5. Method of measuring flow of artesian well. 

Fig. 6. Map showing area of artesian flow in Nassau and Duval Counties. 
Fig. 7. Map showing the area of artesian flow in St. Johns County. 







4 


CONTENTS. 


Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 
Fig. 11. 
Fig. 13. 

Fig. 14. 
Fig. 15. 
Fig. 16. 
Fig. 17. 


Map showing the' areas of artesian flow in Clay and Putnam 
Counties. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Orange and Seminole 
Counties. 

Flowing artesian well. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Volusia County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Pinellas and Hillsboro 
Counties. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Polk County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Osceola County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Manatee County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in DeSoto County. 

MAPS. 


Map showing the limestone region of Central Florida. 

Map showing the location of the hard rock and land pebble phosphates. 


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

To His Excellency, Hon. Park Trammell, 

Governor of Florida. 

Sir:—In accordance with the Survey law I submit herewith 
my Fifth Annual Report as State Geologist of Florida. This 
report contains the statement of expenditures by the Survey for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, to which I have added a list 
of the expenditures of the Survey for the succeeding half year 
ending December 31, 1912. The progress of the Survey inves¬ 
tigations during the year are shown by the scientific papers that 
will form a part of this report. These include a paper on the 
origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida; a report on the 
artesian water supply of southern Florida, and a list of elevations 
in the State together with a second edition of the general topo¬ 
graphic map of the State previously published. 

I venture to add here a resume of the principal investigations 
of the Survey since its organization and to make certain recom¬ 
mendations which I believe to be for the good of the future use¬ 
fulness of the Survey. Permit me to express in this connection 
my appreciation of the interest you have shown in the work of 
the State Geological Survey. 

Very respectfully, 

E. H. SELLARDS, 

State Geologist. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. 

E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST. 


PRINCIPAL RESULTS OF THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
INVESTIGATIONS. 

Aside from miscellaneous and routine work, the principal 
investigations that have been carried out by the State Geological 
Survey since its organization may be grouped under six heads 
as follows: 

I. Assemblage of the literature on the geology of Florida 
and a review of the important publications issued previous to the 
organization of the State Survey. This review of the literature 
together with the bibliography of publications relating to the 
geology of Florida was included in the First Annual Report. The 
publications obtained in this connection form a part of the Survey 
library. 

II. A Report on the Geology and Stratigraphy of Florida. 
This report included in the Second Annual Report was prepared 
in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey. It 
serves as a preliminary account of the geology of the State, and 
brings together all the information relating to the geology that 
was then available. 

III. A General Topographic and Geologic Map of Florida. 
With the general report on the geology of Florida referred to 
above there was included a topographic and geologic map of Flor¬ 
ida. The topography was shown on this map with as much detail 
as the information available regarding elevations would permit, 
the contour lines being placed at 50 foot intervals of elevation. 
A second edition of this map is included in the report now being 
issued. 

IV. A very important natural resource of Florida is the 
underground or artesian water supply. This subject was one of 
the first taken up by the Survey, and with the publication of the 
present report the preliminary investigation of the water supply 
is completed. The papers published on this subject are as follows: 



8 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, Bulletin 
No. 1; The Artesian Water Supply of Eastern Florida, Third 
Annual Report; The Underground Water Supply of West-Cen¬ 
tral and West Florida, Fourth Annual Report; The Artesian 
Water Supply of Southern Florida, Fifth Annual Report. 

V. The Soils. A general report on the soils of the State 
formed a part of the Fourth Annual Report. This paper included 
an account of the origin and character of the soils of Florida, 
and was intended as a basis for subsequent detailed soil surveys. 

VI. The Mineral Resources. Information bearing on the 
mineral resources of the State has formed a part of each annual 
report issued. An account of the fuller’s earth deposits as 
complete as the information then at hand would permit was in¬ 
cluded in the Second Annual Report. Papers on the phosphate 
deposits formed a part of the Third and the present (Fifth) 
Annual Reports. The peat deposits of the State, which are exten¬ 
sive, were described in the Third Annual Report. The clay re¬ 
sources have received general treatment in the First and Second 
Annual Reports. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

MORE OFFICE SPACE NECESSARY. 

The State Survey is at present housed in two small rooms. 
Of these one is used as store room, photo room and exhibition 
room; the other serves as library, office and work room. These 
small rooms including about 1,000 square feet of floor space are 
totally inadequate to the requirements of effective work. Fully 
10,000 square feet of floor space is necessary to meet the immedi¬ 
ate requirements of the Survey. The library shelves are full, and 
it is now and for some time has been quite impossible to care for 
the publications that are being received. Many of these new 
publications represent the results of investigations by the neigh¬ 
boring State Surveys or by the National Survey, and are very 
necessary for comparative purposes to the Florida Survey. Other 
publications being received from various sources are for refer¬ 
ence purposes and are necessary to the determination of fossils or 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


9 


mineral specimens, or of geological formations, or other matters 
in connection with the Survey work. 

The Survey at present is practically without a work room. 
There is no table or desk room available to store or to handle the 
maps, charts, and drawings that are constantly being used in the 
Survey work. It is impossible from lack of space to properly 
open up and study the collection of mineral and fossil specimens 
that have been obtained by the Survey. The store room space is 
too small to accommodate even the current issues of the Survey’s 
own publications which must be cared for temporarily awaiting 
their distribution. 

In connection with the work of the Survey there is a constant 
accumulation of notes, records, photographs, manuscripts, plates 
and cuts, as well as the general correspondence of the office which 
must be cared for. The present limited office space affords no 
room for storing, filing or properly caring for these records. 

I urgently recommend, if if meets with your approval, that 
the Legislature be asked to provide adequate rooms for the future 
work of the State Geological Survey. 

a. state; musfum. 

The desirability of an adequate museum in which to properly 
exhibit the resources of the State is apparent. The State Survey 
law makes it the duty of the State Geologist to collect, determine 
and label specimens illustrating the geological and mineral fea¬ 
tures of the State and large collections have been made since the 
Survey was organized. The small room used for exhibition 
purposes has long since been filled and a large amount of material 
suitable for exhibition remains unopened in boxes as collected. It 
.is important that the State provide for the proper preservation 
and exhibition of the Survey collections in a State Museum. 

DEMAND FOR CLAY TESTING LABORATORY. 

There is a very urgent demand on the part of the citizens of 
the State for a laboratory in which the various clays may be prop- 
erlv tested for brick making and other purposes. It is a well 
known fact that the utility of clays is determined not so much by 


10 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


their chemical as by their physical properties. To properly test 
a clay it is therefore necessary to install the testing machinery. 
Effective clay testing machinery will require for installation more 
space than is now available in the Survey rooms. 

THE PREPARATION OE A DETAILED TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OE FLORIDA. 

While a general topographic map of Florida with contour 
lines at 50 foot intervals of elevation has been issued, as already 
stated, there is a constant demand for detailed topographic maps 
on a scale of about one inch to the mile and with contour lines at 
10 foot intervals of elevation. Topographic maps are usually 
made in atlas sheets covering unit areas bounded by parallels and 
meridians. The unit adopted by the United States Geological 
Survey in topographic mapping designated as the quadrangle, 
includes when made on the scale of about one inch to the mile an 
area of 15' of latitude by 15' of longitude. A separate atlas sheet 
is issued for each unit area and when completed the maps so 
issued make up a complete map for the State as a whole. The 
maps thus made show the land area in relief by means of contour 
lines. In this way all hills, valleys, stream. channels, sinks, de¬ 
pressions and all changes in elevation are indicated. The actual 
elevation above sea, based on exact levels, are also shown by 
means of figures printed on the contour lines. Each contour 
passes through points which have the same altitude. One who 
follows the contour on the ground will go neither up hill nor 
down hill but on a level. By the use of contours the shapes of 
the plains, hills and valleys as well as their elevations are shown. 
The line of the sea coast itself is a contour line, the datum or 
zero of elevation being mean sea level. The contour line at, say, 
20 feet above sea level is a line that would be the sea coast if the 
sea were to rise or the land to sink 20 feet. Such a line runs 
back up the valleys and forward around the points of hills and 
spurs. On a gentle slope this contour line is far from the present 
coast line, while on a steep slope it is near it. Thus a succession 
of these contour lines far apart on the map indicates a gentle 
slope; if close together a steep slope; and if the contours run 
together in one line, as if each were vertically under the one 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


11 


above it, they indicate a cliff. The heights of many definite points, 
such as road corners, railroad crossings, railroad stations, sum¬ 
mits, water surfaces, triangulation stations and bench marks are 
also given on the map. The figures in each case are placed close 
to the point to which they apply, and express the elevation to 
the nearest foot. 

In addition to indicating relief and actual elevation above sea 
these maps show all other natural features such as lakes, ponds, 
rivers, streams, canals, swamps and all cultural features includ¬ 
ing public roads, railroads, towns, cities, county and State 
boundaries. 

The topographic maps thus prepared find many uses. They 
are above all essential to the proper planning of drainage opera¬ 
tions throughout all of the interior of the State. It is a well- 
known fact that we have in Florida, particularly in the flatwoods 
section, large areas of land that although not actually flooded 
yet would be much improved by the more rapid removal of the 
heavy summer rains. Other large and valuable tracts of land, but 
little used at present, by a proper system of drainage, can 
ultimately be made valuable and productive land. The topogra¬ 
phic maps such as are here contemplated are essential to the 
proper planning of drainage operations. 

The topographic maps are of very great assistance in the 
preparation of detailed soil maps. They afford first of all an 
exact base map of the area to be surveyed, thereby reducing the 
cost of the soil map about one-half. They also facilitate the study 
of the soils which bear well known relations to drainage and 
moisture conditions. In detailed geologic mapping and in the 
study of the mineral resources topographic maps are practically 
necessary for the detailed final reports. 

Topographic maps find many additional uses. They are of 
very great assistance in the laying out and developing a system 
of public roads, showing as they do the relief of the land includ¬ 
ing hills, depressions and valleys. In planning the location of 
railroads, canals, waterways or other public improvements thev 
are of great assistance. Finally they afford to the land owners 


12 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


as well as to the citizens in general the manifold conveniences of 
a well-made and accurate map on a large scale. 

COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN 
THE PREPARATION OE TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. 

Many of the States cooperate with the National Geological 
Survey through their respective State Survey organizations in 
the preparation of topographic maps. The usual basis of such 
cooperation is an equal contribution of funds on the part of the 
State and National Survey. The plan of mapping followed is 
that already developed and established by the National Survey. 
The men employed in the mapping are the expert topographic 
mappers already in the employ of the National Survey. The 
following States are either now cooperating or have in the past 
cooperated with the National Geological Survey in this work: 
Alabama, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louis¬ 
iana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, 
Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Okla¬ 
homa, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, 
Virginia and West Virginia. 

It is probable that such cooperation can be secured in the 
preparation of the topographic maps of Florida, thus practically 
doubling for the State any appropriation made by tbe legislature 
for this purpose. The Director of the United States. Geological 
Survey has repeatedly expressed his willingness to cooperate with 
the State Geological Survey in the preparation of topographic 
maps, meeting any appropriation made by the State with an equal 
amount so far as funds permit. An appropriation made for the 
preparation of topographic maps may be so framed as to admit 
of cooperation with the United States Geological Survey; or may 
be made if desired contingent upon such cooperation to be carried 
on in accordance with plans approved by the Governor. 

SOIL MAPS. 

Another very important line of investigation is the prepara¬ 
tion of detailed soil maps. While a general report on the soil's of 
the State has been issued by the Survey, there is a very great 


I 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 13 

demand for specific information regarding local soils such as can 
be supplied only by detailed soil maps of the several counties. A 
limited amount of soil mapping has already been done by the 
United States Bureau of Soils. As in the case of topographic 
maps many of the States are cooperating with the National 
Bureaus in the preparation of soil maps, and it is probable that 
an appropriation made for this purpose would be doubled by the 
United States Bureau of Soils. I would urgently recommend 
an appropriation of $5,000 per annum for the preparation of topo¬ 
graphic and soil maps. Such an appropriation may be made 
contingent upon cooperation with the national bureaus and would 
thus result in the expenditure of $10,000 per annum in the State 
for this purpose. 

EXPOSITIONS. 

National Conservation Exposition at Knoxville. —A National 
Conservation Exposition will be held at Knoxville, Tennessee, 
during September, and October of the present year. This exposi¬ 
tion is intended especially to exhibit the natural resources of the 
Southern States and to encourage their development. The 
opportunity is favorable for making more widely known both the 
mineral and agricultural resources of Florida and it is to be 
hoped that provision will be made by which the State may make 
a good showing at this exposition. 

Panama Exposition at San Francisco. —A world exposition 
will be held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the open¬ 
ing of the Panama Canal. Florida by reason of its extensive 
coast line and its nearness to the canal zone is specially interested 
in this exposition, and can not afford to lose the opportunity of 
making its favorable location with regard to the canal more 
widely known. It is none too soon to begin the compilation of 
data on the harbors of Florida, and the preparation of maps, 
charts and drawings showing their relation to the canal and to 
the population and business centers of the United States, as well 
as to the lines of transportation within the United States. The 
exhibitions of the mineral and agricultural resources made for 


14 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


the exposition at Knoxville may be used subsequently for the 
Panama exposition. 

MEMBERS OE THE STATE SURVEY. 

The members of the State Survey during the past year have 
been, in addition to the State Geologist, Mr. Herman Gunter, 
and during, a part of the year Mr. Emil Gunter. Stenographic 
and clerical services were rendered at various times by Ada Moore 
and T. C. Alford. The chemical analyses necessary to the work 
of the State Survey are made by the State Chemist. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED DURING 1912. 

The Fourth Annual Report of the Geological Survey was 
issued during the year. This report contains in addition to 
statistics on phosphate rock and fuller’s earth, papers on the Soils 
and Other Surface Residual Materials of Florida, and on the 
Water Supply of West-Central and West Florida. 

distribution oe reports. • 

The reports issued by the State Geological Survey are dis¬ 
tributed upon request, and may be obtained without cost by 
addressing the State Geologist, Tallahassee, Florida. 

THE PURPOSE and DUTIES OE THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Among the specific objects for which the Survey exists, as 
stated in the enactment, is that of making known information 
regarding the minerals, water supply and other natural resources 
of the State, including the occurrence and location of minerals 
and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean water 
supply and power and mineral waters and the best and most 
economic methods of development, together with analysis of soils, 
minerals and mineral waters, with maps, charts, and drawings 
of the same. 

A distinctly educational function of the Survey is indicated 
by Section 4 of the law, which makes it the duty of the State 
Geologist to make collections of specimens, illustrating the geo¬ 
logical and mineral features of the State, duplicate sets of which 


i 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


15 


shall be deposited with each of the State colleges. The publica¬ 
tion of annual reports is provided for as a means of disseminating 
the information obtained in the progress of the Survey. The 
Survey is thus intended to serve on the one hand an economic, 
and on the other an educational purpose. In its economic rela¬ 
tions a State Survey touches on very varied interests of the State's 
development. In its results it may be expected to contribute to 
an intelligent development of the State’s natural resources. Its 
educational’ value is of no less immediate concern to the State, 
both to the citizens within the State and to prospective citizens 
without. 

A knowledge of the soil and of the available water supply is 
very necessary to successful agriculture, and the Survey’s in¬ 
vestigations along these lines are of value to all land owners. A 
knowledge of the mineral deposits which may lie beneath the 
surface, is likewise necessary to a correct valuation of land. 

relation of the state survey to the OWNERSHIP of MINERAL 

LANDS. 

The relation of the State Geological Survey to the ownership 
of mineral lands is specifically defined. The Survey law provides 
that it shall be the duty of the State Geologist and his assistants, 
when they discover any mineral deposits or substances of value, 
to notify the owners of the land upon which such deposits occur 
before disclosing their location to any other person or persons. 
Failure to do so is punishable by fine and imprisonment. It is 
not intended by the law, however, that the State Geologist’s time 
shall be devoted to examinations and reports upon the value of 
private mineral lands. Reports of this character are properly the 
province of commercial geologists, who may be employed by the 
owners of land for that purpose. To accomplish the best results, 
the work of the Survey must be in accordance with definite plans 
by which the State’s resources are investigated in an orderly 
manner. Only such examinations of private lands can be made as 
are incidental to the regularly planned investigations of the 
Survey. 


16 


FLORIDA STAFF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


SAMPLES SENT TO THE SURVEY FOR EXAMINATION. 

Samples of rocks, minerals and fossils will be at all times 
gladly received, and reported upon. Attention to inquiries and 
general correspondence are a part of the duties of the office, and 
afford a means through which the Survey may in many ways be 
useful to the citizens of the State. 

THE COLLECTION OF STATISTICAL INFORMATION. 

For many purposes the collection and publication of statistical 
information is helpful, both to the industries concerned and to 
the general public. Such statistical information is desired from 
all the mineral industries of the State. Such information will be 
recognized as strictly confidential, in so far as it relates to the 
private business of any individual or company, and will be used 
only in making up State and county totals. The cooperation of 
the various industries of the State is invited in order that the best 
possible showing of the State’s products may be made annually. 

EXHIBITION OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL. 

The space available for the exhibition of geological material 
is unfortunately as yet very limited. A part of one room is being 
used for this purpose. Three cases have been built, designed to 
serve the double purpose of storage and exhibition. The lower 
parts of the case contain drawers and are used for storage. In 
making the collections a definite plan has been followed to secure 
a representation of the rocks, minerals and fossils of each forma¬ 
tion in the State. The collection will be added to as rapidly as 
space is provided for taking care of the material. 

THE SURVEY LIBRARY. 

A well equipped reference library is essential to the investiga¬ 
tions of the Survey, and an effort has been and is being made to 
bring together those publications which are necessary to the 
immediate and future work of the department. The Survey 
library now contains more than 1,500 volumes. These include 
the reports of the several State Geological Surveys; the reports 
of the National Geological Survey; the reports of the Canadian 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


17 


and a few oth'er foreign Geological Surveys; and many miscel¬ 
laneous volumes and papers on geology and related subjects. 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pis. 

This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a 
chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, 
brick-making clays, fullers earth, peat, lime and cement and road-making 
materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a 
review of the more important papers published previous to the organ¬ 
ization of the present Geologocial Survey. 

Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pis., 5 text figures, 
and one map. 

This report contains: (l) a preliminary report on the geology of 
Florida, with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and 
geologic map of Florida, prepared in cooperation with the United States 
Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller’s earth deposits 
of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the 
State. 

Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pis., 30 text figures. 

This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phos¬ 
phate deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian 
water supply of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida 
peat deposits. 

Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pis., 15 text figures, 
one map. 

This report contains: (1) The soils and other surface residual 
materials of Florida, their origin, character and the formation from which 
derived; (2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the 
production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911. 

Bulletin No. 1. The Underground Water Supply of Central 
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pis., 6 text figures. 

This report contains: (1) Underground water; general discussion; 
(2) the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, 
spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, 
sinkholes, disappearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of lakes, 
ponds and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells; (5) water 


18 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

analyses and tables giving general water resources, public water supplies, 
spring and well records. 

Bulletin No. 2. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 
31 pps., 4 pis. 

This bulletin contains: (1) An account of the road building materials 
of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads 
built by the counties of the State to the close of 1910. 

Fifth Annual Report, 1913. 

EXPENDITURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1912, AND FOR THE HALF 
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1912. 

The total appropriation for the State Geological Survey is 
$7,500.00 per annum. No part of this fund is handled direct by 
the State Geologist, as all Survey accounts are paid upon 
warrants issued by the Comptroller of the State as per itemized 
statements approved by the Governor. The original of all bills 
and the itemized statements of all expense accounts are on file 
in the office of the Comptroller. Duplicate copies of the same are 
on file in the office of the State Geologist. 

LIST OE WARRANTS ISSUED DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 


1912. 

July, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, July, 1911. ....$ 30.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, July, 1911... 31.05 

Ada Moore', stenographic services.. 25.30 

The Record Company, printing... 7.50 

John McDougall, postage ... 62.75 

Southern Express Company .... 3.02 

August, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, August, 1911...... 48.70 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, August, 1911. 18.50 

American Peat Society, subscription... 5.00 

John McDougall, postage .... 20.00 


Carried forward 


$ 251.82 














FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


19 


Brought forward .$ 251.82 


September, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

September 30, 1911 . 625.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending Septem¬ 
ber 30, 1911 . 300.00 

Southern Express Company, express for July and August... 5.00 

October, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, October, 1911. 23.70 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies. 4.62 

P. Blankiston’s Son & Company, publications. 2.00 

Verlag fur Fachliteratur, subscription. 5.76 

John McDougall, postage . 20.00 

November, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, November, 1911.. 38.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, November, 1911. 12.60 

Southern Express Company . 3.76 

December, 1911. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

December 31, 1911 . 625.00 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, December, 1911... 41.10 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending Decem¬ 
ber 31, 1911 . 300.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, December, 1911. 68.70 

Emil Gunter, Assistant, salary ($62.50), expenses ($48.05), 

December, 1911 . 110.55 

T. C. Alford, stenographic services. 6.00 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies... 2.34 

F. H. King, publications . 2.50 

American Journal of Science, subscription. 6.00 

Engineering and Mining Journal, subscription. 5.00 

January, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, January, 1912.... 27.20 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, January, 1912. 103.82 

Emil Gunter, Assistant, salary ($75.00), expenses ($91.92), 

January, 1912 . 166.92 

T. C. Alford, stenographic services ... 15.00 

Francis J. Bulask, subscription . 5.00 


Carried forward 


$ 2,777.39 



























20 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Brought forward .$2,777.39 

John McDougall, postage . 20.00 

Southern Express Company . 2.72 

February, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, February, 1912.... 37.65 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, February, 1912. 108.20 

Emil Gunter, Assistant, salary ($75.00), expenses ($81.25), 

February, 1912 . 156.25 

T. C. Alford, stenographic services . 12.20 

Wrigley Engraving Company, engravings. 39.78 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies. 4.70 

Southern Express Company . 8.35 

March, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

March 31, 1912 . 625.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending March 

31, 1912 . 300.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, March, 1912.. 48.95 

Emil Gunter, Assistant, salary ($17.30), expenses ($31.10), 

March, 1912 . 48.40 

T. C. Alford, stenographic and clerical services. 36.00 

Economic Geology Publishing Company, subscription. 3.00 

April, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, March and April, 

1912 . 29.75 

T. J. Appleyard, printing . 732.20 

The Record Company, printing . 18.75 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies. 2.21 

John McDougall, postage . 125.00 

Southern Express Company . 15.70 

May, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, May, 1912. 70.55 

Herman Gunter, Assitant, expenses, May, 1912. 78.60 

Emil Gunter, services, April and May. 9.00 

Alex. McDougall, postage . 25.00 

June, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

June 30, 1812 . 625.00 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, June, 1912.. 60.85 


Carried forward 


.$ 6,021.20 






























FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 


21 


Brought forward ...$ 6,021.20 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending June 

30, 1912 . 300.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, June, 1912. 23.05 

D. R. Cox Furniture Company, supplies. 30.00 

David S. Woodrow, Agent, subscription. 6.00 

University of Chicago Press, subscription. 4.00 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies... 2.78 


Total expenditures .$6,387.03 

Overdrawn from preceding year . .10 


$6,387.13 

Balance available . 1,112.87 


$7,500.00 

LIST OF WARRANTS ISSUED DURING THE HALF YEAR ENDING DECEM¬ 
BER 31 , 1912 . 

July, 1912. 

T. J. Appleyard, State Printer.$ 100.00 

Southern Express Company . 13.76 

D. R. Cox Furniture Company, supplies. 4.13 

August, 1912. 

Alex. McDougall, postage . 25.00 

Southern Express Company . 3.03 

September, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

September 30, 1912 . 625.00 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending Septem¬ 
ber 30, 1912 . 300.00 

Southern Express Company . 1.60 

October, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, October, 1912. 62.80 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, October, 1912. 42.71 

Arthur H. Thomas Company, 4 supplies. 19.55 

November, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, November, 1912... 66.47 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, expenses, November, 1912. 29.10 


Carried forward 


$ 1,293.15 





























22 FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Brought forward . $ 1,293.15 

H. R. Kaufman, repairing typewriter. 5.00 

Alex. McDougall, postage . 25.00 

Southern Express Company . ... 3.13 

December, 1912. 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, salary for quarter ending 

December 31, 1912 . 625.00 

/ 

E. H. Sellards, State Geologist, expenses, December, 1912... 72.85 

Herman Gunter, Assistant, salary for quarter ending Decem¬ 
ber 31, 1912 . 300.00 

H. & W. B. Drew Company, supplies.. 1.79 

W. & L. E. Curley, supplies ... 3.70 

Keuffel & Esser Company, supplies. 39.90 

Engineering and Mining Journal, subscription...... 5.00 

Southern Express Company . 8.02 

Total . $2,382.54 














ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS 

OF FEORIDA. 


BY E. H. SELLARDS. 











CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 


Introduction . 27 

Distribution of the hard rock phosphates.. 27 

Distribution of the pebble phosphates. ...; . 23 

Matrix of the hard rock phosphate deposits...... 28 

Gray sands . 28 

Clay lenses . 28 

Flint boulders . 29 

Limestone inclusions . 29 

Pebble conglomerate . 29 

Vertebrate and invertebrate fossils. 29 

Petrified wood . 29 

The phosphate rock...j.. 29 

Boulders . 29 

Soft phosphate. 29 

Fragmentary rock. 29 

Plate rock . 29 

Pebble rock. 29 

Thickness of the phosphate bearing formation. 30 

Amount of hard rock phosphate.. 31 

Formation name . 31 

Local details . 32 

Suwannee county . 32 

Columbia county . 32 

Alachua county . 33 

Marion county . 34 

Citrus county . 35 

Hernando county. 3(3 

Problems to be accounted for. 37 

Summary of explanation. 37 

Acknowledgments . 38 

Discovery of the Florida phosphate deposits. 40 

Beginning of the Florida phosphate mining indusstry. 42 

Investigations of the Florida phosphate deposits. 4:3 

Review of theories previously proposed. 45 

Albert R. Ledoux. 45 

Francis Wyatt. 45 

E. T. Cox. 46 

N. H. Darton. 47 

W. H. Dali. 47 

Walter B. M. Davidson. 47 

N. A. Pratt. 48 

C. C. H. Millar. 48 

George H. Eldridge. 48 

L. C. Johnson. 50 

Lucius P. Brown. 50 

L. P. Jumeau. 50 


















































26 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 

Discussion of theories. 50 

The fossils of the hard rock phosphate deposits. 56 

Source of the phosphoric acid. 58 

Agency by which the phosphate has accumulated. 59 

Relation of the phosphate to the underground water level. 59 

The formation of boulders. 60 

Silica boulders . 60 

Phosphate boulders. 61 

Formed by the replacement process. 61 

Formed by precipitation. 61 

Secondary deposition of phosphate. 62 

Origin of the plate rock. 62 

Localization of the hard rock deposits. 63 

Limitation of the hard rock phosphates. 63 

Physiographic types in central Florida. 63 

The gulf hammock belt. 64 

The hard rock phosphate belt... 64 

The middle Florida hammock belt. 64 

The lake region. 65 

E'conomic relation . 66 

Bibliography . 66 

PLATES. 

Plate No. 

1. Phosphate boulder showing secondary deposition. 

2. Laminated phosphate boulder. 

3. Phosphate rock. x 

4. Teeth of mastodon from the phosphate deposits. 

5. Teeth and foot bone of horse, and teeth of mastodon. 

6. Sharks’ teeth from the phosphate deposits. 

7. Sharks’ teeth from the phosphate deposits. 

8. Phosphate washer and prospect drill. 

9. Phosphate pit after the removal of the phosphate. 

MAPS. 

Map showing the limestone region of Central Florida. 

Map showing the location of the hard rock and land pebble phosphates. 























ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES OF 
FLORIDA. 


E. H. SELLARDS. 


Two kinds of phosphate rock are now being mined in Florida,, 
the land pebble and the hard rock. The deposits which carry the 
hard rock phosphate are found over a considerable extent of 
country in the western part of central peninsular Florida. The 
area includes the southern part of Columbia and Suwannee 
Counties, the western part of Alachua and Marion Counties, the 
eastern part of Levy, Citrus and Hernando Counties, and the 
northern part of Pasco County. From north to south the hard 
rock area extends through a distance of about 100 miles. Its 
width from east to west is variable. The greatest width is found 
in Marion County, almost the whole of the western half of this, 
county being included in this belt. West of the Suwannee River 
a limited amount of hard rock phosphate has been fopnd in, 
Lafayette, Taylor and Jefferson Counties. The accompanying 
map shows approximately the extent of the phosphate-bearing 
deposits. The workable deposits are less extensive than*the area, 
here outlined, the mines now operated being confined to a com¬ 
paratively narrow belt reaching from Alachua to Hernando- 
Counties. 

Mining has been carried on continuously in this section for 
more than two decades. Seventy-four plants, under the owner¬ 
ship of twenty mining companies, operated here in 1909, while- 
forty plants, under the ownership of fourteen mining companies,, 
were operating at the close of 1912. Each phosphate plant opens, 
up in the process of mining one to several pits offering excep¬ 
tionally good exposures of the phosphate-bearing formation. The 
following paper is based on observations made in the many pits 
that have been opened up in this section during the past several 
years. The results that are presented in this paper have been 
gradually obtained, and have been published in part in the reports. 




28 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


of the Florida Geological Survey during the past few years. 

The land pebble phosphates are found in southern Florida in 
Polk and Hillsboro Counties. This paper relates to the hard rock 
deposits only, the pebble deposits not being included in the dis¬ 
cussion, although their approximate location is indicated on the 
map. No attempt is made on this map to show the location of 
the low grade phosphates, which occur extensively in central Flor¬ 
ida. 

The matrix in which the hard rock phosphate is imbedded is 
extremely variable. The formation includes a mixture of 
materials from various sources and of the most diverse character, 
further complicated by pronounced chemical activity within the 
formation itself. The prevailing phase of the formation is feebly 
coherent, more or less phosphatic, light gray sands. Aside from 
these sands the principal materials of the formation are clays, 
phosphate rock, flint boulders, limestone inclusions, pebble 
conglomerate, erratic and occasional water-worn flint pebbles, 
vertebrate and invertebrate fossils, and occasional pieces of 
silicified tree trunks. 

Th$ gray sands may be observed in every pit that has been 
excavated in this section. Moreover, from drill and prospect 
holes it is known that these sands occur very 'generally over the 
intervening or barren area. The sands are of medium coarse 
texture, the grains being roughly angular. The amount of phos¬ 
phate associated with these sands is variable. Upon prolonged 
exposure, as seen in numerous abandoned pits, these sands oxidize 
at the surface, assuming a pink or purple color. When affected by 
slow decay and by water, carrying more or less iron in solution, 
thev become reddish or ochre yellow in color. Lithologically these 
sands resemble closely the gray phosphatic sands of the Alum 
Bluff formation as seen at the type locality at Alum Bluff, on the 
Apalachicola River. 

The clays in this formation occur locally as clay lenses im¬ 
bedded in the sand, or separating the sand from the phosphate 
rock, or overlying the phosphate rock. The clays are often of a 
light buff or blue color. When lying near the surface, however, 
they often oxidize to varying shades of red. The relative amount 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


29 


of clay in the phosphate-bearing formation increases in a general 
way in passing to the south. The exposures in the southern part 
of the area show as a rule more clay than do similar exposures in 
the northern part of the area. The phosphate boulders seem to 
have a tendency to group around and to be associated with local 
clay lenses. Frequently the productive pit gives place laterally to 
barren gray sands. 

Flint boulders occur locally in this formation in some abun¬ 
dance, and occasionally phosphate pits that are otherwise work¬ 
able are abandoned on account of the number of flint boulders 
encountered. The flint boulders are usually oval or somewhat 
flattened in shape and are of varying size, some weighing several 
tons. The exterior is usually of a light color. Some of the 
boulders are hollow and occasionally the cavity is filled with 
water; other boulders are solid, compact and of a bluish color 
throughout. Limestone inclusions are frequent in this formation. 

The pebble conglomerate feature is not of frequent occurrence 
but may occasionally be observed in the northern part of the hard 
rock section. An exposure of flint pebbles may be seen in one 
of the pits of plant number 5 of the Cummer Lumber Company, 
about one mile southwest of Newberry, in Alachua County. The 
matrix at this exposure consists of more or less water-worn frag¬ 
ments of varying size together with round or oval water-worn, 
dark colored flint pebbles. This phase of the formation may be 
seen through a distance of ten or fifteen feet along the side of the 
pit. Water-worn pebbles weighing one or more pounds occur 
occasionally in the northern part of the field. 

The invertebrate fossils are found in the limestone inclusions. 
The vertebrate remains are mixed in with the other materials of 
the matrix. The fossil wood is of rare occurrence, but is 
occasionally found in this formation. 

Phosphate rock, although the constituent of special economic 
interest, nevertheless makes up a relatively small part of the 
formation. The phosphate in these deposits occurs as fragmentary 
rock, boulder rock, plate rock or pebble. The boulders are often 
of large size, in some instances weighing several tons, and not 
infrequently needing to be broken up by blasting before being 


30 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


removed from the pit. It is also necessary to operate a rock 
crusher in connection with all hard rock phosphate mines to 
reduce the larger pieces of rock to a size suitable for shipping. 
A certain portion of soft phosphate unavoidably lost in mining 
is also present. The relative amount of material that it is neces¬ 
sary to handle to obtain a definite amount of phosphate is always 
variable with each pit and with the different parts of any one pit. 
The workable deposits of phosphate lying within this formation 
occur very irregularly. While at one locality the phosphate may 
lie at the surface, elsewhere it may be so deep as not to be 
economically worked; while a deposit once located may cover 
more or less continuously a tract of land some acres in extent, 
elsewhere a deposit appearing equally promising on the surface, 
may in reality be found to be of very limited extent. As to loca¬ 
tion, depth from surface, extent into the ground, lateral extent, 
quantity and quality, the hard rock phosphate deposits conform 
to no rule. The desired information is to be obtained only by 
extensive and expensive prospecting and sampling. 

The phosphate rock may lie beneath the gray sands, or above 
the gray sands or may be entirely surrounded by them. In some 
instances the phosphate is interbedded with the sands. Such 
interbedding of sand and phosphate was observed by the writer 
in the Central Phosphate Company pit number 25, about three 
miles west of Clark. This phase of the relation of sand and phos¬ 
phate occurs not infrequently and is confined to no particular part 
of the phosphate field. It is frequently stated by the phosphate 
miners that there is a relation between the local clay lenses and 
the occurrence of phosphate. It is evident, however,, that there 
are many exceptions to this general statement. 

THICKNESS. 

The thickness of the phosphate bearing formation is as vari¬ 
able as its other characteristics. It rests upon the Vicksburg 
Limestone, the top surface of which owing to solution by under¬ 
ground water, has become extremely irregular. The limestone 
projects as peaks into the phosphate formation. In Citrus County 
the phosphate bearing formation is known to reach a thickness of 


ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


31 


from 75 to 100 feet. When of this thickness it is worked to the 
permanent ground water level by the dry pit method of mining, 
and is then mined from 40 to 50 feet below this lev^l by the float¬ 
ing dredge. In the northern part of the area the formation is as 
a rule much thinner, and is worked almost entirely by dry pit 
mining. 

AMOUNT OF HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE. 

It is scarcely possible to give an estimate of the amount of 
hard rock phosphate in Florida that yet remains to be mined. 
This is due to the fact that the deposits are extremely local and 
irregular. While the whole extent of the phosphate bearing 
formation can be mapped with a fair degree of accuracy, the 
deposits of phosphate within the formation can be located and an 
estimate of the amount that is mineable made only after very 
exact prospecting. The cost of such prospecting is such that it is 
seldom undertaken on a, large scale except by the companies 
actually interested in producing the rock. It is true that some 
estimates as to the total tonnage available have been made, but 
these amount to little more than guess work. The amount actually 
mined during the twenty-two years since mining operations began 
in this field is approximately 9,313,071 tons. The output at 
present amounts to about one-half million tons per annum. 

FORMATION NAME. 

The term Dunnellon formation has been applied by the writer 
to the phosphate bearing formation.* These deposits are well 
developed in the vicinity of Dunnellon, in Marion County, and have 
been extensively mined in that section. It was here also that the 
deposits were first discovered and mined. The term Dunnellon is, 
therefore, appropriate. The formation is probably of Pliocene age 
as indicated by the fauna. 


^Florida State Geological Survey, Third Annual Report, p. 32, 1910. 



32 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LOCAL DETAILS. 

SUWANNEE COUNTY. 

The southern and southeastern part of Suwannee County has pro¬ 
duced some phosphate, although no mines are operating in this county at 
present. A variable thickness of pale yellow sand occurs in the pits of 
this section. At the pits of plant No. 10 of Dutton Phosphate Company, 
two miles north of Hildreth, from two to twelve feet of this incoherent 
sand rests directly upon the phosphate bearing matrix. In one of the pits 
of this plant the phosphate matrix grades at the bottom into a yellow 
phosphatic clay overlying the limestone to a depth of 4 or 5 feet. In one 
of the pits at this plant are observed, as frequently seen elsewhere in the 
hard rock section, many large round elongate siliceous boulders inter- 
bedded in the phosphate matrix. The underlying formation here is the 
Vicksburg Limestone, which occurs as peaks and as “hog backs” of lime 
projecting into or even through the phosphate matrix. 

COLUMBIA COUNTY. 

The southern part of Columbia County, adjacent to Suwannee County, 
has produced considerable phosphate, although only one mine in this 
county was in operation at the close of 1912. 

At plant No. 2 of the Dutton Phosphate Company, now abandoned, 
about one-half mile west of Ichatucknee Springs, the following section 
was obtained: 


Pale incoherent sand. 10 to 20 feet 

Phosphate-bearing matrix . 20 to 25 feet 

Buff yellow phosphatic clays..• 5 to 6 feet 

Dark sandy phosphatic clays (exposed). 4 feet 


The incoherent sands in this pit, as at Dutton No. 10, rest directly 
upon the phosphate stratum, the top of which is exceedingly irregular. 
Clay lenses 6 to 12 inches thick are of frequent occurrence, especially near 
the top. The underlying limestone is reached in places. The buff yellow 
phosphatic clay observed in Dutton No. 10 is seen here also and is under¬ 
laid by 4 feet of dark, sandy' phosphatic clay. 

The following section was made in one of the pits of the Schilman 
& Bene phosphate plant, about two miles northwest of Ft. White: 


Pale yellow incoherent sand. 3 to 5 feet 

Fed clayey sands.. 5 to 10 feet 

Phosphate matrix . 15 to 25 feet 


Limestone at the bottom of the pit. 









ORIGIN OR THR HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE'S. 


33 


This section differs from the preceding chiefly in the presence of the 
red clayey sands, which are sufficiently coherent to form a vertical wall 
in the pit. This clayey sand stratum when present is referred to by the 
miners as “hardpan.” 

In the pit of the Fort White Hard Rock Company, one-mile south¬ 
east of Ft. White, the foundation rock, as is usual in this section, is the 
Vicksburg Limestone. The top of this limestone is exceedingly irregular, 
projecting as rounded peaks. Shells, sea urchins, and other fossils are 
partly eroded away, the limestone having a comparatively smooth surface. 
The phosphate rock consists chiefly of angular fragmental pieces, plates, 
pebbles and boulders imbedded in a sandy clayey matrix. This matrix 
fills up the irregularities in the underlying limestone. In several instances 
the phosphate matrix was seen to fill up cavities and solution channels in 
the limestone. Slickensides occur, due to the settling of the phosphate 
matrix as the underlying limestone dissolved away. Limestone inclusions 
and siliceous boulders occur in the phosphate stratum. The following 
section is seen in an abandoned pit of this plant: 


Pale yellow incoherent sand. 1 to 15 feet 

Phosphate matrix . 1 to 20 feet 


Limestone top surface exceedingly irregular. 

The phosphate producing area of southern Columbia and Suwannee 
Counties lies adjacent to and in the angle between the Suwannee and 
Santa Fe Rivers, including the low lying and intensively eroded parts of 
each county. The limestone lies near the surface in this section and as 
a rule the phosphate is mined out by dry mining, the limestone being 
exposed in the abandoned pits. Dredging, which is applicable in the 
southern part of the phosphate area, is not used in this section. 

ALACHUA COUNTY. 

The west central part of Alachua County is actively producing phos¬ 
phate; fourteen plants were operated in this county at the close of 1912. 

Pit No. 25 of the Central Phosphate Company, west of Clark, gave 
the following section: 


Pale yellow incoherent sands. 5 to 10 feet 

Red clayey sands. 5* to 10 feet 

Phosphate-bearing formation . 10 to 25 feet 


Limestone at bottom of pit. 

The phosphate matrix consists of gray sands, yellow, buff and blue 
clays, and phosphate rock. At one place in this pit a stratum of gray 
sand Id to 2 feet thick is seen interbedded with the phosphate reck. 







34 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The incline leading to a pit belonging to T. A. Thompson, near Neals, 


gave the following section: 

Pale yellow incoherent sands. 5 to 10 feet 

Red clayey sands. 7 to 10 feet 

Gray phosphate sands (exposed). 15 feet 


The gray sands give place laterally to phosphate rock. 

Pit No. 2 of the Cummer Lumber Company is, perhaps, the largest 
single pit in operation in the hard rock phosphate section. This pit is 
reported to include at the present time about thirteen acres. Pit No. 5 
of this company, one mile west of Newberry, gives an exposure of the 
sandstone and flint pebble conglomerate already referred to as occurring 
occasionally in the hard rock deposits. The pebbles are round and more 
or less flattened. They vary in size from very small pebbles to pebbles 
weighing five to seven pounds. 

In the pit of the Union Phosphate Company, at Tioga, a considerable 
number of rounded elongate siliceous boulders occur. These vary in size, 
the largest approximating a ton in weight. They are embedded in the 
phosphate-bearing matrix. 

The many other pits which are now being worked, or which have 
recently been abandoned, although varying much even within a single 
pit in details, are in general much the same as those described. 

The limestone in this county, as a rule', lies relatively near the sur¬ 
face. In most instances the limestone is encountered before or very soon 
after reaching the water level. The phosphate is thus largely worked out 
by dry mining and dredges are^rarely used. The limestone is encountered 
at varying depths. One pit may show a great deal of limestone projecting 
as peaks, while another pit of equal depth near by may scarcely reach the 
limestone. Some of the limestone peaks project 15 to 25 feet above the 
general level of the bottom of the pit. The phosphate-bearing matrix here, 
as elsewhere, fills up the irregularities in the limestone. The top surface 
of the limestone is, as elsewhere, entirely irregular. The red clayey sand 
called “hardpan” by the miners may be present or lacking in the pits of 
this section. The loose, pale yellow sand is practically always present, 
varying in thickness from 1 to 25 feet. 

MARION COUNTY. 

The plate rock deposit found in the vicinity of Anthony and .Sparr, 
in the north central part of Marion County, represents an eastward ex¬ 
tension of the phosphate-bearing formation. The relation of the phosphate 
matrix to the underlying limestone is the same as previously described. 
The limestone projects into the phosphate matrix as rounded peaks. Cir¬ 
cular depressions, similar in appearance to pot holes or to “natural wells,” 





ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


35 


are frequent in this section. These are filled with the phosphate matrix. 
One of these depressions observed by the writer had been cut into, in the 
process of mining. This depression was about three and one-half feet 
in diameter at the top, fifteen feet deep and narrowed gradually to the 
bottom. Other depressions variable in diameter and in depth occur. The 
limestone lying near the line of the underground water level has usually 
a rough and jagged surface owing to solution by water in contact with 
the limestone. Above the water level the limestone has a smooth rounded 
surface, the shells and other fossils having been eroded off plane with the 
general rock surface. The plate rock beds show evidence of having been 
originally faintly stratified. Much of the stratification that originally 
existed, however, has been destroyed through repeated local subsidence 
as the underlying limestone was moved by solution. The stratification 
lines in the plate rock are frequently much curved and distorted owing to 
this irregular subsidence. 

The chief difference noted between the plate rock and the typical hard 
rock region is in the relatively large amount of fragmentary phosphate 
rock and the small amount of boulder rock. Flint and limestone boulders 
chemically formed are likewise absent or rare. 

The deposits at Standard and at Juliette, in the western part of 
Marion County, are similar in general character to the hard rock deposits 
as previously described. The mines in this section are dry mines and 
usually reach to the bottom of the phosphate formation in places en¬ 
countering the limestone. 

In the southwestern part of Marion County and in Citrus County the 
hard rock phosphate-bearing formation reaches its maximum thickness. 
The underlying limestone is ordinarily encountered at a considerable 
depth from the surface. Many of the phosphate pits in this section are 
worked as dry mines to the underground water level and afterwards as 
dredge mines to such depth as the dipper will reach. Some of the pits 
on higher lands are mined as dry mines only. 

The pit at the Dunnellon Phosphate Company plant No. 10 was one 
of the first pits regularly worked in the phosphate section and has been 
continuously in operation for the past twenty years. This mine is operated 
by a dredge. The bottom of the phosphate is not reached in this pit and 
the full thickness of the formation at this place has not been reported. 

citrus COUNTY. 

The conditions in Citrus County are in a general way similar to the 
conditions in the vicinity of Dunnellon, in Marion County. The under¬ 
lying limestone is occasionally seen in the pits in this section md is 
frequently reached by the dredge. The surface of the limestone wherever 


36 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


seen projects as rounded peaks. There is on an average more clay to be 
seen in the phosphate formation in this section than in the northern part 
of the field. In a few instances, notably that of the pit in the Istachatta 
Phosphate Company, the water level is within a few feet of the surface 
and the phosphate formation is entirely submerged. Only the sands of 
the overburden are here visible. 

HERNANDO COUNTY. 

Phosphate is being produced in Hernando County in the vicinity of 
Croom. The mine in operation here is a dredge mine. The relation of 
the phosphate formation to the underlying limestone', as seen in an aban¬ 
doned pit several miles west of Croom, is the same as that in other parts 
of the phosphate section, the limestone projecting as rounded peaks. The 
material above the phosphate stratum consists largely of incoherent sands. 
The usual gray phosphatic sands, weathering purple on exposure, are seen 
surrounding the phosphate rock. In the mines near Croom a considerable 
amount of clay is associated with the phosphate. 

The preceding description of the phosphate-bearing formation 
is taken with but slight revision from a paper by the writer 
entitled “A Preliminary Report on the Florida Phosphate De¬ 
posits,” published in the Third Annual Report of the Florida Geo¬ 
logical Survey, 1910. The present paper, like the earlier one, is to 
be regarded as a report of progress in the investigation of the 
phosphate deposits and is not in any sense final. 


/ 



ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


37 


problems to be accounted for. 

Among the problems that must be accounted for in connection 
with the hard rock phosphate deposits of Florida are the follow¬ 
ing: (1.) The source of the miscellaneous materials that make 
up the formation, including sands, clays, flint pebbles, vertebrate 
and invertebrate fossils, silicified wood, flint boulders, limestone 
inclusions and phosphate rock in its varying forms. (2.) The 
intimate admixture in the formation of these diverse materials. 
(3.) The processes by which phosphate and flint boulders have 
formed. (4.) The limitation of the hard rock phosphate forma¬ 
tion to a characteristic well marked physiographic type of country. 
(5.) The localization within the formation of phosphate rock to 
such an extent as to form workable deposits. (6.) The forma¬ 
tion of the plate rock deposits. 

SUMMARY OF THE EXPLANATION OFFERED. 

The explanation offered, briefly summarized, is as follows: It 
is believed that the Upper Oligocene and probably some later 
formations, now' found on the surrounding uplands, formerly 
extended directly across the section that is. now the hard rock 
phosphate fields. The disintegration of these formations supplied 
the miscellaneous materials of which the deposits are made up. 
The mixing of the materials was brought about in part by stream 
action, which has resulted in a reworking and reaccumulation of 
the residual material from these formations, and in part by the 
local irregular subsidence such as is constantly going on in a lime¬ 
stone country. In some parts of the phosphate fields the lower¬ 
ing and mixing of the materials by solution of the underlying 
limestone has been the predominating factor, while elsewhere the 
reworking of the materials by stream action has predominated. 
It is probable that local bodies of water existed also in which the 
materials reaccumulated. The immediate source of the phosphoric 
acid is the phosphate, which was widely disseminated through the 
overlying formations. The fossils now found in the formation 
include those that were residual from the formations that have 
disintegrated, and those that were incorporated in connection with 


38 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


the reworking and reaccumulation of the materials. The phos¬ 
phate and flint boulders are formed chemically through the agency 
of ground water. The formation containing the hard rock phos¬ 
phate is limited in its distribution to that section of the State in 
which formations carrying more or less phosphate have disinte¬ 
grated, overlying a limestone substratum, thus affording condi¬ 
tions favorable for the downward passage of rain water carrying 
phosphoric acid in solution. The phosphate thus removed from 
the surface formations is reaccumulated under these conditions in 
a concentrated form at a lower level. The phosphate deposits 
are localized within the formation because the formation itself is 
lacking in uniformity. Local variations, particularly the presence 
of clay lenses and other conditions which interfere with the free 
circulation of ground waters, favor the formation of phosphate 
boulders and thus result in a local deposit of phosphate rock of 
sufficient amount and purity to be of commercial value. The plate 
rock represents chiefly fragments of disintegrated boulders. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

In presenting this view of the origin of the hard rock phos¬ 
phates the writer takes pleasure in acknowledging his indebted¬ 
ness to the many investigators who have contributed to a knowl¬ 
edge of these deposits. This indebtedness is not alone to those 
who have written on the origin of the phosphates, but equally 
to those who have contributed to an understanding of the geology 
of the State as a whole, and particularly of that part of the State 
in which these deposits are found. Only a few of these general 
publications can be mentioned at this time, although a full list is 
included in the bibliography which forms a part of the First 
Annual Report, of the State Geological Survey, 1908. 

The monograph on the Tertiary Fauna of Florida by Dr. W. 
H. Dali published in the Transactions of the Wagner Free Insti¬ 
tute of Science, 1890 to 1903, includes by far the most extensive 
study of the invertebrate fauna of the Florida formations that 
has yet been made, and to these investigations we are indebted 
for many fundamental facts regarding the succession of forma- 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


39 


tions in Florida. In the present discussion the writer is particu¬ 
larly indebted to Dali's observations, recorded in Bulletin 84 of 
the United States Geological Survey, pages 109, 110 and 111, of 
remnants of the Upper Oligoeene formations (then classed as 
old Miocene) at Levyville, in Levy County, at Fort White, in 
Columbia County, and near Archer, in Alachua County. These 
localities lie west, north and east of the northward extension of 
the phosphate fields, and Dali, in the map which accompanies this 
report, represents the old Miocene as extending directly across 
the northern end of the hard rock phosphate area, with local 
exposures of the Vicksburg formation. These observations by 
Dali are accepted by the writer and form a part of his argument 
that the Upper Oligoeene (old Miocene) formerly extended 
across the phosphate fields as a whole. 

Messrs. George C. Matson and F. G. Clapp, in connection with 
cooperative work carried on by the United States Geological 
Survey and the Florida State Geological Survey, have added im¬ 
portant observations regarding the former areal extent of the 
Upper Oligoeene formations in Central Florida, remnants of these 
formations having been noted by them at many of the phosphate 
mines of Central Florida. Dr. T. W. Vaughan, of the United 
States Geological Survey, under whose supervision these co-opera¬ 
tive investigations were carried on, has given material assistance 
in determining the stratigraphic succession in Florida both by 
directing the field work and by the identification of fossils and 
of formations. 

Of the many other publications on the phosphates of Florida 
all of those of which a record has been obtained are listed in the 
bibliography, which follows this paper. In addition, those rela¬ 
ting directly to the origin of the hard rock phosphates are reviewed 
in connection with a discussion of the theories previously 
advanced; reference to a number of the papers on the Florida 
phosphates is included in the notes in regard to the discovery, 
investigation and development of the phosphate deposits. In out¬ 
lining, on the accompanying map, the probable extent of the land 
pebble phosphates of Southern Florida the writer has utilized, 


40 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


among other sources of information, maps of these deposits by 
Geo. H. Eldridge and by C. G. Memminger. 

DISCOVERY OF THE FLORIDA PHOSPHATE 
DEPOSITS. 

The knowledge of, or belief in the existence of phosphatic 
material in Florida seems to have been prevalent from an early 
date. Thus, in a paper by Pratt (1868) we find a reference to 
and an attempted explanation of the coprolite or guano-like 
deposits of Florida. The original of Pratt’s paper not having 
been available to me I have been unable to determine from the 
reviews of the paper whether Pratt’s reference is to phosphatic 
material known to occur in Florida or assumed to occur. 

From Professor J. M. Pickel (1890) we have a statement that 
“Dr. J. C. Neal, formerly of Archer, now of the Florida Agri¬ 
cultural Experiment Station at Lake City, discovered in Levy and 
Alachua Counties, in 1876, and tested chemically phosphatic 
rocks, which were in 1885 sent to the Smithsonian and analyzed 
quantitatively.” 

In 1880 Dr. Chas. U. Shepard writing of the phosphate 
deposits of South Carolina stated that they certainly extended in¬ 
to North Carolina on the north and probably as far south as. 
Florida. 

Aside from these references the first definite information of 
deposits of low grade phosphate rock in Florida seems to have 
been obtained incidentally in connection with the investigation 
of building stone made for the Tenth United States Census, 1880. 
The first samples of the phosphate rock were collected from a 
quarry being operated for building stone near Hawthorne, in 
Alachua County. This quarry had been opened by Dr. C. A. 
Simmons, of Hawthorne, in 1879. The samples were sent to 
Washington probably during the summer of 1880. The paper 
which gives the analysis of this rock bears the date, June 29, 
1881. It is contained in the Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum for 1882, which were issued in 1883. Whether 
Dr. Simmons knew or suspected the phosphatic character of this 


ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


41 


rock before the analysis by the Census Bureau is not known. 
However, soon after the analyses had been made, and as a result 
probably of these analyses, Dr. Simmons began operating a mill 
in which this rock was ground for agricultural purposes. These 
operations which were carried on during 1883 and 1884 (Mineral 
Resources for 1885), were undoubtedly the earliest attempts at 
mining and utilizing the phosphate rock of Florida. 

In 1881 Captain J. Francis LeBaron, while engaged by the 
government in making a preliminary survey for a proposed ship 
canal from the head waters of the St. Johns River to Charlotte 
Harbor, became interested in the water-worn pebbles and frag¬ 
ments of bones in the bed of Peace River. Samples of this 
material were sent to the Smithsonian Institution. Captain 
LeBaron obtained leave of absence from the Engineering Depart¬ 
ment in 1882 and 1883, with a view to interesting capital in the 
development of the phosphate. Finding many difficulties in 
developing this new industry, he subsequently accepted employ¬ 
ment in connection with the proposed Nicaragua Ship Canal. 
(Letter of May 23, 1911.) Returning in 1886, Captain LeBaron 
made further efforts to interest capital in the development of the 
phosphate but without success. 

During the early eighties, due probably to these and to other 
discoveries, interest became very active in the Florida phosphate, 
and new localities for the phosphate rock were reported in rapid 
succession. The volume on mineral industry by the United States 
Geological Survey for 1882, published in 1883, contains, page 523, 
reference to phosphatic marls occurring in Florida, in Clay, 
Alachua, Wakulla, Duval and Gadsden Counties. The volume 
for 1883 and 1884, page 793, reports that phosphate rock has been 
found in Florida, in Clay, Alachua, Duval, Gadsden and Wakulla 
Counties. In 1884 and during the early part of 1885 L. C. John¬ 
son made for the United States Geological Survey a somewhat 
careful examination of the phosphate deposits in Suwannee, 
Columbia, Alachua and Marion Counties. That the existence of 
phosphate rock in Florida was generally known at that time is 
evident from the fact that Johnson, from his own investigation 
and from samples sent to him, and from popular report as to tne 


42 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


occurrence of phosphate, concluded that the phosphate deposits 
of Florida extended entirely across the State from the Georgia 
line through Hamilton, Suwannee, Alachua, Marion, Sumter, 
Polk and Manatee counties to Charlotte Harbor. (Mineral Re¬ 
sources for 1885, pp. 450-453, 1886.) 

During 1886 and 1887, owing doubtless to the efforts of 
Captain LeBaron and to the general interest in phosphates, care¬ 
ful investigations were made of the Peace Creek section by 
private interests. These investigations resulted in the purchase of 
lands and the initiation of mining operations in the river pebble 
district, the first shipment of Peace River phosphate having been 
made in 1888. 

The deposits that we now know as the Florida hard rock phos¬ 
phate were discovered in 1888 by Mr. Albertus Vogt. In May 
of this year Mr. Vogt, while deepening the well at his place, near 
Dunnellon, dug into a rich matrix of gravel, soft phosphate and 
sharks’ teeth. In June, 1888, a sample of this material was taken 
to Ocala and was there analyzed by R. R. Snowden and was 
found to be a high grade phosphate. 

The time of the discovery of the hard rock phosphate in Flor¬ 
ida has been variously given as spring of 1888, fall of 1888, and 
spring and fall of 1889. The dates given above are from a letter 
from Mr. Vogt of August 26, 1909. The discrepancies in the 
various publications as to the date of discovery probably came 
about from the fact that the discovery was not made known to 
the public at once. 

As soon as the existence of high grade phosphate rock was 
made generally known, prospecting became very active and the 
hard rock phosphate belt substantially as we now know it was 
quickly outlined. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE FLORIDA PHOSPHATE 
MINING INDUSTRY. 

As has been already mentioned the first attempt at mining and 
utilizing the phosphates of Florida was made by Dr. C. A. 
Simmons, of Hawthorne, in 1883. This plant, however, was not 
successful and was closed down in 1884. 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


43 


The production of phosphate rock on a commercial scale in 
Florida began with the mining of the Peace Creek pebble deposits, 
probably in 1887, the first shipments having been made in 1888. 
The first company to operate on Peace River was the Arcadia 
Phosphate Company, organized by Mr. T. S. Morehead, of 
Philadelphia. The first shipments were to the G. W. Scott 
Manufacturing Company of Atlanta. (Millar, 1892, page 24.) 

Hard rock phosphate mining began one or two years later than 
river pebble mining, but developed much more rapidly. Accord¬ 
ing to Millar, the first of the hard rock mining companies to 
actually take the field was the Marion Phosphate Company, which 
broke ground near Dunnellon in December, 1889, and made a 
first shipment to Liverpool in April, 1890. The Dunnellon Phos¬ 
phate Company, which was probably the first company organized, 
began mining in February, 1890, and made their first shipment 
to London and Hamburg in May, 1890. Following the discovery 
of the hard rock phosphate deposits mining companies were 
organized in rapid succession. It is said that fully one hundred 
hard rock phosphate companies were organized in the United 
States, and that forty-one of these actually began operations. By 
the close of 1891 only eighteen companies were operating. At 
the present time, 1913, fourteen companies are mining hard rock 
phosphate. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FLORIDA PHOSPHATE 

DEPOSITS. 

The chief official investigations that have been made of the 
Florida phosphates are those of the United States Geological 
Survey, the United States Census Bureau, the United States Com¬ 
missioner of Labor, the United States Department of Agricul¬ 
ture, and the Florida State Geological Survey. In addition, the 
reports of the State Chemist of Florida and of the State Experi¬ 
ment Station contain many analyses of Florida phosphate rock. 
Dr. J. Kost, during his brief term of office as State Geologist in 
1886, also contributed towards the discovery of phosphate and the 
development of the industry. 


44 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The principal investigations made by the United States Geo¬ 
logical Survey are those by Johnson (1885, 1893),* Penrose 
(1888), Darton (1891), Dali (1892), Eldridge (1893), Matson 
(1909), Clapp (1909),. Vaughan (1909). In addition a number 
of other members of the National Survey have made notes on the 
Florida deposits in connection with the annual statements of the 
production of phosphate contained in the volumes on Mineral 
Industry. 

The Census Bureau investigations are those made by the 
Tenth Census in connection with the study of building stone, by 
which the low grade phosphates were discovered, and the report 
on mineral industries by the Eleventh Census. This latter report 
contains a chapter on the Phosphates of Florida by Edward 
Willis. The Sixth special report of the Commissioner of Labor, 
1893, is devoted to the phosphate industry of the United States. 
A brief review of the Florida phosphate fields was given in 1911 
by William H. Waggaman, of the Bureau of Soils of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The investigations of the 
phosphate deposits by the Florida State Geological Survey, on 
which this paper is based, have been made at occasional intervals 
as opportunity was afforded since the organization of the Survey 
in 1907. 

The discovery of the hard rock phosphate in 1888 resulted in 
many private investigations of these deposits. Of these private 
investigators a number have made public reports while others 
unfortunately have made no permanent record of their investiga¬ 
tions. Among the earliest of these private investigators was Dr. 
C. U. Shepard, of Charleston, who examined the phosphates of 
the Withlacoochee River section in connection with the organiza¬ 
tion of the Dunnellon Phosphate Company in 1889 and 1890. 
Among others who examined the hard rock deposits during the 
first few years of mining operations and who have published their 
observations are Albert R. Ledoux (1890), Francis Wyatt (1890, 

*The numbers in parenthesis refer to the date of publication as listed 
In the bibliography, not necessarily to the year in which the investigations 
were made. 


ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


45 


1891) ,E. T. Cox ( 1890, 1891, 1892, 1896), Walter B. M. David¬ 
son (1891, 1893), N. A. Pratt (1892), C. C. Hoyer Millar (1891, 

1892) , G. M. Wells (1896), E. W. Coddington (1896), L. P. 
Jumeau (1905, 1906). 

THEORIES PREVIOUSLY PROPOSED. 

The hard rock phosphates of Florida have interested all 
who have examined them, and many theories have been advanced 
to account for these remarkable deposits. In the following review 
these various theories are given as nearly as practicable in the 
order in which they are proposed. A strictly chronological order 
is, however, often impossible since when several papers appear 
during the same year it is difficult to determine which was first 
issued. Moreover some of the papers were evidently written 
some years before being printed. 

The paper by Dr. Albert R. Ledoux read before the meeting 
of the New York Academy of Science, January 27, 1890, and 
published in the transactions for 1890 is apparently the first 
account of the hard rock phosphate deposits that has been 
preserved. In this paper Dr. Ledoux offers no specific theory for 
the Florida deposits. Speaking of phosphates in general, how¬ 
ever, he notes the fact that within the rain belt, when guano 
deposits rest upon limestone the phosphoric acid is leached out 
and alters the carbonate of lime to phosphate. An instance is 
cited in this connection in which limestone in one of the South 
Pacific islands was believed to have been changed to phosphate to 
a depth of several feet within the period of twenty years. The 
phosphoric acid in this instance was leached by rainwater from 
recently deposited guano. The suggestion of the replacement of 
the carbonate of limestones under certain favorable conditions by 
phosphate is not offered by Ledoux as a new hypothesis, as this 
method of formation of certain of the phosphates had been dis¬ 
cussed by various previous writers. 

In a paper published in the New York Mining and Engineer¬ 
ing Journal for August 23, 1890, Francis Wyatt proposed the 
theory that the hard rock phosphates are due to the evaporation 


46 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


of the Miocene waters which are assumed to have covered this 
section of the State. While submerged there was deposited upon 
the limestone, according to Wyatt, more especially in the cracks 
and fissures, a soft, finely disintegrated calcareous sediment or 
mud. As the seas dried up estuaries were formed in which were 
found great numbers of fish, mollusks, reptiles and marine plants. 
The formation of the phosphate is attributed to the reactions 
between the calcareous sediments and the decaying animal and 
plant life. 

Professor E. T. Cox, in a paper read before the Indianapolis 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, August, 1890, expresses the view that the hard rock 
phosphates of Florida are derived from the mineralization of an 
ancient guano. His argument is that as the peninsula of Florida 
was elevated above the ocean the land bordering the sea on the 
west coast became the resting place for numerous aquatic birds 
and other animals. The humid character of the climate caused 
the soluble alkalies to be removed, leaving the less soluble phos¬ 
phate of lime. This accumulation of guano subsequently became 
mineralized, thus resulting in the hard rock phosphates. This 
theory is restated in papers subsequently published by Cox in 
1892 and 1896. 

Professor Cox mentions two other views current at that time. 
These are stated as follows: “It is a well known fact that phos¬ 
phorous is an element and, like the element of iron, is almost 
universally distributed over the globe, and is found in all the living 
things thereon. Therefore, it is reasoned that it may, like iron, 
be accumulated in large beds by a natural law which governs the 
concentration of mineral masses. Again, it is suggested that phos¬ 
phoric acid, derived from mollusca, deposits from birds, fish and 
saurians, has filtered down and replaced the carbonic acid in the 
underlying limestone, converting it into phosphate of lime.” To 
the first of these suggestions Cox offers no objection. Of the 
second, however, he says, “Against the latter theory the phos¬ 
phate of lime very rarely contains any trace of organic remains, 
while the limestone on which it rests is rich in the casts of mollusca 
that are referred to the Eocene age. Then, again, in proximity to 


ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


47 


the hard rock phosphate is a soft phosphate of lime that has the 
consistency of soft, plastic clay. This soft phosphate often under¬ 
lies the hard and is several feet in thickness.” 

Mr. N. H. Darton, writing in the American Journal of Science 
for February, 1891, considers guano as the most probable original 
source of the phosphate. The early Miocene is regarded as the 
probable time of deposition of the guano which by leaching 
supplied the phosphoric acid. Two processes in the formation of 
the rock are recognized. The first is the replacement of the car¬ 
bonate of lime by phosphate of lime; the second is a general 
stalactitic coating on the massive phosphates and in the cavities. 
Whether or not the restricted distribution of the phosphate was 
connected with the genesis of the rock Darton regards as undeter¬ 
mined at that time. 

Mr. Walter B. M. Davidson contributed a brief paper on the 
origin and deposition of the Florida Phosphate, which was 
published in the Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 51, pp. 
628-G29, 1891. This paper has not been available to the writer, 
but from a reference in a later paper it appears that Davidson at 
that time believed that the hard rock phosphate boulders were 
deposited in underground caverns and river beds in the Vicksburg 
Limestone. 

Among important early publications on the Florida phosphates 
is a paper by Dr. W. H. Dali, published in 1892. Dali’s account 
of the phosphate was given in connection with and was incidental 
to a general summary of the geology of Florida included in a 
monograph on the Neocene of North America by Dali and Harris 
(Bull. 84, U. S. Geol. Survey). In this report Dali expresses the 
belief that the phosphoric acid of the phosphate deposits was 
derived directly from bird guano. The local character of the bird 
rookeries determine the local occurrence of phosphate rock. The 
influence of local clay beds on the accumulation of workable 
deposits is also recognized (p. 135). 

Davidson, in a paper read before the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers at the Baltimore meeting in February, 1892, 
published in the Transactions, 1893, appears to derive the hard 
rock phosphates as residual material from the Vicksburg Lime- 


48 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


stone. He says, page 12, “The phosphates of Florida, in all 
shapes, I derive from the leaching of the Vicksburg limestone, and 
in the same way I would account for the phosphates of the West 
India Islands. The phosphatic limestone of these islands has been 
subject to the leaching action of rains and atmosphere reactions, 
and the carbonate of lime has been carried away, leaving on the 
surface the more insoluble phosphate, and the iron and alumina. 
As in all limestones, the water eats away the rock unevenly, mak¬ 
ing pits and holes, and caves, and the phosphate of lime fills them 
up—either in an earthy form, or in the massive variety, which is 
described as coating the stalagmites and stalactities in the cave 
in Navassa.” Davidson believed that after the phosphate had 
accumulated in the pits and holes in the limestone, Florida was 
again submerged, allowing the sea sand to accumulate over and 
around the boulders. 

Pratt (1892) while conceding that the theory of a pure bird 
deposit, in localities favorable to the roosting of water fowl, more 
nearly covers the conditions of the problem as presented in all 
localities than any other so far advanced, considers that in the case 
of the Withlacoochee River deposits the evidence is all opposed to 
this theory. In this paper the theory is advanced by Pratt that the 
phosphate boulder is a true fossil, the boulder being the phosphatic 
skeleton of a gigantic foraminifera, while the soft phosphate is 
supposed to be the germ spores or bud of the animals or the com¬ 
minuted debris of the animals themselves.* 

Millar (1892) reviews the theories current at that time (pp. 
115-117) and favors the view that guano is the most probable 
source of the phosphate. 

Whether the hard rock phosphates of Florida resulted from a 
superficial and heavy deposit of soluble guano, or from the con¬ 
centration of phosphate of lime already widely and uniformly dis¬ 
tributed throughout the mass of the original rock, or from both 

*The original of Dr. Pratt’s paper not being accessible to the writer 
thio review is based on the quotation from the paper included in the Phos¬ 
phate Industry of the United States by Carroll D. Wright, 1893, pp. 24-31, 
and in the Florida, South Carolina, and Canadian Phosphates by Millar, 
1892, pp. 73-77 and 117. 


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. PlETH ANNUAL REPORT. 



Piece of phosphate rock taken from large boulder and showing secondary deposition of phosphate in the form 
of layers on the bottom of the cavities and as stalactitic projections from the roof of the cavities. Natural 
size. 







EEORIDA GEOEOGICAE SURVEY. EIETH ANNUAI, 



Piece of phosphate rock from laminated boulder. From the collection of H. Bystra. 















FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 3. 



Fig. 1.—Sample of phosphate illustrating the formation of phosphate by the 
replacement process. The rock was clearly originally limestone of the Vicksburg 
formation, the form of the shells being well preserved. The carbonate has been 
replaced by phosphate, and the rock as shown by analysis is now a high grade 
phosphate. Natural size. 



Fig. 2.—Piece of phosphate rock showing secondary deposition in cavities and 
recementation of broken fragments. Collection of H. Bystra. Natural size. 








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 4. 



Fig. 1.—Mastodon tooth from T. A. Thompson’s mine at Neals, Fla. 
This tooth has the gray phosphatic sands of the phosphate formation 
firmly adhering to it indicating that it came from the phosphate formation. 
Natural size. 



Fig. 2.—Mastodon tooth from T. A. Thompson’s mine, Neals, Fla. 
The gray phosphatic sands clinging to the tooth are evident in the photo¬ 
graph. This tooth shows very little wear. Natural size. 










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 5. 



Fig. 1.—A fragment of mastodon jaw with two teeth in place from Neals, Fla. 
About one-half natural size. 



Fig. 2.—Teeth and foot bone of horse. The light colored tooth on the upper 
side at the left is from the Dunnellon Phosphate Company plant No. 5 at Hernando, 
in Citrus County. It has the phosphatic sands of the phosphate formation adhering 
to it. The lower tooth on the left is from the Franklin Phosphate Company mine, 
Newberry, Fla. (No. 1233). The upper tooth in the center is from the Camp Phos¬ 
phate Company, Blue Run mine, near Dunnellon (No. 1366). The lower tooth in the 
center is from Cullens River Mine, Dunnellon (No. 1444). The foot bone is from 
the Dunnellon Phosphate Company plant No. 6, near Dunnellon (No. 1302). All 
natural size. 






’ 







































Florida geological survey. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 6 



Sharks’ teeth from the hard rock phosphate deposits. 









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 7. 



Sharks’ teeth from the hard rock phosphate deposits. 









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 8. 



Fig. 1.—Phosphate washer for hard rock phosphate, Cummer Phosphate 
Company, Alachua County. 



Fig. 2 .—Drill for prospecting for hard rock phosphate, in use by the 
Southern Phosphate Development Company. The prospect holes are drilled 
through the phosphate formation to the underlying formation, the Vicksburg 
Limestone, which is reached at this locality at a depth of 75 to 100 feet. 
























FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



View in the Plate Rock Phosphate Mine at Anthony, showing the very irregular top surface of the limestone after 

removal of the phosphate. 











ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


49 


of these sources is regarded by Eldridge (1893) as a difficult 
question. Alteration of the limestone and precipitation of phos¬ 
phate from solution are both regarded as having been active in the 
formation of the primary phosphates. Phosphate boulders, 
Eldridge suggests, may have been formed by chemical precipita¬ 
tion of layer upon layer of phosphate, either on a surface exposed 
to the air or within a cavity in the limestone. By continued growth 
in the latter case the cavity would become filled with laminated or 
massive rock which upon the solution of the surrounding materials 
or the complete breaking down of the formation, as in later times, 
would result in a rounded body of phosphate of lime resembling 
a sea rolled boulder. 

Referring to phosphate of lime in sedimentary rocks Eldridge 
says (p. 18), “Its presence in sea-water; its broad distribution in 
both plant and animal life; its occurrence in rocks of all ages, 
even to the extent of economic value; and its special presence in 
limestones, more particularly in Cretaceous and Tertiary lime¬ 
stones, are facts long recognized. Its occurrence in recent time in 
the form of leached and soluble guanos on many of the oceanic 
islands, and the phosphatization of the underlying strata, have also 
been noted by many authorities; the last is by actual observation 
a tangible source, but the features first detailed point t» some other 
and more general origin of phosphate of lime than localized bird- 
deposits, or the but little more widely distributed accumulations 
of animal remains. Its presence in sea-water, after the manner 
of carbonate of lime, though in far smaller amount, is well 
established; both materials are of general occurrence, and each 
play a prominent part in sea-life. The transfer of a consider¬ 
able percentage of phosphate of lime to localities having condi¬ 
tions favorable for its deposition, either in sediments, then 
settling, or on surfaces of rocks already laid down, has doubtless 
been accomplished in many cases through the instrumentality 
of animals secreting it. Oceanic currents may have assisted this 
accumulation. Again, southern waters, swamps, and lands give 
evidence of the presence in them of abundant life, secreting 
phosphate of lime and afterwards returning it to the beds on 
which this life rests.” 


50 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


With regard to the plate rock phosphates of Marion County, 
Johnson (1893) assumes an original deposition of immense beds 
of guano. These beds after the leaching out of their carbonates 
and other soluble materials are believed tO' have become very 
compact, yet not entirely impervious to water. Small cavities in 
close contiguity became finally separated by mere plates and in 
this connection are called laminated rock. By disintegration the 
laminated rock is broken up into fragments, thus giving rise to 
the so-called plate rock. Still further disintegration, in the opinion 
of Johnson, results in the formation of soft phosphate. Johnson’s 
theory as to the origin of the phosphate as expressed in this paper 
is essentially the same as that advanced by Cox in 1890 to account 
for the phosphates as a whole. Johnson’s view that the plate rock 
results from the disintegration of laminated boulders had not 
previously been definitely advanced, although Willis includes a 
statement to this effect in his paper published in 1892. 

Lucius P. Brown (1904) regards it as possible that guano may 
have contributed in a minor degree to the enrichment in phos¬ 
phoric acid of the Florida limestones. The workable deposits of 
phosphate of lime, however, he regards as having been gathered 
up from miscellaneous sources in sedimentary rocks and concen¬ 
trated through the agency of underground water with more or 
less further concentration by mechanical means. 

Mr. P. Jumeau (1905) reviews the theories proposed to 
account for the origin of the phosphate rock, pp. 68-82. That the 
phosphate rock has accumulated chiefly from the leaching of 
guano is regarded by him as the most probable theory. 

DISCUSSION OF THEORIES. 

The theories offered by Wyatt, 1890, and by Pratt, 1892, are 
highly speculative and are based on assumptions for which nc 
proof is offered. Of this class also are some other theories that 
have appeared from time to time in newspaper and magazine 
articles. 

Davidson assumes that the phosphate rock existed originally 
in the Vicksburg Limestone and in its present form is merely 


ORIGIN OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


51 


residual from the decay of that formation. In answer to this 
hypothesis it may be noted that while the Vicksburg Limestone 
is known by surface exposures throughout a large extent of the 
territory in the Gulf States, and by well borings to a considerable 
depth in Florida and elsewhere, it is strikingly free from inclu¬ 
sions of phosphate rock, such as would remain upon the disinte¬ 
gration of the limestone to form these phosphate deposits. 

Cox, in successive papers, argues that the phosphate rock is 
itself mineralized guano. This, likewise, was the view of Johnson 
(1893), as applied at least to the plate rock phosphates of Marion 
County. The fact that not a few of the phosphate boulders and 
pieces of rock have retained more or less well preserved evidence 
of their derivation from limestone sufficiently controverts this 
hypothesis, which is otherwise improbable. 

Darton (1891) and Dali (1892) each assume that guano is 
the immediate source of the phosphoric acid. Barton’s paper on 
this subject is brief and includes merely a statement of the 
probable origin of the rock. Dali, however, gives a clear state¬ 
ment of the guano hypothesis in its relation to the hard rock 
phosphates of Florida. It is even thought probable by Dali that 
each local deposit of hard rock phosphate may represent the loca¬ 
tion of an ancient bird rookery. The hypothesis of the origin of 
the phosphate from guano fails entirely to account for the 
jumble of materials with which me phosphate is associated. This, 
in the writer’s opinion, is the insurmountable objection to the bird 
guano theory, as developed by Dali. 

Of those who have written on the origin of the hard rock 
phosphate deposits of Florida, no one, with the exception of Eld- 
ridge, has taken sufficient account of the complexity of this forma¬ 
tion, or has seemed to appreciate that it is as necessary to account 
for the associated materials as for the phosphate itself. With 
the hypotheses proposed by Eldridge, however, the writer is un¬ 
able to agree. 

Whatever the original source of the phosphoric acid, whether 
from guano or from phosphate of lime, originally disseminated 
throughout the Vicksburg Limestone, the subsequent process, 
according to Eldridge, was the formation of a highly phosphatized 


52 


FLORIDA STATL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


zone within and presumably at or near the surface of the Vicks¬ 
burg Limestone. This process Eldridge designates as the first period 
during which the primary phosphate was formed. To account for 
the condition in which the rock is now found and for the mixture 
of materials in the matrix Eldridge assumes that at a late period, 
probably at the close of the Pliocene, the peninsula of Florida 
was resubmerged and that during this resubmergence this phos¬ 
phate stratum was broken up, the pieces being removed more or 
less from their original location. To account for the associated 
sands, clays and other materials mixed with the phosphate rock 
he assumes that strong currents were running which washed in 
these complex materials. The phosphate that is now present in a 
finely divided condition and acts as a cementing substance for the 
gray sands was, he assumes, the ground up sediment from the 
hard rock which mixed with the sands as they were drifted into 
their present location. 

The writer’s hypothesis is based on observations by himself 
and others which lead to the conclusion that formations later than 
the Vickburg, formerly extended across the phosphate fields, and 
that these have now largely disintegrated. It is shown also that 
these formations, where now found intact, or as remnants on the 
surrounding uplands, are distinctly phosphatic. From these 
observations it is concluded that the matrix of the hard rock phos¬ 
phate deposits is the residue of the formations that have dis¬ 
integrated in situ, and that the phosphate itself is derived from the 
phosphate originally widely disseminated through these forma¬ 
tions, circulating waters being the agency by which the phosphate 
has been carried to its present location. The gray sands held to¬ 
gether by the finely divided phosphate, referred to by Eldridge, 
are a part of the residue from these earlier formations in which 
the sands occur under similar conditions. 

In the present paper it is not intended to discuss the source of 
the phosphate, which is found widely disseminated in the Upper 
Oligocene and some later formations, from which by solution and 
redeposition it has accumulated to form the workable hard rock 
deposits. The writer does not believe, however, that the bird 
guano theory will account for these widely disseminated phos- 


ORIGIN OF THF HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


53 


phates, any better than for the intensely localized hard rock phos¬ 
phates. Upper Oligocene formations, which are throughout more 
or less phosphatic, attain in Florida a thickness of several hundred 
feet. Moreover these formations, except where disconnected by 
erosion, are continuous from the Apalachicola River, in West Flor¬ 
ida, to an undetermined distance beyond the point at which they 
disappear beneath later formations in Central Florida. It is in¬ 
conceivable to the writer that bird guano deposits could have been 
so uniformly scattered over so wide an area and through so great 
a thickness of sedimentary rocks. 

As regards the chemical changes involved in the formation of 
the hard rock phosphate there is much less disagreement among 
the different writers. Fedoux, Darton, Dali, Eldridge, Brown, 
Jumeau and others have recognized that phosphoric acid in solu¬ 
tion in water may and under favorable conditions does replace 
the carbonate of limestones thus forming calcium phosphate. 
Darton recognized the two processes, the first being the replace¬ 
ment of the carbonate by phosphate, and the second the subsequent 
coating over the surface and in cavities by phosphate thrown out 
of solution. Eldridge recognized the formation of boulders by 
replacement of carbonate by phosphate, and by precipitation from 
solution. The evidence of the formation of phosphate by the 
replacement of carbonate by phosphate is entirely incontrovertible, 
since, as has been previously stated, many of the boulders retain 
the original calcareous shells now phosphatized. The evidence of 
subsequent secondary deposition in the cavities is likewise obtained 
from the structure of the rock itself. The formation of boulders 
by precipitation seems probable from the structure of many of the 
boulders. Doubtless, as elsewhere stated, the replacement and 
precipitation have combined in the formation of many boulders. 
The chemical processes involved are more fully discussed else¬ 
where. 

Turning again to the explanation of the hard rock phosphate 
deposits offered by the writer, the key to the solution of the hard 
rock phosphate problems is found, in the writer’s opinion, in a 
study of the geological history of the State. The foundation rock 
in Central Florida is the Vicksburg Limestone of Lower Oligo- 


54 


FLORIDA STATL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


cene age. In the hard rock phosphate section there is at present 
no formation, other than the phosphate itself, overlying the Vicks¬ 
burg. However, there are good reasons, as already stated, for 
believing that the Upper Oligocene and some later formations, 
now found on the uplands bordering the phosphate belt, formerly 
extended across this area. Upper Oligocene deposits are found 
at the present time bordering the phosphate belt on the north, east 
and south, while on the west outliers of these formations may 
still be found in Levy and in Hernando Counties.* Remnants, 
apparently, of these formations have recently been observed by the 
writer on the hills near Morganville, west of the phosphate area 
in Marion County. 

Further support of the view that the Upper Oligocene deposits 
formerly extended across the phosphate belt is found in the topog¬ 
raphy of the area. The phosphate country has been reduced in 
elevation more or less by underground solution. The phosphate 
deposits of Alachua County are found at an elevation of from 75 
to 100 feet above sea, while passing to the east the plateau or 
uneroded section of this county rises to an elevation of 200 feet 
above sea. In Marion County the phosphates are found at an 
elevation of from 40 to 100 feet above sea, while both west and 
east of the phosphate belt, hills, the remnants of the former 
plateau, rise to an elevation of from 140 to 160 feet above sea. 
In Citrus County the hill country west of the phosphate area still 
retains a height of from 150 to 220 feet. The Upper Oligocene 
formations are found very generally on the east side of the phos¬ 
phate belt, while remnants, as already stated, are found on at least 
some of the hills on the west side of the area. 

Whether or not marine Miocene formerly extended across the 
present phosphate fields is undetermined. The character of the 
residue at some localities suggests Miocene material, although no 
actual proof of a former extent of the Miocene across this part 
of the State has yet been obtained. The marine Pliocene probably 
did not reach across this part of the State. Fresh water deposits 
of Pliocene and Pleistocene, however, are to be expected since 

"Florida Geological Survey, Second Annual Report, Map, 1909. 



ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


55 


fresh water Pliocene deposits, the Alachua clays, containing 
remains of land vertebrates are found locally around the border 
of the phosphate area. These deposits were formed in small lakes 
and sinks, and similar deposits, doubtless, formed in the phos¬ 
phate area. The red sandy clays which form the surface deposits 
over practically all of the Northern and Central Florida probably 
extended across the phosphate area. 

Assuming the former areal extent of these later formations 
across what is now the phosphate belt of Florida, the solution of 
other problems connected with the hard rock deposits is much 
facilitated. As a result of the action of the weathering agencies 
these formations have disintegrated, their residue forming the 
phosphate matrix. The process of erosion and disintegration has 
been long continued, during which time the general surface level 
has been gradually lowered by the solution and removal of the 
underlying limestone. The lowering of the limestone here as else¬ 
where in limestone countries progresses not uniformly but irregu¬ 
larly, due to the formation of caves, sinks and underground 
channels. This irregular subsidence has resulted in the mixing of 
materials originally distinct. Sinks form in the limestone section 
of Florida by which material at the surface is lowered by the 
sudden caving of the earth. When these sinks are first formed 
the walls are vertical or nearly so. As a result of the caving at 
the sides together with the wash of surface material they fill up. 
By this process long continued the materials of different forma¬ 
tions become intimately mixed. 

The mixing of materials by underground solution and sub¬ 
sidence has been supplemented by stream action. While this area 
is at present practically without streams, yet local streams existed 
during the earlier stages of physiographic development. These 
local streams begin their development as soon as sinks are formed 
and when the stratigraphic conditions are favorable a stream 
enters each sink; working back from the sink the stream estab¬ 
lished in time a normal drainage system. These streams are 
known as disappearing streams since they enter sinks. As has 


56 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


been explained in a previous paper,* the limestone country of 
Central Florida is gradually encroaching on the non-limestone 
country. These temporary streams make up one of the character¬ 
istic features of the physiography in the transition stage and num¬ 
erous examples of such streams are found in the partially eroded 
uplands bordering the phosphate fields. After being formed a 
sink is frequently filled up by the materials carried by the stream 
which enters it. 

In addition to local streams it is probable that considerable 
bodies of water existed from time to time in this section into which 
streams entered. The Pliocene was probably the time of the most 
active reaccumulation of the material which makes up the matrix 
of the phosphate deposits. Whether or not this area was partially 
submerged during the time of the reworking of the materials of 
this formation can possibly be determined by a careful study of 
the fossils. 

THE FOSSILS OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE 

DEPOSITS. 

Two distinct groups or lots of fossils are found in this forma¬ 
tion. The first of these includes those fossils, chiefly sharks’ teeth, 
that are residual from the formations that have disintegrated. The 
second group, of which there is a considerable fauna, chiefly land 
animals, includes those fossils that were incorporated in connec¬ 
tion with the reworking of the materials. The invertebrate fossils 
of this formation are contained for the most part in loose frag¬ 
ments of rock which represent inclusions from the underlying 
Vicksburg Limestone or remnants from later formations that 
have disintegrated. 

It should be borne in mind in this connection that the residual 
fossils do not necessarily all come from formations later than the 
Vicksburg. A part, possibly a majority, are residual from the 
Vicksburg itself. As already explained, the limestone is being 
constantly removed by solution and the fossils that it contained, 
if sufficiently resistant, remain as a part of the residue and hence 


^'Fourth Annual Report Florida Geological Survey, page 33, 1912. 



ORIGIN OR THR HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


57 


become incorporated in the phosphate deposits. Among the 
residual fossils are sharks’ teeth, which are obtained in numbers 
from every pit that is operated. It is frequently stated by the 
miners that the sharks’ teeth become more abundant as the under¬ 
lying limestone is approached near the base of the deposits. This 
statement is consistent with the view that many of the teeth are 
residual from the underlying limestone. The less resistant parts 
of the skeleton can not be expected to have persisted from these 
early formations in such abundance and such perfect state of pres¬ 
ervation as have the teeth. 

The residual fossils are of value to the geologist since from 
them it may be possible to determine from what particular forma¬ 
tions the materials of the matrix have been derived. The fossils 
included with the phosphate, not residual, indicate the age or time 
during which the reworking of the materials occurred. 

The fossils that were incorporated with the materials while 
they were being, reworked and redeposited are, as would be 
expected, of much later date than the residual fossils. Of these 
later animals comparatively fragile bones are frequently preserved. 
Whole skeletons, however, are rarely found in place. This may 
be due to the conditions under which they .were entombed, or 
possibly to the fact that the parts of the skeleton have been 
subsequently more or less dissociated by the subsidence of the 
materials due to the solution of the underlying limestone. 

From the fact that the formation of caves and sink holes in the 
limestone has continued to the present time it is evident that some 
comparatively recent fossils are likely to become included with 
the phosphate. Moreover local fresh water Pleistocene or recent 
surface deposits are likely to occur as a part of the overburden 
from which fossils may become mixed with the phosphate. Along 
the Withlacoochee River, which cuts through these deposits, also 
there has doubtless beep more or less shifting of the stream by 
which Pleistocene and recent remains are included with the phos¬ 
phate. These are conditions that must be borne in mind in making 
and in studying the collections. 

Of the fossils that are accepted as contemporaneous with the 
phosphate formation the best authenticated is a species of 


58 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


mastodon, probably M. floridanus. This mastodon has been 
obtained in the hard rock phosphate section from the following 
mines: T. A. Thompson, Neals, Alachua County; Dutton Phos¬ 
phate Company, plant No. 22, Juliette, Marion County; Cullen 
River Mine, Dunnellon, and Dunnellon Phosphate Company, 
plant No. 5, Hernando, Citrus County. That the mastodon is 
actually imbedded in the phosphate bearing formation is not only 
vouched for by the miners who have personally taken specimens 
from the pits, but is evident from the specimens themselves, some 
of which have the gray phosphatic sands of the phosphate forma¬ 
tion adhering to them. Associated with the mastodon is found 
the small three-toed horse, Hippcirion. The remains of the horse 
have been obtained only from the picker belt, but notwithstanding 
the fact that they have gone through the washer, some of the teeth 
still have bits of the phosphate matrix clinging to them. The 
horse remains have been obtained from the following mines: 
Franklin Phosphate Company, mine No. 2, Newberry, and T. A. 
Thompson, Neals, both in Alachua County; Dunnellon Phosphate 
Company, plant No. 6, Dunnellon, Marion County, and Dunnellon 
Phosphate Company, No. 5, Hernando, Citrus County. A number 
of other fossils have been obtained, which remain to be deter¬ 
mined. Among these are teeth of an early camel from Dunnellon 
Phosphate Company, plant No. 5, Hernando, Citrus County, and 
Cullen River Mine, Dunnellon. 

From the plants working along and near the bed of the 
Withlacoochee River have been obtained a considerable number of 
fossils. Among these, in addition to the mastodon, camel and 
early horse, is the elephant, rhinoceros and a more recent horse, as 
well as a number of other forms, some of which appear to be com¬ 
paratively recent. It is evident that a mixing of fossils has 
occurred along the river due, possibly, to the shifting of the 
channel. 

SOURCE OF THE PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

The source of the phosphoric acid is believed to be from the 
various formations that have disintegrated in situ. The Upper 
Oligocene deposits are Very generally phosphatic throughout their 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


59 


entire extent from the Apalachicola River, in West Florida, through 
Northern and Central Florida. The red sandy clays forming the 
surface deposits over much of Northern Florida and which prob¬ 
ably extended across the phosphate section overlying the 
Oligocene deposits, contained fragments from the granitic rocks 
and have doubtless contributed in the process of decay more or 
less phosphoric acid. 

AGENCY. 

The agency by means of which the phosphates were accumu¬ 
lated in their present form was ground water. The rainfall, which 
in Florida amounts to about 54 inches per annum, in passing 
through the surface materials dissolves a limited amount of the 
phosphate, which is carried to a lower level and is finally thrown 
out of solution in a. concentrated form. This process long 
continued results in the accumulation of workable phosphate 
deposits. 

RELATION-TO THE UNDERGROUND WATER LEVEL. 

It is probable that the ground water level has had an impor¬ 
tant bearing on the formation of the phosphate deposits. There 
is, as is well known, a definite relation between the ground water 
level and chemical reactions within the earth. The conditions 
above and below this level are radically different. Above the 
ground water level the movement of water following rains is free 
and solution is active; below this level the water stands or has a 
scarcely appreciable movement. Above the water level solu¬ 
tion is active, while below this level deposition frequently occurs. 

It is important to observe in this connection that the under¬ 
ground water level, in Central Florida, which has such a direct 
bearing on chemical deposition has not always remained the same. 
In former times when the surface stood at a higher level the water 
table was higher above sea than at present. In other words, a 
lowering of the general surface level by erosion was accompanied 
by a lowering of the water table. It thus happens that a locality 
which in one stage of physiographic development is favorable to 
the formation of phosphate rock, may in a subsequent stage, when 


6b 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY. 


conditions have changed, be favorable to the disintegration of 
these deposits. Moreover, any change in levels, either elevation 
or depression, affects the water level and hence modifies condi¬ 
tions. Such changes in elevation have undoubtedly occurred. For 
instance a rise‘in elevation of 15 to 25 feet along the east side of 
Florida and a similar depression along the west coast as late as 
Pleistocene times is fairly well established. This, together with 
any further changes that occurred in the elevation of the peninsu¬ 
lar, must be taken into account in its bearing on the change of 
water level and the corresponding change in deposition, and dis¬ 
integration. It is not held that the accumulation of the rock in 
no case occurs above water level. In fact the secondary stalactitic 
deposits seen in many boulders evidently form as in caves above 
water level. The earth is a complex chemical laboratory in which 
chemical reactions take place in accordance with constantly 
changing conditions. 

THE FORMATION OF BOULDERS. 

The phosphate boulders have evidently been formed chemically 
through the agency of ground water. The boulders of silica are 
formed by a similar process by which silica taken into solution 
near the surface is redeposited at a greater depth. 

SILICA BOULDERS. 

Most of the flint or silica boulders were originally masses of 
limestone and still retain, in recognizable form, the shells and 
other fossils of which the limestone was originally composed. In 
these boulders the calcium carbonate has been replaced by silica. 
This process is common in nature. Petrification, another term 
for a similar process, is the slow removal in solution of the sub¬ 
stance of which an object is composed and its replacement by 
some other substance. In the case of petrified wood the wood has 
been removed and replaced by silica, calcium carbonate, iron car¬ 
bonate or whatever the petrifying agent may be. Silicified wood, 
silicified shells, silicified bone all refer to petrification in which 
silica was the petrifying agent. 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCIC PHOSPHATES. G1 

The boulders of silica are, therefore, masses of silicified lime¬ 
stone, the fossils originally present in the limestone having for 
the most part retained their form. 

PHOSPHATE BOULDERS. 

The phosphate boulders are formed either by replacement of 
the limestone or by precipitation from solution. 

PHOSPHATE BOULDERS FORMED BY THE REPLACEMENT PROCESS. 

Some of the phosphate boulders and pieces of rock are evi¬ 
dently formed by the replacement of the carbonate of the original 
limestone by phosphate. That this is true is proven by the fact 
that the shells and other fossils that made up the original lime¬ 
stone are sometimes well preserved, and from these shells it is 
possible to identify the particular formation from which the 
original limestone comes. Among the illustrations which accom¬ 
pany this paper will be found a photograph of a rock, which was 
originally pure limestone of the Vicksburg formation but is now 
changed, as shown by analysis, to a high grade phosphate. The 
shells and other fossils making up the limestone, which were 
originally calcareous, were subsequently phosphatized. Other¬ 
wise expressed, they have been petrified, phosphate being the 
petrifying agent. The collection of Dr. H. Bystra at Holder 
contains a piece of phosphate boulder, in which much larger 
shells are equally well preserved. While occasional phosphate 
boulders with fossils in a perfect condition of preservation are 
found as a rule the preservation of the fossils in the boulders is 
imperfect. It is probable, also, that in many boulders formed by 
replacement the fossils are entirely obliterated. 

PHOSPHATE BOULDERS FORMED BY PRECIPITATION. 

Many of the phosphate boulders are formed in part or entirely 
by precipitation of calcium phosphate from solution in water. 
This is probably the method of formation of the laminated 
boulders. 

It is probable that replacement and deposition from solution 
are both involved in the formation of many boulders. 


62 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


SECONDARY DEPOSITION OF PHOSPHATE FROM 

SOLUTION. 

■ In many boulders a secondary deposition from solution may 
be recognized. Practically all the laminated boulders show a 
rough mamilated or stalactitic undersurface of each lamina, while 
the top surface of the lamina next beneath show successive layers, 
separated by minute parting planes, indicating successive deposi¬ 
tion of phosphate from solution. This process is similar to that 
which takes place in caves where calcium carbonate is deposited 
to form stalactites and stalagmites, and is probably confined to 
boulders lying above the permanent ground water level. Many 
small pieces of rock were doubtless phosphatized without having 
assumed the boulder form. 

ORIGIN OF THE PLATE ROCK. 

The plate rock deposits represent a peculiar phase of the hard 
rock formation. It seems probable that the plate rock represents, 
in part at least, fragments of boulders that have disintegrated, as 
was suggested by Johnson in 1893. It has also been suggested 
that these plates may have been formed by finely' divided phos¬ 
phate mud settling as a sediment. 

As previously stated many of the boulders have a laminated 
structure. When such boulders disintegrate the laminae break 
up, giving rise to the flattened pieces to which the term plate 
rock is applied. In this connection it is interesting to observe 
that the plate rock occurs in those sections of the field in which 
the phosphate deposits now lie above the water level, and have 
been subjected to disintegrating influences. The plate rock 
deposits, as at Anthony and Sparr, form a comparatively thin cov¬ 
ering over the Vicksburg Limestone and represent, in the writer’s 
interpretation, the disintegrated remnant of an ordinary hard rock 
phosphate deposit. 

The gravel found mixed with the hard rock very possibly 
represents in part small bits of rock that have become phos¬ 
phatized and in part fragments of larger rocks. The soft phos¬ 
phate associated with the hard rock has very generally been 


ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 


Go 


regarded as resulting from the disintegration of the hard rock, 
although a part of the soft phosphate may be merely phosphatic 
clays. 

LOCALIZATION OF THE HARD ROCK DEPOSITS. 

The localized nature of the hard rock deposits within the 
formation is with little doubt explained by the variable character 
of the materials in which it occurs. As has been previously 
stated, the deposits of phosphate boulders are to some extent 
associated with local clay lenses. Such an association is a priori 
natural since clay interferes with the free circulation of the per¬ 
colating water. On the other hand, when the matrix is chiefly 
sands with uniform and open texture, through which the water 
moves readily, the conditions are not favorable for the chemical 
deposition of phosphate. However, occurrence of the rock can 
not be expected to follow too closely the structural conditions as 
now observed since, as has already been explained, the whole phos¬ 
phate producing section has been subjected to erosion by solution, 
which permitted irregular and intermittent local subsidence, thus 
thoroughly mixing the materials and moving them more or less 
from their original location. 

LIMITATION OF THE HARD ROCK PHOSPHATES. 

There yet remains the problem of the limitation of the hard 
rock phosphate to a particular and well recognized physiographic 
type of country. That the phosphate beds are so confined has 
long been apparent to those actively engaged in prospecting for 
and mining phosphate as well as to those who have investigated 
the deposits from a scientific standpoint. The accompanying map 
from the Fourth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey 
outlines in a general way the several physiographic types of the 
limestone section of Central Florida. In the light of what has 
previously been written, together with the legend, the map is 
largely self-explanatory. Four well defined physiographic types 
are recognized as follows: The Gulf Hammock Belt, The Hard 


64 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Rock Phosphate Belt, The Middle Florida Hammock Belt, and 
The Fake Region. 

Immediately adjacent to the Gulf coast, in northern Peninsular 
Florida and for a few miles inland, the limestone lies at or very 
close to the surface. The underground water level is near the 
surface, and numerous large springs of limestone water emerge 
from the rock and flow to the ocean. This coastal strip contains' 
numerous extensive calcareous hammocks and is known as the 
Gulf Hammock section of Florida. If formations later than the 
Oligocene limestones were formerly present over the Gulf Ham¬ 
mock area they have, with the exception of a slight residue of 
sand, disappeared. The Gulf Hammock section, west of Suwan¬ 
nee River, is underlaid by the Upper Oligocene limestones, while 
east of the Suwannee River the underlying formation is chiefly 
the Tower Oligocene limestone. 

Inland from the Gulf Hammock area, in Peninsular Florida, is 
found a strip of country over which formations of later age than 
the Tower Oligocene were clearly present in former times, 
although there now remains of these scarcely more than the 
mixed and complex residue. The strip of country of this type 
extends in well marked development from the southern part of 
Suwannee and Columbia Counties, roughly paralleling the Gulf 
coast to Hernando and Pasco Counties. This area includes the 
hard rock phosphate deposits, these deposits having accumulated 
by the processes elsewhere explained during the period of erosion 
through which this section has passed. Few lakes or streams are 
found in the hard rock phosphate belt, as the rainfall enters 
through the loose surface material and passes directly into the 
underlying limestone. The underground water level lies, as a 
rule, at a greater depth beneath the surface than in the Gulf 
Hammock country. Numerous sinks form, giving evidence of 
the continued active erosion by underground solution. The sur¬ 
face contour is rolling, there being no regularity of hills or valleys. 

Inland from the hard rock phosphate belt is found areas less 
affected by erosion, in which more or less of the formations that 
originally overlaid the Vicksburg Timestone may be identified 
in position. This type of country is known as the Middle Florida 

























































































































































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ORIGIN OR THE HARD ROC 1C PHOSPHATES. 


65 


Hammock Belt. In this type of country the surface is rolling, 
or somewhat hilly and occasionally flat bottomed lakes are found, 
which occupy solution basins. The soils on the slopes are pre¬ 
vailingly red with red clay sub-soil. Surface streams occur, 
although most of these terminate either in lakes or in sink holes 
through which they gain entrance to the underlying limestones, 
forming the disappearing streams characteristic of this type of 
country. In peninsular Florida two areas of Middle Florida 
Hammock lands may be designated. One of these includes a 
narrow belt extending in a northwest to southeast direction, 
through Columbia and Alachua Counties, into Marion County, 
A small part of Suwannee County, east of Houston, along the 
Seaboard Air Line Railway, is also included. This belt occupies 
the border land between the limestone and non-limestone country 
of this part of the State. The second well marked area is that 
which extends north and south through Citrus, Hernando and 
Pasco Counties, and is surrounded on all sides by more intensely 
eroded limestone country. A third large area of this type of 
country lies west of the Suwannee River, including the northern 
part of Leon, Jefferson and Madison Counties. Temporary lakes, 
rolling topography, good drainage, and red clay soils are charac¬ 
teristic features of this stage of topographic development. 

The Lake Region of Florida, as a physiographic type, has long 
been known and often referred to in the literature of Florida. 
This type of topography includes a large area, extending from 
Clay County, on the north, to near the middle of DeSoto County, 
on the south, its greatest width being found in Lake and Orange 
Counties. It is cut into by the St. Johns, Oklawaha and With- 
lacoochee Rivers. Aside from these rivers surface streams are 
few, the rainfall passing into the soil. Lakes, as implied by the 
name, are extremely numerous in this section of the country. 
They are of a characteristic type, being usually deep, circular in 
outline and bordered by abrupt sloping banks. They are entirely 
distinct from the temporary, flat bottomed, shallow lakes of the 
Middle Florida Hammock Belt. 

The lake region represents, in the writer’s interpretation, an 
early stage in the degradation of the surface level by under- 


66 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


ground solution. The many basins now occupied by lakes have 
been formed by subsidence due to solution. Following the 
formation of the basins the surrounding uplands are gradually 
lowered, the tendency being to fill up the basins and to reduce 
the land surface once more to a common, although lower level. 
An examination of the accompanying map, on which the lake 
region is separately indicated, bears out the view that this region 
represents the further southeastward migration of the limestone 
country of the peninsula. 

It is not necessary to assume that the hard rock phosphate 
belt has passed through a stage of development identical with 
that of either the lake region or the Middle Florida Hammock 
Belt. Differences in the thickness and character of the forma¬ 
tions, or of the drainage, or other conditions may have modified 
the results in this region. Certain it is, however, that the lime¬ 
stone region of Central Florida is encroaching on the non-lime¬ 
stone areas to the east. Whether or not what is now the hard 
rock phosphate belt passed through the typical lake region topo¬ 
graphy, it is at least a reasonable inference that lakes more or 
less extensive existed in the earlier stages of the development of 
this area. 

ECONOMIC RELATION. 

The economic bearing of the observation that the hard rock 
phosphate is confined to a particular physiographic type is im¬ 
portant. Although within the area careful and expensive pros¬ 
pecting is necessary to locate the individual deposits, yet to pros¬ 
pect for hard rock phosphate outside of the particular physio¬ 
graphic type of country with which the hard rock phosphates are 
associated is recognized as useless. No hard rock phosphate is 
to be expected, for instance, in the lake region nor elsewhere in 
the non-limestone areas of Florida, nor in the Middle Florida 
Hammock Belt, except possibly in such local areas as have by 
more rapid erosion passed into the stage in which hard rock 
phosphate accumulates. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS ON THE PHOS¬ 
PHATES OF FLORIDA. 


The entries in the bibliography are arranged in chronological 
order, or as nearly so as is practicable. Those papers not seen 
by the writer are indicated by an asterisk. To facilitate reference 
an alphabetical index of authors is given, the date of publication 
which follows the name indicating the place of the author’s paper 
in the bibliography. 

ALPHABETIC INDEX TO AUTHORS CITED IN THE BIBLI¬ 
OGRAPHY. 

Blair, A. W., 1908. 

Brown, Lucius P., 1904, 1912. 

Carnot, Adolphe, 1896. 

Codington, E. W., 1896. 

Collison, S. E., 1911. 

Cox, E. T., 1890, 1891, 1892, 1896. 

Dali, W. H., 1891, 1892, 1896. 

Darton, N. H., 1891. 

Davidson, Walter B. M., 1891, 1893. 

Eldridge, George H., 1893. 

Florida State Geological Survey, 1908. 

Fuller, Myron L., 1907. 

Goldsmith, E., 1890. 

Hawes, George W., 1883. 

Hovey, Edmund Otis, 1904. 

Jackson, Granberry, 1907. 

Johnson, Lawrence C., 1885, 1893. 

Jumeau, L. P., 1905, 1906. 

Kost, J., 1887. 

LeBaron, J. Francis, 1893. 

Ledoux, Albert R., 1890. 

McCallie, S. W., 1896. 

Matson, George C., 1909. 

Memminger, C. G., 1910. 

Mendenhall, H. D., 1908. 

Millar, C. C. Hover, 1891, 1892. 


68 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Murray, John, 1886. 

Parker, Edward W., 1900. 

Penrose, R. A. F., 1888. 

Persons, A. A., 1893. 

Pickel, J. M., 1890, 1891. 

Pratt, N. A., 1868, 1892. 

Schrader, Jay, 1890, 1891. 

Sellards, E. H., 1909, 1910, 1911. 

Shaler, N. S., 1893. 

Shepard, Charles Upham, 1893. 

Smith, E. A., 1884, 1885. 

Struthers, Joseph, 1902. 

United States Geological Survey, 1883. 

Van Horn, F. B., 1908. 

Vaughan, T. Wayland, 1910. 

Waggaman, William H., 1911. 

Wells, G. M., 1896. 

Willis, Edward, 1892. 

Wright, Carroll D., 1893. • 

Wyatt, Francis, 1890, 1891. 

LIST OF PAPERS ARRANGED CHRONOLOGICALLY. 

1868. Pratt, N. A.: 

Ashley River Phosphate. History of the Marls of South 
Carolina, and of the Discovery and Development of the 
native bone Phosphates of the Charleston Basin. 42 
pp., Philadelphia, Pa. 1868.* 

In connection with an elaboration of the coral reef 
theory of the development of the mainland of Florida in 
this report, reference is made to coprolite or guano-like 
deposits of birds, reptiles and fishes, from which the soluble 
ingredients have been dissolved, leaving the insoluble lime 
phosphate. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OP FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


69 


1883. Hawes, Geo. W.: 

On a Phosphatic Sandstone from Hawthorne, in Florida, 
Nat. Mus. Proc. for 1882. Pp. 46-48, 1883. 

This paper contains an analysis of phosphatic rock 
from the quarry of C. A. Simmons. This was, perhaps, the 
first definitely reported analysis of phosphatic rock from 
Florida. 

1883. United States Geological Survey: 

The volume on Mineral Resources of the United States 
for 1882, p. 523, published in 1883, reports the occur¬ 
rence of phosphatic marls in Florida, in Clay, Alachua, 
Wakulla, Duval and Gadsden Counties. 

The volume for 1883-84, pp. 793, published in 1885, 
contains a reference to the occurrence of phosphate rock 
in Clay, Alachua, Duval, Gadsden and Wakulla Counties. 

The volume for 1885, p. 450-453, published in 1886, 
contains additional notes based on investigations of Mr. 
Tawrence C. Johnson during 1884 and 1885. 

The volume for 1886, published in 1887, contains, page 
617-618, notes on the examination of phosphate by Dr. J. 
Kost in Wakulla County. 

The volume for 1887, published in 1888, page 584, 
notes the developments which were in progress on the 
Peace River, near Arcadia, in DeSoto County, Florida. 

The volume on Mineral Resources for 1888 and the 
subsequent volumes of the series give the production of 
phosphate rock in Florida for each succeeding year, with 
occasional notes in regard to the development of the 
deposits. 

1884. Smith, Eugene A.: 

Report on the Cotton Production of the State of Florida, 
with an account of the general agricultural features of 
the State. U. S. 10th Census, VI, Rept. Cotton Prod., ‘ 
pt. 2, pp. 175-258, 1884. 

The analysis of the phosphatic rock from Hawthorne 
is included in this paper, with comment on the value of the 
rock as a fertilizer. 


70 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


1885. Smith, Eugene A.: 

Phosphatic Rocks of Florida. Science, V, pp. 395-396. 
1885. 

In his earlier paper, 1884, Dr. Smith had assumed that 
the phosphatic rock at Hawthorne, which he had not seen, 
was of Vicksburg age. On the basis of information 
supplied to him by L. C. Johnson, and from the examina¬ 
tion of a hand specimen he concludes that the rock is of 
Miocene age. 

1885. Johnson, Lawrence C.: 

(Phosphatic Rocks of Florida.) Science, V, pp. 396, 1885 
This publication is in the form of a letter to Dr. E. A. 
Smith. In this letter Johnson reports phosphatic rock 
from various localities in Florida, among which are Pres¬ 
ton’s Sink, Nigger Sink and Live Oak. Evidence is 
presented to show that these phosphatic rocks are of later 
age than the Vicksburg. 

1886. Murray, John: 

Report on the Specimens of Bottom Deposits. Report on 
results of dredgings under the supervision of Alexander 
Agassiz in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Caribbean, and 
along the Atlantic Coast of the United States by the 
U. S. S. Blake. Mus. Comp. Zook, XII, No. 2, pp. 37- 
61, 1885;* abst. Am. Jour. Sci., (3) XXXI, pp. 221- 
225, 1886. 

Records the occurrence of concretions of phosphate of 
lime in the Strait of Florida. 

1887. Kost, J.: 

First Report of the Geological Survey of Florida, 31 pp., 
Tallahassee, 1887. Abst. Science, IX, 446-447, 1887. 
In this paper, pp. 21-24, Kost reports the examination 
of phosphatic limestone, sandstone and marl in Wakulla, 
Alachua, Marion, Hillsboro and Manatee Counties. Arr 
analysis is included of the phosphatic sandstone from near 
Sopchoppy in Wakulla County. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OR FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


71 


1888. Penrose, R. A. F., Jr.: 

Nature and Origin of Deposits of Phosphate of Rime, with 
an introduction by N. S. Shaler. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Bull., 46, 143 pp., 3 pis., 1888. 

This paper includes a general review of all phosphate 
deposits known at that time. The phosphate deposits of 
Hawthorne and vicinity were personally examined and are 
described on pages 78 and 79. The report contains a 
bibliography of publications on phosphate. 

1890. Shrader, Jay: 

Florida. The Underground Wealth and Prehistoric 
Wonders of Polk and DeSoto Counties, 34 pp. Bartow, 
1890 * 

An account of the phosphate mining industry as 
developed at that time is included in this report. 

1890. Ledoux, Albert R.: 

The Newly-discovered Phosphate Beds of Florida. New 
York Acad. Sci. Trans., IX, pp. 84-94, February, 1890; 
Eng. Min. Jour., XLIX, 175-177, 1890; Sci. Am-. Supp., 
XXX, 12104-12105, No. 758, 1890. Read before the 
New York Academy of Science January 27, 1890. 

This paper contains a description of the hard rock 
phosphate deposits in Marion, Citrus and Hernando 
Counties, based on examination made in 1889 or 1890, and 
soon after the hard rock deposits were discovered. Refer¬ 
ence is made to an earlier publication on the hard rock 
phosphate at Dunnellon by Professor W. P. Frost, of 
Savannah. The place of publication of Prof. Frost’s paper, 
however, is not given. 

1890. Pickel, J. M.: 

Florida Phosphate. Fla. Agri. Exp. 'Station, Bull. 10, pp. 
6-11, July, 1890. 

A brief account of the Florida phosphates from samples 
received for analysis, and brief notes on the discovery of 
„ the deposits. 


72 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


1890. Wyatt, Francis: 

Notes on the Florida Phosphate Beds. Eng. Min. Jour. 
L, pp. 218-220, August, 1890.* Extract in Florida, 
South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. 
Hoyer Millar, pp. S5-87, and 116-117, 1892. 

Wyatt comments in this paper on the local or pockety 
nature of the hard rock phosphate deposits. 

1890. Cox, E. T.: 

An Extensive Deposit of Phosphate Rock in Florida. Am. 
Nat. XXIV, 1185-1186, 1890 * 

The term Floridite is proposed in this paper for the 
Florida hard rock phosphate. 

1890. Goldsmith, E.: 

Pea-Like Phosphate from Polk County, Florida. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc. X. (y 2 p.), 1890. 

Contains a brief description of the microscopic struc¬ 
ture of pebble phosphate from Ft. Meade. Acicular 
crystals of apatite were found imbedded in amorphous 
silica. 

1891. Picked, J. M.: 

Comparative Value of Raw Finely Powdered Phosphate 
and of Acidulated Phosphate as a Fertilizer. Fla. Agri. 
Exp. Station, Bull. 13, pp. 12-15, April, 1891. 

This paper gives a review of experiments in the use of 
raw phosphates conducted by other investigators with an 
opinion as to the application of the results to the Florida 
phosphates. 

1891. Millar, C. C. Hoyer: 

The Phosphate Fields of Florida. 48 pp.* Eden, Fisher 
& Co., London, 1891. 

This paper, is based on an examination of the Florida 
phosphate deposits in 1890. 

1891. Wyatt, Francis: 

The Phosphates of America,* 187 pages, New York, 1891. 
Abst. Eng. Min. Jour., Vol. 53, pp. 202-204, 1892. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OR FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


73 


1891. Shrader, Jay: 

Hidden Treasures, Bartow, 1891.* Extract included in 
The Phosphate Industry of Florida by Carroll D. 
Wright, Sixth Special Report of the Commissioner of 
Labor, p. 39, 1893. 

An account is included in this pamphlet of the discovery 
by J. Francis LeBaron of pebble phosphate on Peace 
Creek in 1881. 

1891. Cox, E. T.: 

Floridite: A New Variety of Phosphate of Lime. Am. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci. Proc., XXXIX, pp. 260-262, 1891. 
Read before the Indianapolis meeting, Amer. Assoc, for 
the Advancement of Sci., August, 1890. 

In this paper Cox advances the theory that the hard 
rock phosphate represents ancient guano which has become 
mineralized. 

1891. Dali, W. H.: 

On the Age of the Peace Creek Beds, Florida. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phila., Proc. 120, (1-3 p.), 1891; abst. Am. Geol. 
VII, 382, 1891.* 

1891. Darton, N. H.: 

Notes on the Geology of the Florida Phosphate Deposits. 
Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLI, pp. 102-105, February, 1891; 
abst. Eng. Min. Jour. LI, p. 210 (1cols.), 1891. 
Guano is regarded by Darton as a probable source of 
the rock phosphate. The phosphate of Polk County is 
referred to as a conglomerate and is believed to have been 
derived from the hard rock phosphates. 

1891. Davidson, Walter B. M.: 

Suggestions as to the Origin and Deposition of Florida 
Phosphate. Eng. Min. Jour. LI, pp. 628-629, 1891.* 
Regards the hard rock phosphate boulders as having 
been deposited in underground caverns and river beds in 
the Vicksburg Limestone. 


M FLORIDA state; geological surve;y. 

1892. Millar, C. C. Hoyer: 

Florida, South Carolina, and Canadian Phosphates. Eden 
Fisher and Company, London, 223 pp, 1892. 

The description of the Florida deposits is found on 
pages 23 to 122 and includes a general account of the land 
pebble, river pebble, hard rock, and plate rock deposits. 

1892. Cox, E. T.:. 

(The Land and River Pebble Phosphate Deposits of Flor¬ 
ida), Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science, Washington meeting 
August, 1891.* 

In this paper Floridalite is suggested in place of Flor- 
idite previously proposed for the Florida hard rock phos¬ 
phates. 

1891. Davidson, Walter B. M.: 

A Phosphatic Chalk at Taplow, England. Eng. Min. Jour. 
LII, P- 502 (2-3 col.), 1891* 

1892. Dali, W. H. and Harris, G. D.: 

Correlation Papers: Neocene of North America. U. S. 
Geol. Sur. Bull. 84, 1892. 

The description of the Florida Phosphate deposits by 
Dali is found on pages 134 to 140. The hard rock phos* 
phates are regarded as having originated from guano. 

1892. Pratt, N. A.: 

Florida Phosphates. The Origin of the Boulder Phosphates 
of the Withlacoochee River District.* Eng. Min. Jour. 
LIII, p. 380, 1892. 

In this paper the theory is advanced that the phosphate 
boulder is a true fossil, the boulder being the phosphatic 
skeleton of a gigantic foraminifera, while the soft phos¬ 
phate is supposed to be the germ spores or bud of the ani¬ 
mals, or the comminuted debris of the animals themselves. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OR FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


i 9 


1892. Willis, Edward: 

Phosphate Rock in Report on Mineral Industries in the 
United States at the Eleventh Census, 1890, pp. 681-691, 
1892. 

The phosphates of Florida are described on pp. 687- 
689. 

1893. Davidson, Walter B. M. : 

Notes on the Geological Origin of Phosphate of Lime in 
the United States and Canada. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 
Trans. XXI, pp. 139-157, 1893. Read before the Amer¬ 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers at the Baltimore 
meeting, February, 1892. 

The phosphates of Florida are derived from the leach¬ 
ing of Vicksburg Limestone. The pebble phosphate of 
Southern Florida is regarded as secondary deposits, hav¬ 
ing reached its present location by river action. 

1893. EeBaron, J. Francis : 

Discussion following paper by Walter B. M. Davidson on 
The Geological Origin of Phosphate of Lime in the 
United States and Canada. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. 
Baltimore meeting, February, 1892, published 1893.* 
This paper has not been seen but contains, according to 
Capt. EeBaron (personal letter of May 23, 1911), an 
account of the discovery of the pebble phosphate on Peace 
Creek in 1881. 

1893. Persons, A. A.: 

Soils and Fertilizers. Fla. Agri. Exp. Station, Bull. No.. 
20, pp. 16-17, 1893. 

1893. Eldridge, George H.: 

A Preliminary Sketch of the Phosphates of Florida. Am. 
Inst., Min. Eng. Trans. XXI, pp. 196-231, 1893. Read 
before the American Institute of Mining Engineers at 
the Baltimore meeting, February, 1892. 

The hard rock phosphates are assumed to have origi¬ 
nated from deposits of guano or from phosphate through¬ 
out the Vicksburg Limestone. 


76 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


1893. Shaler, N. S.: 

Residual Ablation Deposits. (Contained in paper on “A 
Preliminary Sketch of the Phosphates of Florida,” by 
Eldridge, George H.) Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. 
XXI, 1893. 

Regards the Florida pebble phosphate deposits as 
residual ablation deposits which have been moved about 
more or less by stream action. 

1893. Johnson, Lawrence C.: 

Notes on the Geology of Florida: Two of the lesser but 
typical Phosphate Fields. Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XLV, 
pp. 497-503, 1893. 

Describes phosphatic formation of Alachua County, and 
the plate rock phosphate of Marion County. Guano is 
regarded as the original source of the phosphate rock. The 
deposits of guano after removal of their soluble constitu¬ 
ents became compacted or laminated phosphate rock. The 
disintegration of the laminated rock gave rise to the plate 
rock of these deposits. Further disintegration gave rise to 
the soft phosphates. 

1893. Shepard, Charles Upham : 

The Development and Extent of the Fertilizer Industry. 
Am. Chem. Soc. Journ. XV, No. 6, June, 1893. 

Refers briefly to Florida, quoting the total phosphate 
produced by years from 1888-1892. 

1893. Wright, Carroll D.: 

The Phosphate Industry of the United States. Sixth 
Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor, Wash¬ 
ington, D. C., 145 pp, 1893. 

Pages 23 to 69 of this report are devoted to the phos¬ 
phate industry of Florida, including a general account of 
the deposits. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 01' FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


77 


1896. Cox, E. T. : 

The Albion Phosphate District. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 
Trans. XXV, pp. 36-40, 1896. 

Describes the plants operating at that time in the 
vicinity of Albion, Florida. 

1896. Cox, E. T.: 

Geological Sketch of Florida. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans. 
XXV, pp. 28-36, 1896. 

Restates the view previously advanced that the phos¬ 
phate rock represents mineralized guano. 

1896. Wells, G. M.: 

The Florida Rock-Phosphate Deposits. Am. Inst. Min. 
Eng. Trans. XXV, pp. 163-172, 1896. 

This paper contains an account of the mining opera¬ 
tions that were in progress at that time. The total avail¬ 
able supply of hard rock phosphate was estimated at 
10,000,000 tons. 

1896. Carnot, Adolphe : 

Sur les Variations observees dans la composition des 
apatites, des phosphorites, et des phosphates sediment- 
aries. Remarques sur le gisement et le mode de forma¬ 
tion de ces phosphates.* Ann. Des Mines, X, pp. 137- 
231, 1896.* 

1896. Codington, E. W.: 

The Florida Pebble Phosphates. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 
Trans. XXV, pp. 423-431, 1896. 

The pebble phosphate deposits are regarded as having 
been derived from the hard rock phosphates. 

1896. McCallie, S. W.: 

A Preliminary Report on the Phosphates and Marls of 
Georgia. Geol. Sur. Georgia, Bull. No. 5-A, 1896. 
The phosphates of Florida are briefly described on pp. 
25-28. 


78 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


1896. Dali, W. H.: 

(Account of the manner of occurrence of fossil vertebrates 
in the Alachua Clays.) (Contained in introduction to 
“Fossil Vertebrates from the Alachua Clays,” by Joseph 
Leidy.) Wag. Free Inst. Sci. IV, 1896. 

This report includes notes on the phosphatic rock as 
observed at Archer, Alachua County, 1885. 

1900. Parker, Edward W.: 

Phosphate Rock in Mineral Resources for 1899, pp. 481- 
502, 1901; and in Mineral Resources for 1900, pp. 803- 
814, 1901. 

1902. Struthers, Joseph: 

Phosphate Rock in Mineral Resources for 1901, pp. 811- 
822, 1902; and in Mineral Resources for 1902, pp. 915- 
920, 1904. 

1904. Brown, Lucius P.: 

The Phosphate Deposits of the Southern States. Eng. 
Assoc, of the South. Proc., XV, No. 2, pp. 53-128, 1904. 
Phosphates of Florida described on pp. 63-86. 

1904. Hovey, Edmund Otis : 

Phosphate Rock in Mineral Resources for 1903, pp. 1047- 
1058, 1904; and in Mineral Resources for 1904, pp. 
1053-1064, 1905; and in Mineral Resources for 1905, 
pp. 1117-1126, 1906. 

1905. Jumeau, L. P.: 

Le Phosphate de Chaux et les Exploitations aux Etats- 
Unis en 1905. Veuve Ch. Dunod, Paris, 198 pages, 
1905. 

This volume includes an account of the phosphates of 
Florida, history of development and methods of mining. 

1906. Jumeau, L. P.: 

Composition des Gisements de Phosphate de Chaux des 
Etats-Unis, Paris, 1906. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OR FLORIDA PHOSPHATES. 


79 


1907. Fuller, Myron L.: 

Phosphate Rock in Mineral Resources for 1906, pp. 1079- 
1084, 1907. 

1907. Jackson, Granberry: 

Mechanical Drying of Phosphate Rock. Eng. Assoc, of the 
South, Trans. XVIII, pp. 85-106, 1907. 

This paper relates chiefly to the drying of Tennessee 
phosphate rock and refers to the Florida deposits only 
incidentally in connection with the discussion of the use of 
finely ground raw phosphates. 

1908. Florida State Geological Survey : 

The production of phosphate rock in Florida is given in 
the report of the Florida State Geological Survey for 
1908, and for each succeeding year. 

1908. VanHorn, F. B.: 

Phosphate Rock in Mineral Resources for 1907, pp. 651- 
657, 1908; and in Mineral Resources for 1908, pp. 629- 

642, 1909; and in Mineral Resources for 1909, pp. 655- 

659, 1911; and in Mineral Resources for 1910, pp. 735- 

746, 1911; and in Mineral Resources for 1911, pp. 877- 

888, 1912. 

1908. Mendenhall, H. D.: 

Modern Land-Pebble Phosphate-Mining Plants in Flor¬ 
ida. Engr. News, Vol. 60, No. 16, pp. 410-414, 
October 15, 1908. 

1908. Blair, A. W.: 

Ground Phosphate Rock as a source of Phosphoric Acid. 
Fla. Agri. Exp. Station. Press Bull. No. 77, 1908. 

1909. Matson, G. C. and Clapp, F. G.: 

A Preliminary Report on the Geology of Florida, with 
special reference to- the Stratigraphy. Fla. State Geol. 
Survey. Second Annual Report, pp. 21-173, 1909. 

This paper contains many references to both the hard 
rock and the pebble deposits. The name Bone Valley Beds 
is proposed for the pebble phosphate deposits. 


80 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


1909. Sellards, E. H.: 

Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida. Fla. State Hort. 
Society, Trans., pp. 138-141, 1909. 

1910. Sellards, E. H.: 

A Preliminary paper on the Florida Phosphate Deposit. 
Fla. State Geol. Survey, Third Annual Report, pp. 17- 
41, 1910. 

This paper contains a description of the hard rock and 
pebble phosphate deposits of Florida. 

1910. Memminger, C. G. : 

(Phosphate rock in Florida.) The Mineral Industry dur¬ 
ing 1909, Vol. XVIII, pp. 587-589, 1910. Also in 
volume XIX, pp. 539-541, 1911. 

1910. Vaughan, T. Wayland: 

A Contribution to the Geologic History of the Floridian 
Plateau. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publica¬ 
tion No. 133, pp. 99-185, 1910. 

1911. Waggaman, William H.: 

A Review of the Phosphate Fields of Florida. U. S. 
Dept, of Agriculture Bureau of Soils. Bulletin No. 
76, 1911. 

This paper includes notes on the occurrence of the 
phosphate and on the methods of mining. 

1911. Sellards, E. H.: 

American Phosphate Deposits in their Relation to National 
Agricultural Development. Twelfth Ann. Convention 
of Southern States Assoc, of Commissioners of Agri. 
Proc., pp. 60-65, 1911. Paper read before the meeting 
held at Atlanta, Georgia, November 21-23, 1910. 

1911. Collison, S. E.: 

The Phosphate Deposits of the United States. The Flor 
ida Pennant, Agricultural Number, pp. 37-39, 1911. 

1912. Brown, Lucius P.: 

The Phosphate Deposits of Continental North America. 
Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry. 
Vol. XXVI, pp. 87-113, 1912. The Florida phosphates 
are discussed on pages 95-101. 


ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


E. H. SELLARDS. 


No detailed topographic map of Florida having been made, 
the elevations given in the following list are necessarily taken 
from various sources, some of which are based on precise levels, 
while others represent approximate levels. The principal sources 
from which the data has been obtained include levels made by the 
United States Geological Survey, the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, the United States Army Engineers, the 
Engineers of the Florida State Drainage Commission, and surveys 
made in connection with the location of the various railroads in 
the State. 

The elevations from the railroad surveys are either taken 
direct from the profiles, or are listed as given in the Dictionary of 
Altitudes, Bulletin 274, United States Geological Survey. The 
precise levels which have been made by the United States 
Geological Survey and the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey in Florida are obtained from Bulletin 516 of the United 
States Geological Survey. The levels made by the United States 
Army Engineers in Florida are obtained from Preliminary 
Survey for a Ship Canal from the St. Marys River to the Gulf 
of Mexico, made in 1879; Survey of the St. Johns River to 
Charlotte Harbor, by way of Lake Tohopekaliga, for purpose of 
steamboat communication, Appendix J, Annual Report of Chief 
of Engineers, 1882; Survey of the Kissimmee River, Florida, 
and connecting lakes and canals flowing into Lake Okeechobee, 
thence down the Caloosahatchee River to the Gulf of Mexico, 
1899; and Survey of the St. Johns River, above Lake Monroe, 
1903. The levels by the State Drainage Commission are from a 
map of the Everglades drainage district issued in 1913. 

In each instance the authority for the elevation is given fol¬ 
lowing the name of the locality. For this purpose abbrevations 
are used as follows: U. S. G. S. (United States Geological 
Survey) ; U. S. C. & G. S. (United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey) ; U. S. Army Engrs. (United States Army Engineers) ; 




82 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY. 


Fla. State Engrs. (Engineers of the Florida State Drainage 
Commission) ; A. N. R. R. (Apalachicola Northern Railroad) ; 
A. C. L- R. R. (Atlantic Coast Line Railroad) ; C. H. & N. Ry. 
(Charlotte Harbor and Northern Railway) ; F. E. C. Ry. (Flor¬ 
ida East Coast Railway) ; G. F. & A. Ry. (Georgia, Florida and 
Alabama Railway) ; G. S. & F. Ry. (Georgia Southern and 
Florida Railway) ; L. & N. R. R. (Louisville and Nashville Rail¬ 
road; S. A. L. Ry. (Seaboard Air Line Railway) ; F. Ry. (Flor¬ 
ida Railway) ; Fellsmere R. R. (Fellsmere Railroad). The eleva¬ 
tion given for the towns, unless otherwise stated, is that of the 
depot of the railroad cited as authority. 

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP. 

In addition to the list of elevations, there is included in this 
report a topographic map of the State. The topography on this 
map is taken from a map previously issued by the Survey in 
cooperation with the United States Geological Survey and 
included in the Second Annual Report of the State Survey, 1909. 
The original map, which showed both geology and topography, 
was made by Geo. C. Matson, F. G. Clapp, and Samuel Sanford, 
under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, and formed a part 
of a report on the geology of Florida prepared by the United 
States Geological Survey, in co-operation with the Florida State 
Geological Survey. The base map, however, has been redrawn and 
revised by the addition of new railroads and new counties. The 
scale has been reduced one-half linear and much of the detail of 
the base map omitted. To this base there has been added the 
outline of the hard rock and land pebble phosphate formations, 
and the areas of artesian flow in the State. 

EXPLANATION OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP. 

The topography is shown by means of contours. These are 
lines so placed as to pass through points all of which have the 
same altitude. On this map the contour lines are printed in 
brown and are placed at 50 foot intervals of elevation. Each 
contour represents a definite level above sea and is so marked. 
The coast line itself may be regarded as the zero contour. In 


ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


83 


passing from the coast to the interior of the State there is 
crossed successively the 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 foot contours, 
and finally in such limited localities as reach that elevation, the 
300 foot contour. As a rule the rise in elevation in Florida is so 
gradual that the 50 foot contour lies some miles from the coast. 
On the other hand, where the rise in elevation is rapid, as near 
Pensacola, in West Forida, the 50 foot contour approaches and 
may almost touch the coast line. 

THE TOPOGRAPHY OF FLORIDA. 

Referring to the topography of the State as. a whole, it will be 
noted that a belt of country lying below the 50 foot contour line 
borders the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts. This belt varies in 
width and bends inland following the river valleys. In Southern 
Florida this belt of country lying below the 50 foot contour 
widens out to include Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Dade, 
Monroe and Lee Counties, and the southern part of DeSoto and 
Manatee Counties. In peninsular Florida elevations of from 150 
to 250 feet are found in Suwannee, Columbia, Baker, Bradford, 
Clay, Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Polk and De- 
Soto Counties. In West Florida the elevation rises rather rapidly 
from the coast to from 200 to 250 feet above sea. The contours, 
therefore, fall close together, indicating a rolling or hilly country. 
At Mount Pleasant and at Hardaway, in Gadsden County, the 
elevation exceeds 300 feet, this being the highest recorded eleva¬ 
tion in the State. 

The fact that much of the data available in regard to eleva¬ 
tions is approximate should be borne in mind in using the topo¬ 
graphic map. Moreover, on a general map, such as this, it is 
often impossible to show minor elevations and depressions. It is 
to be hoped that subsequently a detailed topographic survey may 
be made of the State, and topographic maps issued based on 
precise levels. These detailed maps should be made on a scale 
of one inch to the mile, with contours placed at ten foot intervals 
of elevation. This general map, with contours at 50 foot intervals 
of elevation will, however, serve many useful purposes until more 
detailed maps are made. 


84 


Florida state geological survey. 


LIST OF ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


LOCALITY. 

Abbott . 



Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 

S. A. T. Rv. 110 




U. S. G. S. 

. 70 






Alachua, S. A. L. depot. 



U. S. G. S. 

. 60 

Albion, S. A. L. depot. 



U. S. G. S. 

. 81 

Albion, square' cut on foundation 

of chimney of 



frame building, north of station... 


U. S. C. & G. S. 

. 89 

Alligator Lake, Osceola Countv.. 



U. S. Army 





Engrs., 1882 .. 

. 71 

Altamonte Springs . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 101 

Ankona .. 



F. E. C. Ry. 

. 33 

Anthony ... 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 77 

Ai jalachicola . 



A. N. R. R. 

5 

Apopka .. 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 150 

Arcadia ... 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 56 

Archer, S. A. L. depot. 



U. S. G. S. 

. 80 

Archer, copper bolt in chimney of C. 

W. Bank- 



night’s house ...... 



U. S. C. & G. S.. 

. 85 

Argyle . 



L. & N. R. R... 

. 254 

Armour . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 70 

Arran . 



G. F. & A. Ry.. 

. 122 

Arredondo, S, A, L. depot. 



U. S. G. S. 

. 89 

Arredondo, square cut in stone 

post 

in D. G. 



Harvard’s orchard . 



U. S. C. & G. S.. 

. 89 

Ashmore . 



G. F. & A. Ry.. 

. 124 

Astor . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 15 

Atlantic . 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 125 

Atlantic Beach... 



F. E. C. Ry..... 

. 14 

Auburndale . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 167 

Aucilla . 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 86 

Aurantia . 



F. E. C. Ry. 

. 28 

Avoca ... 



G. S. & F Ry.. 

. 120 

Bakers Mill .... 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 137 

Baldwin . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 83 

Baldwin . 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 86 

Barberville . 



A. C. L. 3J. R... 

. 44 

Barnett . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 135 

Bartow . 



A. C. L. R. R... 

. 115 

Baxter . 

1 


G. S. & F. Ry.. 

. 118 

Baywood .. 



G. S. & F.,Ry.. 

. 148 

Bellair . 



A. C. L. R/R... 

. 49 

Belleview . 



S. A. L. Ry. 

. 87 














































ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


85 


LOCALITY. 

Beverly .. 

Black Creek . 

Black Point ... 

Black Sink Prairie ... 

Blanton .. 

Bluff Springs .. 

Boardman, A. C. L. depot. 

Bocaraton .. 

Boden’s ..... 

Bohemia ... 

Bonifay ...... 

Bostwick, 150 feet west of depot... 

Boulogne ..... 

Bowes ... 

Bowling Green ..... 

Brandon . 

Branford . 

Braswell . 

Bronson, S. A. L. depot. 

Bronson, copper bolt in chimney of Mrs. L. E. 

Taylor’s house .. 

Brooklyn .. 

Brooksville . 

Buena Vista, stone post near F. E. C. Ry. station. 

Buffalo Bluff, railroad crossing. 

Burnett’s Lake . 

Bushnell . 

Cadillac .. 

Caledonia .. 

Callahan .:. 

Calvenia . 

Cambon .. 

Campbell . 

Campton . 

Candler . 

Cantonment .... 

Caryville .. 

Carraway . 

Causey . 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 


(feet). 


A. 

N 

. R 

.. R . 

.. 10 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 18 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

.. 11 

U. 

S. 

G. 

s. 


.. 60 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 105 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R... 

.. 90 

U. 

s. 

G. 

S. 


.. 73 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

. . 15 

U. 

S. 

Army 



Engrs. 

, 1903 .. 

.. 14 

L. 

& 

N- 

R. 

R... 

. . 16 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R... 

. . 120 

U. 

s. 

G. 

S. 


. . 34 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 70 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R. .. 

. : . 128 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

. . 116 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry 


.. 74 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

. . 43 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry 


.. 192 

u. 

s. 

G. 

S. 


. . 68 

u. 

s. 

C. « 

& G 

r. S.. 

.. 72 

G. 

s. 

& 

F. 

Ry.. 

.. 157 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R. .. 

.. 126 

U. 

s. 

C. . 

& G 

r. S.. 

. . 15 

u. 

s. 

G. 

S. 


. . 16 

s. 

A. 

L. 

Ry 


. . 69 

s. 

A. 

L. 

Ry 


.. 75 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

. . 89 

L. 

&. 

N. 

R. 

R... 

.. 192 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 20 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 45 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 63 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

.. 75 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R... 

. . 172 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. 

R... 

. . 108 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R... 

.. 180 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. 

R... 

.. 72 

G. 

s. 

& 1 

F Ry... 

. . 110 

A. 

N. 

R 

. R 


. . 113 


































































86 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Elevation 

LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 

Cedar Keys, bench mark at southeast corner of 
new concrete store, built in 1877 by Thomas 


Barnes . 

. U. 

S. 

C. & G. S... 

. . 12 

Center Hill . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 91 

Center Park . 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

. . 40 

Chaffin . 

. E. 

& 

N. 

R. R... 

. . 102 

Chaires . 

. s. 

A. 

L. 

Ry. 

.. 60 

Champaign . 

. S. 

A. 

E. 

Ry. 

.. 124 

Chatmar . 

. A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 49 

Chubb . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. .. 

. . 165 

Chipco . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 104 

Chipley .'. 

.. L. 

& 

N. 

R. R... 

.. 113- 

Citra . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 61 

Citronelle, A. C. E. depot. 

. U. 

s. 

G. 

S.; 

.. 26 

City Point . 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

.. 38- 

Clarcona . 

. A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 93 

Clayno, northwest corner of house, 

100 southwest 





of railroad crossing . 

. U. 

S. 

G. 

S. 

. . 153 

Clearwater . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 29- 

Clermont . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 105 

Cleveland . 

. A. 

c. 

L- 

R. R... 

3 

Cocoa . 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

.. 25 

Cocoanut Grove . 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

. . 12: 

Cook’s Ferry . 

. U. 

S. 

Army 



Engrs., 

, 1903 .. 

.. 14 

Colegrove . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

Ry. 

.. 125 

Coline . 

.:. A. 

N. 

, R 

. R. 

.. 26. 

Collins . 

. A. 

N. 

. R 

. R. 

.. 158 

Conant . 

. ..A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. .. 

. . 93 

Cone .. 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 125 

Coquina . 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

. . 17 

Cottondale . 

.. E. 

& 

N. 

R. R... 

. . 142 

Cowan .. 

. L. 

& 

N. 

R. R... 

.. 173 

Cow Creek, Volusia County. 

. F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

.. 21 

Cow Creek, Levy County. 

. A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 30 

Crawford . 

. G. 

S. 

&: 

F. Ry... 

. . 85 

Crestview . 

. L. 

& 

N. 

R. R... 

. . 175. 

Criglar . 

. A. 

N. 

. R 

. R. 

.. 54 

Crooked Lake’, Polk County. 

. U. 

S. 

Army 



Engrs. : 

, 1882 .. 

.. 132 

Croom . 

. A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 58 

Cross Bayou . 

. A. 

c. 

E. 

R. R... 

.. 10* 































































ELEVATIONS IN ELORIDA. 


8? 


Elevation 

LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 


Crown Point . 


A. C. L. R. R... 

. . 109 

Crystal River, A. C. L. depot. 


U. S. G. S. 

4 

Cummer . 


A. C. L. R. R... 

. . 136 

Cypress . 


L. & N. R. R... 

. . 146 

Cyril, 150 feet north of station at railroad 

cross- 



ing . 


U. S. G. S. 

. . 158 

Dade City . 


A. C. L. R. R... 

. . 89 

Dade City . 


S. A. L. Ry. 

.. 106 

Dania .. 


F. E. C. Ry. 

. . 11 

Deerhunt . 


A. N. R. R. 

.. 82 

Deerland . 


E. & N. R. R... 

.. 239 

DeFuniak Springs . 


E. & N. R. R... 

. . 256 

DeEand Junction . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

.. 27 

Delray . 


F. E. C. Ry. 

. . 16 

Dinsmore . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

. . 26 

Drake . 


S. A. L. Ry. 

.. 139 

Drifton .. 


S. A. E. Rv. 

.. 133 

Duke . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

.. 154 

Dunedin . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

.. 13 

Dunnellon, A. C. L. depot. 


U. S. G. S. 

.. 49 

Dutton . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

.. 71 

Dyal . 


A. C. E. R. R... 

.. 46 

Eagle Island . 


U. S. Army 




Engrs., 1903 . . 

. . 63 

Early Bird . 


S. A. L. Ry. 

.. 85 

East Aurantia .. 


F. E. C. Ry. 

6 

East Palatka, square cut on marble’ post in 

J. E. 



Gould’s grounds .. 


U. S. C. & G. S... 

. . 17 

Eau Gallie ... 


F. E. C. Ry. 

. . 18 

Eddy . 


G. S. & F. Ry..., 

. . 128 

Eddv, Gadsden County. 


A. N. R. R. 

...200 

Eden . 


F. E. C. Ry. 

. . 26 

Ehren . 


A. C. E. R. R.... 

. . 90 

Ellaville . 


S. A. E. Ry. 

. . 64 

Ellaville .. 


U. S. Army 




Engrs., 1879 

. 69 

Ellerslie ... 


A C E R R 

118 

Ellzey, S. A. L. depot . 


U. S. G. S. 

. 26 

Ellzey, square cut on stone post in yard of house 



occupied by J. A. Williams. 


U. S. C. & G. S... 

. 25 


Enterprise' . F. E. C. Ry. 26 

































































88 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Elevation 

LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 

Enterprise ... U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 17 


Enterprise Junction . 

Escambia . 

Eustis .... 

Everglades, near border of Lake Okeechobee. 

Evinston, A. C. L. depot.. 

Fairbanks, 450 feet north of station...... 

Fair Grounds . 

Falco . 

Falmouth ...... 

Fellsmere .... 

Fellowship .. 

Fernandina .................. 

Flatford ... 

Florahome, 0.2 mile east of, at railroad crossing.. 

Floral City . 

Forest City . 

Fort Drum Ridge.. 

Fort Gadsden . 

Fort Lauderdale . 

Fort Mason. 

Fort Meade . 

Fort Ogden . 

Fort Pierce . 

Fort Vinton Island . 

Fort White ... 

Francis . 

Francis, square cut on stone post in yard of R. D. 

Howell’s house .. 

Franklin . 

Fruitland Park .. 

Fulford. 

Gabriella ... 

Gainesville. 

Gainesville ..... 

Gainesville, crossing, S. A. L. 

Gainesville, square' cut on marble post in court¬ 
house grounds ... 

Gainesville, square cut on step at west entrance 
to court house . 


A. C. L. R. R. 26 

L. & N. R. R. 14 

A. C. L. R. R. 61 

Fla. State Engrs.. 21 

U. S. G. S. 67 

U. S. G. S. 163 

L. & N. R. R. 129 

L. & N. R. R. 235 

S. A. L. Ry. 90 

Fellsmere R. R... 27 

U. S. G. S........ 180 

S. A. L. Ry. 10 

A. C. L. R. R. 78 

U. S. G. S. 113 

A. C. L. R. R. 57 

A. C. L. R. R . 92 

U. ,S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 67 

A. N. R. R. 20 

F. E. C. Ry. 7 

A. C. L. R. R. 66 

A. C. L. R. R. 130 

A. C. L. R. R. 37 

F. E. C. Ry. 16 

U. S. Army Engrs. 26 

A. C. L. R. R. 63 

A. C. L. R. R. 73 

U. S. C. & G. S.... 69 

A. N. R. R. 8 

A. C. L. R. R. 113 

F. E. C. Ry. 13 

S. A. L. Ry. 80 

S. A. L. Ry. 147 

A. C. L. R. R. 185 

A. C. L. R. R. 144 

U. S. C.&G. S.... 177 

U. S. C. & G. S_ 179 



























































ELEVATIONS IN ELORIDA. 


89 


Elevation 

LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 

Gainesville, B. M., on door sill, leading to second 


story of Barnett block . 


U. S. C. & G. S _ 

177 

Genoa .. 


G. S. & F. Ry..... 

146 

Getzens ...... 


S. A. E. Ry . 

125 

Gifford ... 


F. E. C. Ry . 

17 

Glencoe . 


F. E. C. Ry . 

23 

Glen Ethel . 


A. C. E. R. R . 

71 

Glen St. Mary . 


S. A. E. Ry . 

134 

Gonzales . 


L. & N. R. R . 

170 

Good Range . 


E. & N. R. R . 

164 

Gordon . 


E. & N. R. R . 

227 

Graham, southeast corner of station . 


U. S. G. S... . 

143 

Granada . 


A. C. E. R. R . 

51 

Grand Crossing . 


A. C. E. R. R . 

27 

Grandin, 200 feet north of railroad station, 

at 



northeast corner of store . 


U. S. G. S. 

101 

Green Cove Springs . 


A. C. E. R. R . 

28 

Greensboro . 


A. N. R. R. 

280 

Greens Crossing . 


E. & N. R. R. 

223 

Greenville . 


S. A. E. Ry . 

106 

Gretna . 


S. A. E. Ry . 

294 

Grove Park . 


A. C. E. R. R. 

100 

Grove Park, square cut in stone post in lot of M. 



S. Spray, opposite station . 


U. S. C. &G. S.... 

101 

Guilford . 


G. S. & F. Ry. ... 

146 

Gulf Hammock . 


A. C. L. R. R. 

33 

Gulf Junction . 


A. C. E. R. R. 

67 

Hagen . 


G. S. & F. Ry . 

158 

Hague . 


A. C. E. R. R. 

174 

Haines City . 


A. C. E. R. R. 

157 

Hainesworth . 


A. C. E. R. R. 

173 

Hainesworth . 


S. A. E. Ry. 

142 

Half Moon. 


A. C. E. R. R. 

54 

Hallandale. 


F. E. C. Ry. 

10 

Hammock Ridge, S. A. E. depot. 


U. S. G. S. 

78 

Hampton, 150 feet east of, northeast corner 

of 



station. 


U. S. G. S. 

148 

Hardaway . 


A. N. R. R. 

303 

Haskell ... 


A. C. E. R. R. 

116 

Hastings, marble post in T. H. Hasting’s grounds, 



near veranda .. 


U. S. G. S. 

8 











































90 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LOCALITY. 

Hawthorne, copper bolt in chimney of W. T. 
Broswell’s house, east of railroad station.... 

Hayes . 

Heidtville. 

Hernando . 

Highland . 

High Springs . 

Hilliard . 

Hilliardville .'.. 

Hillsboro. 

Hillsboro River, crossing S. A. L. Ry. 

Hodges.. 

Hollister, square cut on stone post in yard of 

T. W. Ralp’s house . 

Holt. 

Homeland. 

Homestead . 

Homosassa, A. C. L. depot. 

Hosford (old depot) . 

Houston . 

Hoyt .. 

Huntington .. 

Interlachen, B. M., on stone post in triangular in¬ 
closure near station . 

Inverness . 

Island Grove. 

Isabel Lake . 

Island Lake. 

Istachatta. 

Jacksonville... 

Jasper . 

Jennings .. 

Jensen . 

Johnson . 

Johnson Pond . 

Juliette, A. C. L. depot. 

Juniper . 

Kanapaha, S. A. L. depot. 

Kathleen .. 

Kendrick, A. C. L. depot. 

Kent . 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


U. S. C. & G. S.... 145 

A. C. L. R. R. 73 

U. S. G. S. 61 

A. C. L. R. R. 50 

S. A. L. Ry. 210 

A. C. L. R. R__ 75 

A. C. L. R. R. 66 

G. F. & A. Ry. 142 

A. C. L. R. R..... 35 

S. A. L. Ry. 45 

S. A. L. Ry. 71 

U. S. C. & G. S.... 80 

L. & N. R. R. 212 

A. C. L. R. R. 139 

F. E. C. Ry. 9 

U. S. G. S. 5 

A. N. R. R. 78 

S. A. L. Ry. 173 

G. S. & F. Ry.... 12 

A. C. L. R. R. 56 

U. S. C. & G. $.... 105 

A. C. L. R. R._ 38 

S. A. L. Ry. 69 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 71 

A. C. L. R. R. 54 

A. C. L. R. R. 52 

A. C. L. R. R. 8 

A. C. L. R. R. 152 

G S. & F. Ry..... 150 

F. E. C. Ry. 19 

A. C. L. R. R. 100 

U. S. G. S. 60 

U. S. G. S. 56 

A. N. R. R. 254 

U. S. G. S. 87 

A. C. L. R. R. 133 

U. S. G. S. 82 

G. S. & F. Ry. 70 













































ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


91 


LOCALITY. 

Keuka .... 

Keystone Park. 

Killarney . 

Kingsford. . 

Kingsgrove . 

Kingsley Lake, north end of, intersection of 
Lawtey-Green Cove Springs and Starke-Green 

Cove Springs roads. 

Kingsley Lake, 2.6 miles northwest of tram and 

road crossing . 

Kissimmee . 

Kissimmee River at Bassenger landing. 

Kissimmee River at Ft. Kissimmee landing. 

Knights. 

Komoka . 

Lacoochee... 

LaCrosse . 

Lady Lake . 

Lagrange . 

Lake Buffum, Polk County. 

Lake Butler. 

Lake Charm . 

Lake City. 

Lake City.'. 

Lake City..... 

Lake City. 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


A. C. L. R. R. 101 

A. C. L. R. R. 32 

A. C. L. R. R. 119 

A. C. L. R. R. 105 

G. S. & F. Ry. 19 

U. S. G. S. 211 

U. S. G. S. 238 

A. C. L. R. R. 63 

U. S. Army 


Engrs., 1902 _ 35 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1902 - 51 


S. A. L. Ry. 117 

A. C. L. R. R. 86 

A. C. L. R. R . 72 

S. A. L. Ry. 124 

A. C. L. R. R . 77 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 26 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 138 

G. S. & F. Ry. 138 

S. A. L. Ry. 60 

A. C. L. R. R. 201 

G. S. & F. Ry. 192 

S. A. L. Ry.-. 200 

U. S. Army 


Engrs., 1S79 _203 


Lake City Junction. 

Lake Clement. 

Lake Geneva, 200 feet south of railroad station, 
northeast corner of Baldwin & Kennedy’s 

store.. 

Lake Harney, Orange County.. 

Lake Plelen. 

Lake Helen Blazes . 


A. C. L. R. R. 51 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 9 


U. S. G. S. 130 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 5 

F. E. C. Ry. 70 

U. S. Army 
Engrs., 1903 _ 16 















































92 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Elevation 

LOCALITY. AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 


Lake Istokpoga . . . . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1902 .... 

49 

Lake Jessup, Orange County.. . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 _ 

4 

Lake Kissimmee. 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1882 _ 

59 

Lakeland . 

A. C. L. R. R . 

206 

Lake Lenore . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1882 .... 

92 

Lake Livingston, Polk County... 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1882 .... 

91 

Lake Lorhloo'sa water level of.. 

S. A. L. Ry. 

55 

Lake Mary ... 

A. C. L. R. R . 

66 

Lake Monroe, Volusia County . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 

4 

Lake Okeechobee . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1902 .... 

20 

Lake Poinsett, Brevard County ..... 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 .... 

15 

Lakeville .... 

A. C. L. R. R . 

84 

Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola Countv . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1882 _ 

64 

Lake Washington, water surface, Brevard County. 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 .... 

16 

Lake Winder, Brevard Countyy .. 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1882 .... 

19 

Lake Winder, Brevard Countyy . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 .... 

15 

Lane Park . 

A. C. L. R. R . 

61 

Lantana ... 

F. E. C. Ry . 

7 

Largo . 

A. C. L. R. R . 

50 

Larkin ... 

F. E/C. Ry . 

12 

Laurel Hill .. 

L. & N. R. R . 

235 

LaVilla Junction . 

A. C. L. R. R . 

19 

Lawtey . 

S. A. L. Ry. ...... 

140 

Ledwith Lake . 

U. S. G. S . 

66 

Lees .... 

S. A. L. Ry . 

96 

Leesburg . .. 

A. C. L. R. R . 

85 

Leesburg, crossing S. A. L. Ry . 

A. C. l. R. R . 

76 

Leesburg .... 

S. A. L- Ry . 

72 

Leitner, A. C. L. depot ....... 

U. S. G. S. . 

73 















































ELEVATIONS IN ELORIDA. 


93 


Elevation 

LOCALITY AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 

Lemon Bluff .. U. S. Army 



Engrs., 

1903 

15 

Lemon City. 

F. 

E. 

c. 

Ry. 

18 

Lenard ... 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. 

115 

Leroy, A. C. L. depot. 

U. 

S. 

G. 

S. 

85 

Leroy Lake ..... 

u. 

s. 

G. 

S. 

63 

Lexington . 

A. 

c. 

L. 

Ry. 

69 

Liberty ... 

A. 

N. 

R. 

, R. 

94 

Linden . ... 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

90 

Little Lake Tohopekaliga.. 

U. 

s. 

Army 



Engs., 

1882 .... 

71 

Little Wekiva River, Levy County... 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

28 

Live Oak, union station. 

A. 

c. 

V L. 

R. R. 

108 

Live Oak, crossing S. A. L. 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

107 

Live Oak . 

L. 

0. 

P. 

& G. Ry. 

110 

Live Oak . 

U. 

s. 

Army 



Engrs., 

1879 

110 

Llovd . 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry. 

85 

Lochapopka Lake .... 

U. 

S. 

Army 



Engrs., 

1882 .... 

117 

Lochloosa, S. A. L. depot. 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s....':... 

60 

Lochloosa, 200 feet southeast of station, between 






main public road south and railroad. 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s. 

65 

Long Bluff ... 

u. 

s. 

Army 



Engrs., 

1903 

19 

Longwood . 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

80 

Lowell, A. C. L. depot. 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s. 

95 

Louisa, iron post 50 feet southwest of station. 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s. 

151 

Lyrata. 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry. 

6 

McAlpin . 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. 

103 

Macclenny ... 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry. 

134 

McDavid .... 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

74 

McIntosh, A. C. L. depot. 

U. 

S. 

G. 

S . 

73 

McMeekin, at railroad crossing. 

U. 

S. 

G. 

S . 

107 

McMeekin, stone post in inclosure west of station. 

u. 

s. 

G. 

s . 

120 

McPherson . 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R . 

184 

Madison . 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry. 

133 

Maitland . 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R . 

91 

Malabar . 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Rv . 

28 

Manning’s Mill . 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R . 

207 

Mannville.-... 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R . 

89 

Marianna . 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R..... 

89 
























































94 


FLORIDA state; geological survey. 


LOCALITY. 

Marietta .. 

Marion . 

Marshall’s. 

Martel, A. C. L. depot. 

Martin, A. C. L. depot..... 

Mascotte . 

Mattox . 

Maxville. 

Mayo . 

Mayport . 

Maytown . 

Media. 

Melbourne . 

Melrose, 0.3 mile east of postoffice, southwest 

corner of cross roads. 

Melrose, southwest corner of town hall, 200 feet 

north of postoffice. 

Mexico . 

Miami . 

Micanopy . 

Micanopy Junction, in front of station. 

Micco... 

Middleton, stone post in P. We'edman’s grounds.. 

Midway . 

Millard, S. A. L. depot. 

Millerton . 

Millman . 

Millwood, A. C. L. depot. 

Milton . 

Minneola ... 

Mohawk ... 

Molino . 

Moncrief Spring . 

Monroe ... 

Montbrook ... 

Monticello . 

Morriston . 

Mossy Head . 

Mount Carrie . 

Mount Pleasani .... 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


S. A. L. Ry. 63 

A. C. E. R. R. 159 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 15 

U. S. G. S. 79 

U. S. G. S. 81 

A. C. E. R. R. 115 

S. A. E. Ry. 87 

S. A. b. Ry. 93 

F. Ry . 69 

F. E. C. Ry. 10 

F. E. C. Ry. 22 

F. Ry. 68 

F. E. C. Ry. 21 

U. S. G. S. 154 

U. S. G. S. 162 

A. C. L. R. R. 50 

F. E. C. Ry. 15 

A. C. L. R. R. 100 

U. S. G. S. 72 

F. E. C. Ry. 23 

U. S. C. &G. S.... 34 

S. A. L. Ry.. 201 

U. S.‘ G. S. 94 

S. A. L. Ry. 89 

A. N. R. R. 186 

U. S. G. S. 86 

b. & N. R. R. 15 

A. C. E. R. R. 109 

A. C. L. R. R. 130 

L. & N. R. R. 58 

A. C. L. R. R. 14 

A. C. L. R. R. 20 

S. A. E. Ry.•.. 82 

A. C. L. R. R. 202 

A. C. L. R. R. 68 

L. & N. R. R. 274 

S. A. L. Ry. 197 

S. A. L. Ry. 301 




































































ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


95 


Elevation 

LOCALITY AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

(feet). 

Mouth of Bow Begs Creek. U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 73 

Mouth of Cow Creek..... U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 20 


Mule Creek, Levy County.. 

Mullet Lake . 

Mulberry Mound . 

Narcoossee . 

Newberry . 

Newburg . 

New River, 200 feet south, southeast corner of 

railroad station . 

New Smyrna . 

Nocatee ... 

Oakland . 

Oak Lawn, A. C. L. depot. 

O’Brien .. 

Ocala, A. C. L. depot. 

Ocala, S. A. L. depot. 

Ocklawaha . 

Ocklocknee . 

Odessa . 

Ogden . 

Okahumpka. 

Okeechobee Lake . 

Olustee . 

Olustee .. 

Orange City . 

Orange City, crossing A. C. L. 

Orange Heights .... 

Orange City Junction .. 

Orange Lake, A. C. L. depot. 

Orange Lake, water level of. 

Orange Park . 

Orange Springs, 200 feet east of postoffice in in¬ 
closure, northwest corner of road crossing, 
iron post . 


A. C. L. R. R. 29 

U. S. Army 
Engrs., 1903 .... 5 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 .... 26 

A. C. L. R. R. 72 

A. C. L. R. R. 72 

G. S. & F. Ry. 155 

u: S. G. S. 145 

F. E. C. Ry. 10 

A. C. L. R. R. 38 

A. C. L. R. R. 119 

U. S. G. S. 79 

A. C. L. R. R. 58 

U. S. G. S. 99 

U. S. G. S. 68 

A. C. L. R. R. 66 

S. A. L. Ry. 133 

A. C. L. R. R. 57 

S. A. L. Ry. 114 

A. C. L. R. R. 95 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 20 

S. A. L. Ry. 165 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1879 _169 

F. E. C. Ry. 43 

F. E. C. Ry. 38 

S. A. L. Ry. 130 

A. C. L. R. R. 39 

U. S. G. S. 88 

S. A. L. Ry. 54 

A. C. L. R. R..... 23 

U. S. G. S. 63 























































96 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LOCALITY. 

Orange Springs Ferry, water surface of Oklawa- 

ha River, March 13, 1911. 

Orlando . 

Osceola . 

Osteen . 

Otter Creek, S. A. L. depot. 

Otter Creek, copper bolt in chimney of two-story 

frame house .. 

Owensboro . 

Ozona .. 

Pablo Beach ... 

Padlock .. 

Palatka, union station, southeast corner of train 

shed .... 

Palatka, square cut on granite door sill on west 

side of A. C. L. offices.. 

Palmer, S. A. L. depot. 

Palmer, square cut on chimney foundation of small 
house north of track and little west of rail¬ 
road station, 2 feet above ground. 

Palm Springs . 

Panasoffkee .. 

Panasoffke'e Lake .. 

Paola .... 

Paradise .. 

Park Place, A. C. L. depot. 

Pasco ... 

Paynes Prairie, water level in sink at low stage. . 
Peace Creek, at mouth of Big Charley Apopka.. 

Pebble ... 

Penial, railroad crossing at station. 

Pensacola . 

Perkins Crossing . 

Perrine . 

Perry . 

Persimmon Bluff . 

Phosphoria Junction . 

Pierson . 

Pine Barren . 

Pine Crest . 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


U. S. G. S. 13 

A. C. L. R. R. ill 

S. A. L. Ry. 50 

F. E. C. Ry. 48 

U. S. G. S. 29 

U. S. C. &G. S.... 32 

A. C. L. R. R. 76 

A. C. L. R. R. 5 

F. E. C. Ry. 13 

A. C. L. R. R. 124 

U. S. G. S. 24 

U. S. C. & G. S.... IS 
U. S. G. S. 72 

U. S. C. &G. S.... 76 

A. C. L. R. R. 61 

S. A. L. Ry. 58 

U. S. G. S. 40 

A. C. L. R. R. 79 

A. C. L. R. R. 192 

U. S. G. S. 6 

A. C. L. R. R. no 

U. S. G. S. 58 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 17 

A. C. L. R. R. 136 

U. S. G. S. 25 

L. & N. R. R. 39 

L. & N. R. R. 242 

F. E. C. Ry. 12 

F. Ry. 30 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1903 _ 17 

A. C. L.. R. R. 123 

A. C. L. R. R. 78 

L.& N. R. R. 57 

A. C. L. R. R. 82 


























































ELEVATIONS IN ELORIDA. 


97 


LOCALITY. 

Pine Island .. 

Pine Orchard . 

Pineway . 

Plant City .. 

Plant City .. 

Plummer ... 

Pomona, 300 feet north of station, in southwest 

angle of railroad crossing, iron post. 

Pompano . 

Ponce de Leon . 

Port Tampa .• 

Possum Bluff . 

Prospect . 

Punta Gorda . 

Putnam Hall, 50 feet north of railroad station, 

iron post . 

Puzzle Lake ... 

Quincy ..\. 

Quintette .. 

Raiford . 

Ramage Place, A. C. L. depot. 

Raulerson’s ... 

Reddick, A. C. L. depot. 

Rice Creek, at railroad crossing, opposite station. 

Richland . 

Riley ... 

Riveria . 

River Junction... 

River Junction. 

River Junction . 

Riverland . 

Rochelle, A. C. L. depot. 

Rochelle, copper bolt in chimney of frame house, 

owned by S. S. Phifer .... 

Rock Island . 

Rockledge Junction . 

Rock Springs, A. C. L. depot. 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


s. 

A. 

L. 

Ry... 

.... 119 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

.... 165 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

.... 223 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 13T 

s. 

A. 

L. 

Ry... 

.... 125 

G. 

S. 

& 1 

F. Ry. 

.... 21 

U. 

s. 

G. 

S.... 

.... 63 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry... 

.... 18 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

*70 

.... 40 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 6 

U. 

s. 

Army 


En^ 

?rs., 

, 1903 

.... 21 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 143 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

o 

u. 

s. 

G. 

S.... 

. .. . 106 

U. 

s. 

Army 


Engrs., 

, 1903 

. . . . 6 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry... 

.... 251 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

.... 120 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 127 

U. 

s. 

G. 

S.... 

.... 109 

u. 

s. 

Army 


Engrs., 

, 1903 

...... 15 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s.... 

. .. . 92 

U. 

s. 

G. 

s.... 

.... 10 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 97 

A. 

c. 

L. 

R. R. 

.... 73 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry... 

. . . . 16 

L. 

& 

N. 

R. R. 

_ 84 

S. 

A. 

L. 

Ry... 

.... 82 

A. 

N. 

R. 

. R... 

.... 76 

A. 

C. 

L. 

R. R. 

... . 76 

U. 

s. 

G. 

S.... 

.. . . 80 

u. 

s. 

C. & G. S 

.. .. 83 

u. 

s. 

An 

my 


Engrs., 

1903 

. . . . 12 

F. 

E. 

C. 

Ry... 

. ... 35 

U. 

S. 

G. 

S.... 

. ... 75 










































98 


FLORIDA STATE; GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Elevation 

LOCALITY. 

AUTHORITY. Above Sea 

Rodman, cross in west concrete foundation for 
iron gate post, southeast corner of park. 

U. S. G. S. 

(feet). 

... 28 

Romeo, A. C. L. depot. 

U. S. G. S. 

. ... 42 

Roseland . 

F. E. C. Ry.... 

.... 16 

Rosewood, S. A. L. depot. 

U. S. G. S. 

. . .. 16 

Rosewood, square cut on stone post near post- 
office' . 

U. S. C. & G. S. 

... 14 

Roy, iron post in southeast corner of A. E. 
Campbell’s yard . 

U. S. G. S. 

,.. . 23 

Runnymede . 

A. C. L. R. R.. 

.. . . 72 

Saint Augustine, B. M. on coping of sea wall at 
entrance to basin, opposite plaza. 

U. S. C. & G. S. 

7 

Saint Augustine, square cut on marble post mark- 



ing southeast corner of U. S. Reservation... 

U. S. C. & G. S. 

, .. . 8 

Saint Augustine, square cut on coping near center 
of sea wall, south of south side of basin, 
opposite piazza . 

U. S. C. & G. S. 

, . . . 7 

Saint Catherine . 

A. C. L. R. R.. 

,. . . 66 

Saint Cloud . 

A. C. L. R. R.. 

.63 

Saint Leo ... 

A. C. L. R. R.. 

, .. . 140 

Saint Lucie . 

F. E. C. Ry.... 

8 

Saint Marks ... 

S. A. L. Ry.... 

8 

Saint Petersburg . 

A. C. L. R. R.. 

. ... 20 

Salt Lake . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 . 

7 

Salt Lake Run . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 . 

7 

Sampson City . 

G. S. & F. Ry.. 

. ... 146 

San Antonio . 

A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 165 

Sanderson ..*. 

S. A. L. Rv.... 


Sanderson . 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1879 . 

.... 162 

Sanford . 

A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 20 

Sanford .„... 

U. S. Army 



Engrs., 1903 , 

. . . . 6 

Santa Fe . 

A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 45 

Santos, S. A. L. depot. 

U. S. G. S. 

. ... 69 

Satsuma, iron post 150 feet west of station, in 
southwest corner of yard . 

U. S. G. S. 

.... 79 

Saxton, iron post 400 feet north of railroad cross¬ 
ing, 30 feet west of Seaboard Air Line Rail¬ 
way track . 

U. S. G. S. 

.... 165 













































ELEVATIONS IN ELORIDA. 


99 


LOCALITY. 

AUTHORITY. Above 

Sea 



(feet). 

Schells Bluff, 1 mile northwest of, in northwest 





angle of road forks to southwest, nail in root 





of pine tree... 

U. 

S. 

G. S. 

10 

Sebastian . 

F. 

E. 

C. Ry. 

19 

Sedalia .. • • 

A. 

N. 

, R. R. 

218 

Seffner . 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

74 

Sellman ... 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

45 

Seville . 

A. 

c 

. L. R. R.. 

53 

Silver Springs, S. A. *L. depot. 

U. 

s. 

G. S. 

47 

Silver Springs Junction, S. A. L. depot. 

U. 

s. 

G. S. 

05 

Simpson branch . 

L. 

& 

N. R. R. 

193 

Sims Creek (Putnam County), center of bridge 





over .i. 

U. 

s. 

G. S.. 

33 

Sneads ..... 

L. 

& 

N. R. R. 

97 

South Jacksonville . 

F. 

E. 

C. Ry. 

9 

Spencer, A. C. L. depot. 

U. 

s. 

G. S. 

94 

Spring Garden . 

A. 

c. 

L. R. R. 

17 

Spring Hill . 

G. 

F. 

& A. Ry. 

1G9 

Springside, 150 southwest of railroad crossing, 





iron post . 

U. 

S. 

G. S... 

13 

Stanton . 

A. 

c. 

L. R. R. 

83 

Starke . 

s. 

A. 

L. Ry. 

150 

Statens ..... 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

11 1 

Stuart .. 

F. 

E. 

C. Ry. 

' 12 

Sumatra . 

A. 

N. 

R. R. 

22 

Summerfield . 

S. 

A. 

L. Ry. 

85 

Sumner, S. A. L. depot. 

u. 

S. 

G. S. 

9 

Sunset Lake ... ’. 

u. 

S. 

Army 



Engrs., 1903 _ 

10 

Suwannee . 

A. 

c. 

L. R. R. 

152 

Suwannee' Valley . 

G. 

s. 

& F. Ry. 

106 

Svea . 

L. 

& 

N. R. R. 

241 

Tallahassee . 

G. 

F. 

& A. Ry. 

69 

Tallahassee . 

S. 

A. 

L. Ry. 

82 

Tampa . 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

15 

Tarpon Springs . 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

14 

Tarrytown . 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

82 

Tavares . 

A. 

C. 

L. R. R. 

66 

Teasdale, at railroad crossing. 

U. 

s. 

G. S. 

65 

Telogia . 

A. 

N. 

R. R. 

116 

Telogia Creek, south crossing of A. N. R. R. 

A. 

N. 

R. R. 

45 

Telogia Creek, north crossing of A. N. R. R. 

A. 

N. 

R. R. 

165 










































100 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LOCALITY. 

Theressa, iron post at northeast corner of one- 

story house, 150 south of station:. 

Thomasville ... 

Thonotosassa .... 

Tibbals ....... 

Tiger Lake, Polk County .. 

Tildenville .... 

Tillman .. 

Titusville . 

Tocoi Junction, stone post in H. Wood’s grounds, 

near house ... 

Toronto ...:. 

Trilby .. 

Tsala Apopka Lake ... 

Turkey Creek .... 

Tuscawilla Lake ..... 

Varnes ....... 

Valkaria...... 

Verdie ... 

Vero ....... 

Waccassassa River . 

Wade ..,..'... 

Wainwright .... 

Waldo . 

Waldo, iron post at southeast corner of school 

building ..... 

Walk in the Water Lake, Polk County. 


Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 


U. S. G. S. 166 

S. A. L. Ry... 84 

A. C. L. R. R.'.... 49 

F. E. C. Ry....!.. 31 

U. S. Army 

Engrs., 1882 _ 59 

A. C. L. R. R. 99 

F. E. C. Ry.. 18 

F. E. C. Ry. 10 

U. S. C. & G. S.... 35 

A. C. L. R. R. 117 

A. C. L. R. R. 69 

U. S. G. S.... 50 

S. A. L. Ry. 87 

U. S. G. S. 80 

A. C. L. R. R. 143 

F. E. C. Ry....... 9 

S. A. L. Ry..’. 45 

F. E. C. Ry... 17 

A. C. L. R. R. 27 

A. C. L. R. R. 69 

S. A. L. Ry... 129 

S. A. L. Ry... 150. 

U. S. G. S. 157 

U. S. Army 
Engrs., 1882 .... 68 


Ward City .. 

S. A. 

L. 

Ry . 

.. 118 

Watertown ... 

S. A. 

L. 

Ry . 

.. 195 

Wauchula . 

A. C. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 107 

Webster ... 

A. C. 

L. 

R. R... 

.. 89 

Welciva River . 

A. C. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 29 

Wekiva River, nr -th fork . 

A. C. 

L. 

R. R... 

. . 29 

Welaka, iron post in southwest angle of two cross 





streets, corner of Winston Steven’s yard.... 

u. s. 

G. 

S. 

. . 27 

Welborn .... 

S. A. 

L. 

Ry . 

. . 196 

Welshton, A. C. L. depot. 

U. S. 

G. 

S. 

. . 82 

West Farm . 

S. A. 

L. 

Ry..... 

.. 107 

West Jupiter .. 

F. E. 

C. 

Ry . 

9 

West Palm Beach ...., . 

F. E. 

C. Ry. 

. . 16 




























































ELEVATIONS IN FLORIDA. 


101 


LOCALITY. 

West Tocoi ......... 



Elevation 
AUTHORITY. Above Sea 
(feet). 

Westville .. 




L. & N. R. R.. 

,... 70 

White House .. 




S. A. L. Ry.... 

,... 84 

White Springs . 




G. S. & F. Ry.. 

.... 125 

Whitesville, A. C. L. depot.... 



U. S. G. S. 

,... 122 

Wildwood . 




S. A. L. Ry.... 

.... 58 

Williamson ... 




L. & N. R. R. 

.... 226 

Wilma .. 




A. N. R. R... 

.... 62 

Windsor, iron post in 
roads .. 

northeast corner 

of cross 

U. S. G. S.... 

.... 114 

Winfield .. 




G. S. & F. Ry. 

.... 65 

Winn ............... 




G. S. & F. Ry. 

.... 130 

Winston .. 




A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 139 

Winter Garden .. 




A. C. F. R. R. 

.... 123 

Winter Park ... 




A. C. L. R. R. 

. . . . 96 

Woodburn, iron posit 
crossing, at inside 
side of road . 

30 feet south 
corner of wire 

of railroad 
fence, west 

U. S. G. S.... 

.... 15 

W r oodstock .. 




S. A. L. Ry... 

.... 165 

Worthington Springs 




A. C. L. R. R. 

. ... 66 

Ybor Citv . 




A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 20 

Yulee ...... 




S. A. L. Ry... 

.... 25 

York, A. C. L. depot. 




U. S. G. S.... 

.... 84 

Zellwood .. 




S. A. L. Ry... 

.... 95 

Zolfo Springs ....... 




A. C. L. R. R. 

.... 61 

Zion .... 




A. N. R. R... 

.... 75 

















































THE ARTESIAN WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND 
SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 



BY E. H. SELLARDS AND HERMAN GUNTER. 







1 CONTENTS. 


• page:. 

Introduction ............. 113 

The area treated ......... . 114 

Geology ......... H4 

Oligocene .... 114 t 

Vicksburg group ...... 114 

Apalachicola group ...... 117 

Miocene ....... 118 

Pliocene ......... 119 

Pleistocene . 119 

Earth movements during the Pleistocene. 120 

Topography and Drainage. 121 

Elevations . ±21 

Rivers . 122 

Climate . 123 

Temperature .. 123 

Precipitation .. 125 

Soils ...,.. 127 

General discussion of underground waters. 129 

Source . 129 

Annual rainfall . 130 

Disposition of rainfall... 130 

Amount available for the underground supply. 133 

Underground circulation of water. 133 

Cause of movement. 133 

Rate of movement.... ... 133 

Depth of underground water. 134 

Hydrogen sulphide in underground water. 135 

Sulphur water not evidence of beds of sulphur. 137 

Sulphur deposits formed from hydrogen sulphide .. 138 

Absence of hydrogen sulphide from certain waters in Florida...... 138 

Amount of hydrogen sulphide influenced by preessure. 139 

Artesian water .. 139 

Artesian water defined .. 140 

Conditions necessary to obtain artesian water... 140 

Artesian basin .. 141 

Artesian slope . 142 

Artesian water from unconfined horizontal beds ... 143 

Artesian water from solution passages. 143 

Source of artesian water in Florida.... 144 










































106 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 

Formations supplying artesian water. 144- 

Depth of artesian water. 145 

Cost of wells . 145 

Increased flow with incre'^ed depth. 146 

Increased head with increased depth. 146 

Increased temperature with increased depth... 147 

Loss of head and reduction in flow.. . 149 

Table showing loss of flow of artesian wells.... 149 

Cause of the loss of flow. 151 

Waste of artesian water. 152 

Method of measuring flow of artesian wells. 152 

Tables for determining yield of artesian wells. 155 

Area of artesian flow in Florida. 157 

Discussion by counties. 162 

Nassau County . 162 

Location and surface features. 162 

Water-bearing formations . 162 

Area of artesian flow. 164 

Local details . 165 

Callahan . 165 

Crandall .... . 167 

Evergreen .. 167 

Fernandina . 167 

Hilliard . 170 

Italia . 171 

King’s Ferry . 171 

Lessie . 172 

Lofton . 172 

Duval County . 172 

Location and surface features. 172 

Water-bearing formations . 174 

Area of artesian flow. 175 

Local details . 176 

Baldwin . 176 

Bayard . 176 

Jacksonville . 116 

Mandarin. 180 

Manhattan Beach . 181 

Maxville . 182 

Mayport . 182 

St. Johns County. 183 

Location and surface features.. 183 

Water-bearing formations .. 184 

Area of artesian flow. 185 














































CONTENTS. 


Local details . 

Anastasia Island . 

Armstrong .. 

Bunnell . 

Dinner Island. 

Elkton .. 

Espanola . 

Federal Point . 

Hastings. 

Holy Branch . 

Hurds . 

Moultrie. 

Picolata ... 

Riverdale . 

Roy . 

St. Augustine . 

Switzerland. 

Yelvington. 

Clay County . 

Location and surface features 
Water-bearing formations ... 

Area of artesian flow. 

Local details . 

Doctors Inlet . 

Green Cove Springs. 

Hibernia . 

Leno. 

Magnolia Springs . 

Middleburg . 

Peoria. 

Russell . 

Walkill . 

West Tocoi . 

Williams Crossing . 

Putnam County .. 

Location and surface features, 
Water-bearing formations 

Area of artesian flow. 

Local details . 

Bostwick. 

Crescent City. 

Orange Mills . 

Palatka . 

Penial . 


107 

PAGE. 

. 185 
. 185 
. 187 
. 187 
. 187 
. 187 
. 188 
. 188 
. 189 
. 190 
. 191 
. 191 
. 192 
. 192 
. 193 
. 193 
. 196 
. 196 
. 197 
. 197 
. 198 
. 200 
. 200' 
. 200 
. 200 
. 202 
. 202 
. 203 
. 203 
. 205 
. 205 
. 205 
. 205 
. 205 
, 206 
206 
, 206 
, 207 
207 
207 

207 

208 
209 

, 211 














































108 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 


Rice Creek .... 211 

Rodman . 211 

San Mateo . 212 

Satsuma .. 212 

Welaka .. 212 

Woodburn . 213 

Orange County. 214 

location and surface features.. 214 

Water-bearing formations . 215 

Area of artesian flow. 215 

Local details .. 215 

Chuluota .. 215 

Geneva . 216 

Orlando .. 217 

Oviedo. 217 

Sanford . .. 218 

Volusia County. 221 

Location and surface features. 221 

Water-bearing formations . 222 

Area of artesian flow. 222 

Local details . 222 

Daytona .. 222 

DeLand . 225 

Enterprise. 226 

Lake Helen. 228 

New Smyrna. 228 

Oak Hill. 229 

Orange City. 230 

Ormond . 231 

Pierson . 232 

Seville .. 232 

Brevard County . 232 

Location and surface features. 232 

Water-bearing formations . 233 

Area of artesian flow. 233 

Local details .. 233 

Chester Shoals . 233 

City Point . 234 

Cocoa .. 235 

Eau Gallic .. 236- 

Frontenac . 237 

Grant .. ...237 

Malabar . 237 

Melbourne .. 23? 














































CONTENTS. 


Merritts Island . 

Micco . 

Rockledge . 

Sharpes . 

Tillman . 

Titusville .. 

Valkaria . 

St. Lucie County . 

Location and surface features 
Water-bearing formations ... 

Area of artesian flow. 

Local details . 

Eden . 

Ft. Pierce .. 

Narrows . 

Orchid . 

Roseland . 

Sebastian . 

Pinellas County . 

Location and surface features 
Water bearing formations.... 

Area of artesian flow. 

Local details . 

Clearwater . 

Dunedin . 

Espiritu Santo Springs. 

Largo . 

Ozona . 

Pass-a-Grille . 

Pinellas Park. 

St. Petersburg . 

Seminole . 

Sutherland . 

Tarpon Springs . 

Wall Springs . 

Hillsboro County . 

Location and surface features.. 
Water-bearing formations ... 

Area of artesian flow. 

Local details . 

Plant City . 

Tampa . 

Polk County . 

Location and surface features 


109 

PAGE. 

. 240 
. 241 
. 241 
. 242 
. 243 
. 243 
. 245 
. 245 
. 245 
. 245 
. 245 
. 240 
. 246 
. 246 
. 248 
. 248 
. 248 
. 249 
. 250 
. 250 
. 250 
. 250 
,. 250 
,. 250 
. 251 
.. 251 
. 252 
.. 252 
. 252 
,. 253 
, . 253 
. 257 
. 257 
, . 257 
. 257 
. 258 
. 258 
. 258 
. 258 
. 259 
. 259 
. 260 
. 262 
. 262 














































110 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 

Water-bearing formations . 263 

Local details . 263 

Bartow . 263 

Carters . 263 

Lakeland . 264 

Mulberry . 264 

Osceola County . 264 

Location and surface features. 264 

Water-bearing formations . 264 

Area of artesian flow. 266 

Local details . 266 

Kissimmee . 266 

Narcoossee . 266 

Manatee County . 267 

Location and surface features. 267 

Water-bearing formations . 268 

Area of artesian flow. 268 

Local details . 268 

Bradentown . 268 

Manatee . 268 

Palmetto . 269 

Sarasota ..... 269 

DeSoto County. 269 

Location and surface features. 269 

Water-bearing formations . 270 

Area of artesian flow. 270 

Local details . 271 

Arcadia . 271 

Ft. Odgen . 271 

Nocatee . 271 

Punta Gorda . 272 

Palm Beach County. 272 

Location and surface features. 272 

Water-bearing formations .. 272 

Area of artesian flow. 273 

Local details . 273 

Gomez . 273 

Hobe Sound . 273 

Palm Beach . 273 

West Jupiter . 277 

Yamato . 277 

Lee County . 27S 

Location and surface features. 278 

Water-bearing formations . 278 














































CONTENTS. 


Ill 

PAGE. 

Area of artesian flow....... 279 

Local details ......*. 279 

Boca Grande.. t....... 279 

Ft. Myers .. 279 

Labelle .. 280 

Dade County ....... 281 

Location and surface features... 281 

Water-bearing formations . 281 

Area of artesian flow... 281 

Local details... 281 

Dania . 281 

Homestead .. 283 

Miami . 285 

Monrge County. 286 

Location and surface features. 286 

Water-bearing formations . 286 

Area of artesian flow. 287 

Local details . 287 

Key Vaca . 287 

Key West . 288 






















ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Fig. 1. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. 
Fig. 4. 
Fig. 5. 
Fig. 6. 
Fig. 7. 
Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 
Fig. 11. 
Fig. 13. 

Fig. 14. 
Fig. 15. 
Fig. 16. 
Fig. 17. 


No. 

10. Fig. 
Fig. 

11. Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

12. Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

13. Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

14. Fig. 

Fig. 


FIGURES/ 

Artesian basin. 

Artesian slope'. 

Artesian water from unconfined horizontal beds. 

Artesian water from solution passages in limestone. 

Method of measuring flow of artesian well. 

Map showing area of artesian flow in Nassau and Duval Counties. 
Map showing the area of artesian flow in St. Johns County. 

Map showing the areas of artesian flow in Clay and Putnam 
Counties. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Orange and Seminole 
Counties. 

Flowing artesian well. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Volusia County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Pinellas and Hillsboro 
Counties. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Polk County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Osceola County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in Manatee County. 

Map showing the area of artesian flow in DeSoto County. 

PLATES. 

1. Palmetto flatwoods, Amelia Island. 

2. Palmetto flatwoods, Ft. Myers. 

1. Scrub, east side of Lake' Kingsley, Clay County. 

2. Sandy pineland, DeLeon Springs. 

3. Open flatwoods, three miles east of DeLeon Springs. 

1. Everglades west of Ft. Lauderdale. 

2. Small prairie, four miles west of Sebastian. 

3. Turnbull Hammock, one mile west of Daytona. 

1. Sand dune near Mayport. 

2. Ancient sand dune, two miles west of Daytona. 

3. Exposure at Saw Pit landing, St. Marys River. 

1. Exposure of hardpan at Black Bluff on Clark’s Creek, eight 

miles from Fernandina. 

2. Artesian well used for power, Melbourne, in Brevard County. 



THE ARTESIAN WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND 
SOUTHERN FLORIDA 


E. H. SELLARDS AND HERMAN GUNTER. 


INTRODUCTION. 

A study of the water supply of Florida was begun in 1907 
as co-operative work between the Florida State Geological Sur¬ 
vey and the National Geological Survey. The first paper was 
issued in 1908 as Bulletin No. 1 of the Florida State Geological 
Survey, and relates to the underground water of Central Florida. 
The second paper of the series was published by the State Sur¬ 
vey in 1910 and related to the water supply of the counties of 
Eastern Florida. A third paper included in the Fourth Annual 
Report, 1912, extended the study of the water supply to the 
counties of West Central and West Florida. The present paper 
includes a reprint of the paper on the water supply of Eastern 
Florida, published in 1910, revised to include a report on the 
water supply of Southern Florida. 

The writers are indebted to the many well drillers and well 
owners who have contributed data regarding wells. Among the 
many who have given assistance the following should be especially 
mentioned: Messrs. Bellough & Melton, J. M. Chambers, C. I. 
Cragin, Dr. E. S. Crill, Capt. R. N. Ellis, Hughes Specialty Well 
Drilling Co., W. E. Holmes, John McAllister, Dr. J. N. Mac- 
Gonigle, McGuire & McDonald, W. J. Nesbitt, Hugh Partridge, 
H. Walker, Dr. DeWitt Webb, J. W. Wiggins, H. Van Dorn, 
W. D. Holcomb, G. A. Miller, and Mr. Holmes of the water 
supply department of the Florida East Coast Railway, J. C. Dan¬ 
ielson, T. J. Zimmerman, F. S. Gilbert, W. F. Hamilton, Dibble 
and Earnest, The Artesian Well Co., D. W. Brown, F. J. White 
& Co., Sydner Pump and Well Co., E. J. Pettigrew, J. O. Edson, 
F. B. Bradley, and C. E. Reid. 




114 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Extensive well records made in 1907-1908 in cooperation with 
the U. S. Geological Survey by Messrs. Geo. C. Matson and F. G. 
Clapp have been utilized in the preparation of this report. Data 
regarding climate and rainfall have been supplied by Hon. A. J. 
Mitchell, Director of the Florida section of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau. 

Many of the analyses included have been made in the office of 
the State Chemist especially for this report. Others have been 
made at various times by other chemists. Credit is given with 
each analysis. 

THE AREA TREATED. 

The area considered in detail in this report includes the fol¬ 
lowing counties: Brevard, Clay, Dade, DeSoto, Duval, Hills¬ 
boro, Eee, Manatee, Monroe, Nassau, Orange, Osceola, Palm 
Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Seminole, 
Broward, and 'Volusia. This section borders the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts and comprises the principal artesian areas of Penin¬ 
sular Florida. 

GEOLOGY. 

A knowledge of the geologic structure is essential to a clear 
understanding of the underground water conditions. The pre¬ 
vailingly level country of Florida renders geologic observations 
difficult. Some favorable exposures occur, however, and these 
together with data obtained from well samples and well records 
permit a reasonably full understanding of the structure of the 
State. 

The formations found in Florida belong to the: Oligocene, 
Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene. Of these divisions the Olig¬ 
ocene is the oldest; the Pleistocene the most recent. 

OLIGOCENE. 

VICKSBURG GROUP. 

The oldest or deepest formations reached in well drilling in 
Peninsular Florida are the Vicksburg limestones. The Vicksburg 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 115 


is an extensive deposit underlying all of Florida and extending 
into adjacent States. In Central Peninsular Florida, from Colum¬ 
bia to Sumter Counties, these limestones are frequently exposed 
at the surface. Passing to the east and south from Central 
Florida they dip beneath the surface, and while nowhere exposed 
at the surface they are reached by all the deeper wells. It is in 
fact from these limestones that the principal water supply of 
Eastern and Southern Florida is obtained. The Vicksburg is very 
characteristic in appearance and structure, and when once seen 
is not likely to be mistaken for any other formation in this part 
of the State. The limestone as seen in well samples has a granu¬ 
lar appearance and may contain many small shells. This phase 
of the limestone is frequently spoken of by the drillers as the 
“coral” formation. As a matter of fact, however, the formation 
contains relatively few corals. After passing one or two hundred 
feet into this formation a more compact limestone is encountered. 
This part of the formation often has a slightly pinkish cast, the 
rock being very hard, and the drilling difficult. While these are 
the general characteristics of the Vicksburg, yet its texture is not 
uniform. . Hard layers usually alternate with soft layers, the 
water supply as a rule increasing as each hard layer is penetrated. 
Not infrequently masses of flint are found imbedded in the lime¬ 
stone which in some instances have given much difficulty in 
drilling. 

While, as already stated, the Vicksburg limestones dip on 
passing to the east and south, yet the dip is not uniform and the 
depth at which it is encountered varies from place to place. 

In the wells at Jacksonville the Vicksburg is reached at a 
depth of from 500 to 525 feet. At Callahan and at Fernandina, 
in Nassau County, although no samples have been obtained, the 
Vicksburg is believed, from well records, to be reached at about 
the same depth as at Jacksonville. 

Along the St. Johns River the Vicksburg maintains a similar 
depth for some distance. At Ortega, seven miles south of Jack¬ 
sonville, the limestone was reached at a depth of about 500 feet. 
At Magnolia Springs, and Green Cove Springs, thirty miles south 
of Jacksonville, and on Black Creek, while no well samples were 


116 FLORIDA STATL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

obtained, the Vicksburg is believed from well records to occur 
at a depth of from 325 to 400 feet. 

Passing to the south the Vicksburg lies nearer the surface. 
Samples of drillings from wells at St. Augustine and at Hastings 
in St. Johns County and at Orange Mills in Putnam County show 
that the Vicksburg in this section lies at a depth of 130 to 225 
feet, the greater depth being at St. Augustine and the minimum 
depth at Orange Mills. Passing to the south the Vicksburg lies, 
so far as well records indicate, at a fairly uniform level for a dis¬ 
tance of 150 miles. At Sanford, 75 miles south of Orange Mills, 
the Vicksburg is reached at a depth of from 113 to 125 feet. 
At Daytona, although samples are lacking, the depth of this form¬ 
ation is believed, judging from well records, not to exceed 150 
feet. At Cocoa the Vicksburg is reached at a depth not exceed¬ 
ing 190 feet, while at Melbourne Beach, 150 miles south of St. 
Augustine, its depth in one well was found to be 221 feet. 

Passing to the south from this point the Vicksburg dips rap¬ 
idly. At Palm Beach, 100 miles farther south, this limestone 
was reached at a depth of approximately 1,000 feet, *a dip of 
about 750 feet in 100 miles or 7J4 feet per mile. The-Vicksburg 
was not reached in a well 700 feet deep drilled by the Florida 
East Coast Railway Company at Marathon Key, 175 miles south 
of Palm Beach.f At Key West, however, the formation is be¬ 
lieved to have been reached at a depth of 700 feet.J 

It is thus seen that the Vicksburg forms a broad arch extend¬ 
ing from central Florida to the Atlantic Ocean. St. Augustine 
lies near the north slope of this arch, while Melbourne, as nearly 
as can be determined, lies near -the south slope. On either side 
of the arch the limestone dips at a moderate rate. On the north 
side of the arch the maximum depth recorded in Florida is 500 
feet. Passing to the south the maximum of approximately 1,000 
feet is recorded at Palm Beach. 

In view of the importance of the Vicksburg as an artesian 
water reservoir, the depth at which it is to be expected is a matter 


*Darton, N. H.; Amer. Journ. Sci. (3) XLI, pp. 105-6, 1891. 
•{Florida Geol. Survey. Second Annual Report, p. 206, 1909. 
IHovey, E. O.; Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull. XXVIII, pp. 65-91, 1896. 



WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 117’ 


of very great importance and it is to be hoped that well drillers 
will find it possible to keep accurately labeled well samples in 
order to determine more definitely the distribution of this form¬ 
ation. 

APALACHICOLA GROUP. 

The Apalachicola group of formations is of a much less uni¬ 
form character than the Vicksburg and is also of less importance 
in connection with the water supply. A full description of this 
group of formations will be found in the Second Annual Report 
of this Survey, pp. 67-106. 

The formations which make up the Apalachicola group in¬ 
clude the Chattahoochee and Alum Bluff formations, well exposed 
along the Apalachicola River; the Hawthorne formation in Cen¬ 
tral Florida; and the Tampa formation in Southern Florida. The 
relative position of three of these, the Chattahoochee, the Haw¬ 
thorne and the Tampa formations, has not been definitely deter¬ 
mined, and they may be largely contemporaneous. The Alum 
Bluff formation lies above the Chattahoochee formation. The 
limestone of this group consists largely of impure clayey material 
which upon decay weathers to a sticky blue green clay. The 
Chattahoochee Limestone is difficult to recognize in well samples. 
Fossils in this formation are comparatively rare and such as occur 
are largely destroyed in drilling. In surface exposures it may 
be recognized by its lithologic character and by the characteristic 
cubical blocks into which some of the strata break upon exposure. 

The Apalachicola group has not been recognized from well 
drillings in East Florida. Clays taken by Mr. S. L. Hughes from 
the new city well at Jacksonville at the depth of 320 feet have 
a very close resemblance to the fuller’s earth clays which occur 
in the Apalachicola group, above the Chattahoochee Limestone. 
On the other hand, Matson obtained from Jacksonville a Miocene 
shark’s tooth from a well sample supposed to come from the 
depth of 496 feet. In order to determine more fully the area and 
extent of the Apalachicola group of formations in Eastern Florida 
it will be necessary to obtain large and carefully collected well 
samples. In Southern Florida the Apalachicola group is recog- 


118 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


nized at Tampa and thence south along the Gulf coast as far as 
Sarasota Bay. 

MIOCENE. 

The Miocene deposits are well developed in Eastern Florida. 
At the city water works at Jacksonville this formation was en¬ 
countered in excavating for the basin for the city water supply,* 
and was also reached in the city wells at a depth of from 35 to 
36 feet. At Jacksonville this formation has a considerable, al¬ 
though undetermined thickness. It consists of a buff limestone 
grading to a lighter color, more or less phosphatic, grading below 
to phosphatic sands and sandy marls. The formation is in places 
fossiliferous, although the shells are usually preserved as casts. 

In Clay County the Jacksonville formation is extensively ex¬ 
posed along Black Creek. The exposure of this formation appears 
along both the South and North. Fork of Black Creek, some miles 
above Middleburg, and may be observed for five or six miles 
below Middleburg. The following section was observed at High 
Bluff, on the South Fork of Black Creek,, about five miles above 


Middleburg: 

Covered and sloping . 5 feet 

Sloping, some sticky clay exposed... 5 feet 

Yellow sand . 8 feet 

Buff colored sandy limestone, containing a small propor¬ 
tion of black phosphatic pebbles. 12 feet 

Same, with greater amount of phosphate. 5 feet 

Same, with some phosphate. 12 feet 


This is the thickest exposure of the Jacksonville .formation 
observed at any one place along Black Creek. 

The following section was observed in the pit of the Jackson¬ 
ville Brick Company, two miles southwest of Jacksonville: 


Incoherent sand and soil. 2.4 feet 

Sandy clays, the top 5 or 6 feet oxidizes yellow. 16 feet 

Bluish fossiliferous marl .•. 4 feet 


The marl obtained from test holes in the bottom of the pit is 


*Dall, W. H., U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 84, 124-125, 1892. 












WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 119 


similar in character to the Choctawhatchee marl of West Florida, 
and the clay used for brick making in Duval, Nassau and Putnam 
Counties is probably of Miocene age. Beneath this marl, as 
shown by numerous well drillings, the sandy limestones of the 
Jacksonville formation occur. 

Miocene deposits in Florida were first recognized by Dr. E. A. 
Smith,* at Rock Springs, in the northwestern part of Orange 
County. The limestone exposed here is a light, sandy, fossiliferous 
limestone and is probably of the Jacksonville formation. 

PLIOCENE. 

Pliocene is known to occur in Eastern Florida, although the 
extent and distribution of the deposits have been but imperfectly 
determined. The shell deposits of this period occurring in the St. 
Johns valley and along the East Coast have been described by 
Messrs. Matson and Clapp.f Localities mentioned by them are 
Nashua, on the St. Johns River, in Putnam County, and at DeLand 
and near Daytona, in Volusia County. Other localities at which 
these deposits were observed to be exposed are one-half mile 
above the Atlantic Coast Line bridge over the St. Johns River, in 
Putnam County; on the east side of the St. Johns River, about 
five miles north of the Atlantic Coast Line bridge, in Volusia 
County. Pliocene beds were also recognized from a well near 
Kissimmee. From the exposures thus recognized it is evident 
that Pliocene beds underlie a considerable area of Eastern Florida. 
In Southern Florida the Pliocene is well developed in the valley 
of the Caloosahatchee River. The land pebble phosphate de¬ 
posits are also believed to be Pliocene. 

PLEISTOCENE. 

The marine Pleistocene deposits have been recognized at sev¬ 
eral localities in Eastern and Southern Florida. Messrs. Matson 

*Smith, E. A., On the Geology of Florida. Amer. Journ. Sic. 3d Ser., 
Vol. XXI, pp. 302-303. 

tFla. Geol. Surv. Sec. Ann. Rpt., pp. 128-133, 1909. 



120 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

and Clapp obtained collections from Eau Gallie, Titusville and 
Mims in Brevard County. It is probable that marine Pleistocene 
shell deposits are somewhat widely distributed along the coast 
and perhaps in the St. Johns River valley. Here, again, satisfac¬ 
tory determination can be made only from large and carefully * 
kept samples obtained in well drilling. The coquina rock which 
occurs extensively at St. Augustine and extends along the coast 
to the south for 250 miles is also to be placed with the Pleistocene. 
Some of the older sand dunes of the coast also probably belong 
to the Pleistocene. In southern Florida Pleistocene limestones 
are extensively developed in Palm Beach, Dade and Monroe 
Counties, bordering and underlying the Everglades and on the 
keys. 

The following is an analysis of a sample of the Miami Time- 
stone from near Miami, Florida. Analysis given by John B. 
Reilly. Name of analyst not recorded. 


Silica . 6.42 

Alumina and iron oxides . 0.94 

Carbonate of lime.... 91.23 

Carbonate of magnesium . 1.08 


99.67 

EARTH MOVEMENT DURING PLEISTOCENE. 

Changes in the relation of land and water have occurred re¬ 
cently along the East Coast, probably during Pleistocene time. 
The best evidence of these changes is that offered by the sand 
dunes and the coquina rock bordering the East Coast. The line 
of sand dunes along the coast is well developed and largely con¬ 
tinuous. From Daytona south these dunes occur, not on the 
present beach, but back from the beach a variable distance, de¬ 
pending upon the configuration of the country. At Daytona the 
sand dune lies back from .the Halifax River about two miles. 
From Daytona to Titusville the dunes are to be seen lying mostly 
to the west of the East Coast Railway at a distance of one or two 
miles from the coast. At Titusville the dunes lie back from the 
Indian River two to two and one-half miles. At Rockledge the 







WATER SUPPL,Y OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 121 

dunes approach closer to the coast. They recede again, however, 
to the south and at no place directly face the ocean. The dunes 
are now quiescent and are covered with a thick growth of trees, 
indicating that they have been undisturbed for a long time. In 
the same way the coquina rock, found facing the ocean at Anas¬ 
tasia Island, in St. Johns County, falls back from the coast to the 
south, extending at places a few miles inland. The presence of 
this ledge of coquina rock bordering the coast together with the 
sand dunes lying back clearly indicates that the land level former¬ 
ly stood lower than at present, the coquina rock and sand dunes 
having accumulated along what was then the beach. 

Conrad as early as 1846 noted the occurrence of marine shells 
of post-Pliocene age along the bank of the St. Johns River at an 
elevation of from ten to fifteen feet above the present high tide. 

Matson has described* what he believes to be a Pleistocene 
terrace bordering the St. Mary’s River, in Nassau County. A 
similar abrupt rise in passing onto the upland may be observed 
in many places bordering the coast and the valley of the St. Johns 
River. It may be observed that a subsidence of 25 feet would 
submerge the entire St. Johns valley and would allow the sand 
dunes once more to face the ocean. 

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE. 

The section of the State to which this report relates borders 
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. From sea level the 
rise in elevation is as a rule gradual and the country in general 
level or rolling. It is probable that with the exception of sand 
dunes all of Monroe, Lee, Dade, Palm Beach, St. Lucie and Bre¬ 
vard Counties as well as the eastern one-half or more of Nassau, 
Duval, Clay, Putnam, Volusia and Orange Counties and the en¬ 
tire St. Johns River Valley lie below the 50-foot contour line. 
Elevations exceeding 50 feet occur in the western part of Nassau, 
Duval, Clay, Putnam and Orange Counties and as a ridge ex¬ 
tending from northwest to southeast through Volusia County. 


^Florida Geol. Survey, Second Annual Report, p. 39, 1909. 



122 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The maximum elevation for Eastern Florida is found in the north¬ 
western part of Clay County, approaching “Trail Ridge.” On 
this ridge are found, according to levels made in 1911 by the 
United States Geological Survey, a maximum elevation of 246 
feet. In Polk County elevations approximating 250 feet are also 
reported. (See map.) 

RIVERS. 

The St. Johns River rises from the lakes of southern Brevard 
County, within a few miles of the Atlantic coast. From this point 
it flows north or slightly west of north about 200 miles, entering 
the Atlantic Ocean within 25 miles of the north line of the State. 
The elevations along this river at no point exceed 25 feet above 
sea, the entire valley lying within the artesian flow area of the 
State. The principal tributaries of the St. Johns are Black Creek 
and Ocklawaha River. The former heads in the uplands of Clay 
County, while the latter is fed from numerous lakes of Lake 
County and receives tributaries from Silver Springs in Marion 
County and from the lakes of southeastern Alachua County. 

The St. Mary’s River, forming a part of the northern boun¬ 
dary of the State, rises in or near Okefenokee Swamp, in Georgia. 
From its origin it flows south until on a parallel with the mouth 
of the St. Johns river. From this point it bends abruptly and 
flows north for thirty miles, then, turning again, flows a little 
south of east to the Atlantic Ocean. Nassau is one of the smaller 
rivers and with its tributary, Thomas Creek, forms part of the 
boundary between Nassau and Duval Counties. The Withlacoo- 
chee, Hillsboro, Peace and Caloosahatchee rivers flow into the 
Gulf. 

Bordering the streams, both the main rivers and their tribu¬ 
taries, are found in many places, open, flat, imperfectly drained 
pine lands. These lands are classed in the section treating of soils 
as open flatwoods. A somewhat different and more extensive 
type of country is that designated as palmetto flatwoods. An 
essential difference in these two types of country is the presence 
or absence of the saw palmetto, the pine forest being common to 
both. In Nassau and Duval Counties and along the tributaries 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 123 


of the St. Johns River extensive areas of open flatwoods occur. 

Along the border of the uplands, back from the river and from 
the coast, a different type of topography has developed, consisting 
largely of the sandy or rolling pine type of soil although scrub 
hammock lands occur. These several types of country are due 
to a considerable extent to the drainage conditions. On the sum¬ 
mit of the plateau, in the interior of Florida, palmetto flatwoods 
and to some extent open flatwoods are again encountered. 

CLIMATE. 

The counties of Florida, covered by this report, lie bordering 
or near the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf, and are favorably 
located for a mild and equable climate. The heat of summer, a? 
elsewhere in Florida, is tempered by the proximity to the ocean. 
By varying the crops, the growing season can be made to extend 
practically throughout the year. 

TEMPERATURE. 

As the total length of the section covered by this report 
extends north and south fully 425 miles, the temperature varies 
appreciably between northern and southern points. At Jackson¬ 
ville, in Duval County, within about 25 miles of the north line 
of the State, the mean annual temperature is 69 degrees Fahren¬ 
heit. The means for the four seasons of the year are as follows: 
Winter, 56; Spring, 69; Summer, 81; Fall, 70. The absolute 
maximum for summer heat recorded at Jacksonville is 104, 
although temperatures above 100 are rare. The lowest tempera¬ 
ture recorded is 10 above zero. The mean temperatures for the 
several months of the year at Jacksonville are as follows: 
January, 55 ; February, 58 ; March, 63 ; April, 68 ; May, 75 ; June, 
80; July, 82; August, 82 ; September, 78; October, 71; Novem¬ 
ber, 62; December, 56.* 

At New Smyrna, in Volusia County, a station about 100 miles 

*United States Weather Bureau Bull. Q, Climatology of the Eastern 
United States, by Alfred Judson Henry, p. 352, 1906. 



124 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


south of Jacksonville, as shown by the same report, the annual 
mean temperature is 70 degrees Ft The means for the four 
seasons are: Winter, 58; Spring, 68; Summer, 79; Fall, 72. 
The absolute maximum for summer heat recorded at New 
Smyrna is 100 degrees F. The lowest temperature recorded is 
16 above zero. The mean temperatures for the several months 
of the year (Fahrenheit) are as follows: January, 57; February, 
59; March, 65; April, 67; May, 73; June, 78; July, 80; August, 
80; September, 78; October, 73; November, 66; December, 58. 

At Tampa, in Hillsboro County, the annual mean temperature 
is 72 degrees F. The means for the four seasons are: Winter, 
61; Spring, 71; Summer, 81; Fall, 73. The absolute maximum 
for summer recorded at Tampa is 96 degrees F. The lowest 
temperature recorded is 19 above zero. The mean temperatures 
for the several months of the year (Fahrenheit) are as follows: 
January, 59; February, 62; March, 67; April, 70; May, 76; June, 
80; July, 81; August, 82 ; September, 80 ; October, 74 ; November, 
67; December, 61. 

At Miami, in Dade County, the annual mean temperature is 
75 degrees F. The means for the four seasons are: Winter, 67; 
Spring, 73; Summer, 82; Fall, 78. The absolute maximum for 
summer recorded at Miami is 96 degrees F. The lowest tempera¬ 
ture recorded is 29 above zero. The mean temperatures for the 
several months of the year (Fahrenheit) are as follows: January, 
65; February, 67; March, 71; April, 74; May, 76; June, 81; 
July, 82 ; August, 82 ; September, 81; October, 78 ; November, 74; 
December, 69. 

At Key West, in Monroe County, the annual mean tempera¬ 
ture is 77 degrees F. The means for the four seasons are: 
Winter, 70; Spring, 76; Summer, 83; Fall, 79. The absolute 
maximum for summer recorded at Key West is 100 degrees F. 
The lowest , temperature recorded is 41 above zero. The mean 
temperatures for the several months of the year (Fahrenheit) 
are as follows: January, 70; February, 71; March, 73; April, 
76; May, 79; June, 82; July, 84; August, 84; September, 85; 
October, 79; November, 74; December, 70. 

At Jacksonville,' in the northern part of the State, there is 


WATER SUPPRY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PRORIDA. 125 


little or no danger of frost before the latter part of October. 
Light frosts, however, may occur as early as the latter part of 
October. The earliest killing frost recorded, at this station, is 
November 2, while the average date of the first killing frost for 
the past fifty-three years is December 4. The latest date of a 
killing frost in the spring, at Jacksonville, is April 6, and the 
average date of the last killing frost is February 14. Light frosts, 
however, have been known to occur as late as April 28. 

At New Smyrna the earliest date of a killing frost in the fall 
is November 28, while the average date of the first killing frost 
for the past sixteen years is December 23. The latest date of a 
killing frost at this place in the spring is March 22. The average 
date of the last killing frost is February 16.* 

At Tampa the earliest date of killing frost recorded is No¬ 
vember 28, while the average date of the first killing frost is 
January 9. The latest date of killing frost in the spring recorded 
at Tampa^ is March 19. The average date of the last killing 
frost is February 8. 

At Miami the earliest recorded date of the killing frost in 
autumn is December 26, and the latest date in the spring is 
February 19. The killing frost at this locality is so infrequent 
that no attempt is made to determine the average date. 

At Key West, at the extreme southern end of Florida, frosts 
do not occur.f 

PRECIPITATION. 

The season of heavy rainfall in Eastern Florida includes the 
summer and early fall months. As a rule approximately one-half 
of the rainfall of the year comes during the four months, June, 
July, August and September. 

*U. S. Dept. Agri. Summary of the Climatological Data for the United 
States by sections: Section 83.—Northern Florida, A. J. Mitchell, Section 
Director. Also Climatology of Jacksonville, Fla., and Vicinity, Monthly 
Weather Review for December, 1907, by T. Frederick Davis. 

fUnited States Weather Bureau, Summary of the Climatological Data 
for the United States by Sections: Section 84.—Southern Florida, A. J. 
Mitchell. 



126 


FLORIDA' STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The average rainfall at Jacksonville for the 32 years ending 
with 1903 was 53.4 inches annually. The mean for the four 
seasons of the year is as follows: Winter, 9.4 inches; Spring, 
10.4 inches; Summer, 17.9 inches; Fall, 15.7 inches. The mean 
for the several months of the year at Jacksonville is as follows: 
January, 3 inches; February, 3.4 inches; March, 3.5 inches; April, 
2.9 inches; May, 4 inches; June, 5.5 inches; July, 6.2 inches; 
August, 6.2 inches; September, 8.1 inches; October, 5.1 inches; 
November, 2.5 inches; December, 3 inches. 

At New Smyrna the annual rainfall as shown by the same 
report is 51.1 inches. The mean for the four seasons is as fol¬ 
lows : Winter, 8.4 inches; Spring, 6.8 inches; Summer, 17.4 
inches; Fall, 18.5 inches. The mean precipitation for the several 
months of the year at this station is as follows: January, 2.8 
inches; February, 3.6 inches; March, 2.6 inches; April, 1.6 
inches; May, 2.6 inches; June, 6.2 inches; July, 5.6 inches; 
August, 5.6 inches; September, 9.2 inches; October, 6.7 inches; 
November, 2.6 inches ; December, 2 inches.* 

At Tampa the annual rainfall is 53.1 inches. The mean for 
the four seasons is as follows: Winter, 8.1 inches; Spring, 7.4 
inches; Summer, 24.9 inches; Fall, 12.7 inches. The mean pre¬ 
cipitation for the several months of the year at Tampa is as 
follows: January, 2.8 inches; February, 3.5 inches; March, 2.9 
inches; April, 2.1 inches; May, 2.4 inches; June, 8.5 inches; July, 
8.0 inches; August, 8.4 inches; September, 8.2 inches; October, 
2.8 inches; November, 1.7 inches; December, 1.8 inches. 

At Miami the annual rainfall is 58.3 inches. The mean for 
the four seasons is as follows: Winter, 8.1 inches; Spring, 11.1 
inches; Summer, 20.6 inches; Fall, 18.5 inches. The mean pre¬ 
cipitation for the several months of the year at Tampa is as fol¬ 
lows: January, 4.0 inches; February, 2.5 inches; March, 3.1 
inches; April, 3.5 inches; May, 4.5 inches; June, 8.2 inches; July, 
7.0 inches; August, 5.4 inches; September, 9.1 inches; October, 
7.1 inches; November, 2.3 inches; December, 1.6 inches. 

At Key West the annual rainfall is 37.9 inches. The mean 


^United States Weather Bureau, Bull. Q. 



WATER SUPPEY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 127 


for the four seasons is as follows: Winter, 5.3 inches; Spring, 
5.5 inches; Summer, 12.6 inches; Fall, 14.5 inches. The mean 
precipitation for the several months of the year at Key West is 
as follows: January, 2.0 inches; February, 1.6 inches; March, 1.2 
inches; April, 1.2 inches; May, 3.1 inches; June, 4.2 inches; 
July, 3.7 inches; August, 4.7 inches; September, 7.0 inches; Oc¬ 
tober, 5.4 inches; November, 2.1 inches; December, 1.7 inches. 

SOILS. 

The geologic, topographic, climatic and drainage conditions 
have much to do with the character of soils. Since the inorganic 
constituents of soils are derived primarily from the decay of pre¬ 
existent formations, the character of the soil is determined to a 
considerable extent by the formation from which it is derived. 
The thickness and manner of accumulation of the residual ma¬ 
terial as well as accumulation of the organic constituents is af¬ 
fected by the topographic, climatic and drainage conditions. The 
following are the more prominent soil types in the part of Florida 
covered by this report: 

Rolling pine lands : This type includes light, sandy, well- 
drained soils. The native vegetation is pine and wire grass. 
Oaks and other hard wood trees occasionally occur. The saw 
palmetto is for the most part absent. This type of soil pre¬ 
dominates in the lake region of Florida. 

Palmetto flatwoods : The palmetto flatwoods occur over an 
extensive area in Florida. This type of country is flatter than 
the sandy pine land and not so well drained. The native vege¬ 
tation of these lands consists chiefly of pine, saw palmetto and 
wire grass. The sand is dark at the surface, becoming lighter 
below. As a rule the so-called “hardpan” underlies the palmetto 
flatwoods. This “hardpan” consists of sand stained with organic 
matter and has the appearance of being partly cemented with 
iron. When dry it is fairly well indurated, but as a rule it may 
be penetrated with the soil auger. The transition in the bore 
hole from the light colored sand to “hardpan” is abrupt. The 
"‘hardpan” itself is very dark colored at the top and grades into 
chocolate colored sands below. 


128 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The “hardpan” is very objectionable in farming lands as it 
prevents free movement of water by capillary attraction. The 
lands underlaid by “hardpan” are not resistant to droughts. How¬ 
ever, where an abundance of water can be obtained cheaply, as 
in the section of flowing artesian water, such lands may be used 
to advantage by keeping them saturated with water. 

Open flaiwoods : The open flatwoods are much less extensive 
than the palmetto flatwoods. The native vegetation of the land 
of this type is chiefly pine and wire grass with little or no under¬ 
brush. The saw palmetto is absent or nearly so and there is 
little or no “hardpan.” The soil to a depth of from one to three 
feet is dark ashy gray owing to the. presence of organic matter 
mixed with the sand. A clay sub-soil is usually found at the 
depth of from one to four feet. This type of land when drained 
and irrigated has been used with great success in growing Irish 
potatoes, sweet potatoes and other trucking crops and in gen¬ 
eral farming. 

Prairie lands : The word “prairie” is applied to open lands 
devoid of trees. The native growth is largely grasses. 

Muck lands : The term “muck soils” is applied in ordinary 
usage to lands on which organic matter from decay of vegetation 
has accumulated to some depth. Vegetable matter accumulates 
in this way only on such lands as are overflowed during a con¬ 
siderable part or all of the year. The largest tract of muck lands 
in the State is the Everglades. Many smaller tracts occur, how¬ 
ever, throughout the State. 

Clay lands : The clay soils are usually of limited extent, oc¬ 
curring at places where the superficial sands have been removed 
by surface wash. The clay soils are lacking in organic matter 
and before being farmed must be broken up and organic matter 
incorporated. 

Hammock lands : The term “hammock land” is most fre¬ 
quently applied to lands underlaid by marl or limestone and sup¬ 
porting a thick growth of vegetation, including hardwood trees 
and cabbage palmetto. These lands when cleared make excellent 
farming lands. Other hammock lands occur, however, which 
have no evident relation to marl deposits. These likewise support 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 129 


a heavy growth of hardwood trees. The soil consists of a rich 
humus due to the accumulation of leaves. Beneath the humus 
is usually found several feet of orange yellow sand. 

Sandy hammock lands : The sandy hammock lands as de¬ 
veloped in the sections bordering the coasts are of wind-blown 
sands or low dunes on which vegetation has gained a foothold. 
Various hardwood trees grow on this type of land. It has been 
found in many instances desirable for orange culture. It is used 
also to some extent in vegetable growing. The open nature of 
the soil, however, results in a heavy loss of fertilizer from 
leaching. 

Scrub : Scrub is a term applied to very sandy lands which 
support a dense growth of shrubby plants. The sandy pine 
lands often pass very abruptly and with no apparent reason into 
scrub. Few attempts have been made to utilize the scrub lands 
for farming purposes. 

Sand dunes : The sand dunes both of recent and of earlier 
formation occur frequently in Florida particularly along the 
coast. The sand dune soil has been found especially adapted to 
the growing of pineapples, the extensive pineapple farms of St. 
Lucie County being largely located on quiescent dunes. 

River swamp : The river swamp lands support a dense 
growth of hardwood trees. On the smaller streams where the 
elevation is sufficient to permit of successful drainage these lands 
if cleared would furnish desirable trucking and farming land. 

Salt marsh : Extensive salt marshes occur along the Atlantic 
coast and bordering the streams entering the ocean. 

UNDERGROUND WATER: GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

SOURCE. 

Rainfall : The chief source of underground water is the 
rainfall. Water vaporized through the energy of the sun passes 
into the atmosphere and is precipitated .over the land as rain or 
condensed as dew or fog. The vapor is supplied to the atmos¬ 
phere by evaporation, principally from the ocean, which, occu- 


130 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


pying three-fourths of the earth’s surface, is continuously ex¬ 
posed to the sun’s rays. To the vapor from the ocean is added 
that arising from inland waters, from the dry land surface to 
the earth, and from the leaves of plants. 

Small additions to the underground water supply may come 
through any one of a number of other possible sources, but the 
total amount thus added is relatively small and may be omitted 
in a general discussion.* 

ANNUAL RAINFALL. 

The annual rainfall is the measure of the column of water 
that would accumulate at any spot in the course of a year, if all 
that falls should be preserved. The measurement is commonly 
stated in inches. The average rainfall for the State as a whole 
for the fifteen years, from 1892 to 1906, inclusive, as deduced 
from the U. S. Weather Reports, was 53.17 inches, annually. 
The year 1907 was a year of less than average rainfall, 49.15 
inches, and if this year is included the average for the sixteen 
years, 1892 to 1907, falls below 53 inches, being 52.92 inches. 
If longer periods be considered the variation from this average 
is not sufficient to materially change the result. The area cov¬ 
ered by this report lies in that part of the State supplied with 
about the average rainfall, and 53 inches may be safely assumed 
as a close approximation to the annual rainfall for this section. 

DISPOSITION OF RAINFALL. 

Of the total rainfall of any area, (1) a part is returned as 
vapor to the atmosphere without having entered the earth; (2) a 
part is carried off by streams and rivers to the ocean without 
penetrating the earth; (3) a part is absorbed into the earth. 

..(1) WATER EVAPORATED WITHOUT ENTERING THE EARTH. 

Immediately following a rain the atmosphere is nearly or quite 

*A recent discussion of possible sources of underground water other 
than rainfall will be found in Bulletin 319 , U. S. Geol. Surv., by M. L. 
Fuller. 



WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 131 


saturated. The evaporation at this time is slow, and the part 
returned to the atmosphere directly from the land is an almost 
negligible amount. This is especially true of a soil into which the 
water enters quickly. Some of the water clinging to the leaves 
of plants is re-evaporated, as well as a part of that which falls 
into lakes, ponds and temporary pools. While an estimate of the 
amount evaporated must be regarded as only in the roughest way 
approximate, yet it is probably safe to assume that not more than 
two or three per cent, of the total rainfall is returned to the 
atmosphere by direct evaporation without having entered the 
earth. 

(2) SURFACE RUN-OFF-. 

The relative proportion between the surface run-off and the 
surface in-take of water is dependent upon the character of the 
surface and the deeper formations and upon the topography. The 
former affects rapidity of in-take of water into the earth; the 
latter the rapidity of surface run-off. 

With regard to topography Peninsular Florida is either flat 
or rolling. Rarely can a locality within this section be described 
as hilly. The elevation increases gradually from sea level at the 
coast to a maximum of scarcely more than 200 feet inland, while 
large sections are so flat as to present no perceptible slope. Top¬ 
ographically the conditions are, therefore, very unfavorable to 
surface run-off. On the other hand, the conditions are exception¬ 
ally favorable to large surface in-take. The soils are sandy and 
receive and store the rainfall with great readiness. 

(3) RAINFALL ENTERING THE EARTH. 

Of the water which enters the earth, a part is ultimately 
returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. The water retained in 
soils is slowly given up through evaporation during dry weather. 
As the evaporation takes place near the surface, the capillary 
attraction draws a new supply from beneath, thus maintaining to 
some extent the moisture content of the soil. The amount of water 
thus brought to the surface and evaporated, while varying with 
climate and with soils, is, in the course of a year, considerable. 


132 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


To the evaporation from the surface of the soil must be added 
that from the leaves of plants. This in turn varies greatly with 
the different plants and with different climatic conditions. King, 
in 1892, in one experiment, found that a crop of peas evaporated 
477 pounds of water for each pound of dry matter formed, while 
•corn under the same conditions evaporated in one instance 238 
pounds of water per pound of dry matter.* Assuming that a 
citrus tree evaporates approximately as much as the European 
oak (Quercus cerris), the water evaporated from the leaves of a 
fifteen-year-old orange tree is estimated, by Hilgard, at 20,000 
pounds a year, or about 1,000 tons of water per acre of 100 trees.*)* 
This is equivalent to about nine inches annual rainfall over the 
same.area. Water is the chief vehicle for conveying plant food 
absorbed from the soil by the roots. This enormous evaporation 
from the leaves is in part for the purpose of disposing of the 
water thus taken up by the plant. It serves chiefly, however, the 
purpose of preventing, through the conversion of water into vapor, 
an injurious rise of temperature during the hot sunshine and dry 
weather. 

It is impossible to estimate within even approximate limits 
the loss of water by evaporation from the surface of the ground, 
and from the leaves of plants in the area under consideration. 
The atmosphere in Florida is relatively humid. On the other 
hand, the temperature throughout most of the year is high. Much 
of the country is uncultivated, and practically all of the soil is of 
medium coarse texture. 

It is probable that almost one-half of the rainfall entering the 
earth is re-evaporated from the surface of the ground and from 
the leaves of plants, and that not more than one-half of the total 
rainfall in Florida passes through the soil and surface material 
to join the underground water supply. 

*20th Ann. Report Wis. Agriculture Experiment Station, p. 320 ,1904. 

fBased on weighings made by R. H. Loughridge of the leaves of a 
citrus tree at Riverside, Calif. Soils, by E. W. Hilgard, p. 263, 1906. 



WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 133 


AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE FOR THE UNDERGROUND 

SUPPLY. 

An annual rainfall of 53 inches is found by computation to 
amount to 921,073,379 gallons per square mile. Of this amount 
it is estimated that in Central Florida about one-half is added each 
year to the underground water supply. 

UNDERGROUND CIRCULATION OF WATER. 

Underground water is found usually to be in motion, thread¬ 
ing its way through pores, breaks, crevices, joints and other open¬ 
ings in the rocks. Its movement, is ordinarily slow and varies 
with different rocks and under different conditions. 

CAUSE OF MOVEMENT. 

The chief cause of movement of underground, as of surface 
water, is gravity. Capillarity is an additional force which, under 
special conditions, may become the controlling factor. The water 
returned to and evaporated from the surface of the ground, as 
well as that carried to and evaporated from the leaves of plants, 
is moved by capillarity in opposition to gravity. Gravity, how¬ 
ever, is the controlling force in the movement of water through 
the deep zones of the earth. Pressure, which is an important 
secondary cause of the movement in the earth, is the expression 
of gravity. Except in the case of capillarity, the movement of 
water, apparently in opposition to gravity, is, upon closer observa¬ 
tion, found to be in reality movement in response to gravity. The 
water, which rises in a boring or flows from an artesian well or 
spring, is forced up by pressure, due principally to the weight of 
water lying at a higher level. The familiar observation that water 
seeks its own level has the same explanation. 

RATE OF MOVEMENT. 

The chief factors affecting the rate of movement of water 
through a porous medium, as given by Slichter, are as follows :* 


*Water Supply Paper, U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 67, p. 17, 18, 1902. 



134 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


(1.) Porosity of the material. 

(2.) Size of the pores in the water-bearing medium. 

(3.) Pressure. 

(4.) Temperature of the water. 

(1.) Rocks contain pores which, in the absence of a liquid, 
are ordinarily filled with air. The relative proportion of these 
spaces in the rock to the whole volume is the measure of the 
porosity. Thus, if a cubic foot of sandstone will hold in its pores 
one-fourth cubic foot of water, its porosity is 25 per cent. The 
greater the porosity, the more water absorbed by the rocks. 

(2.) The size of the pores in the rock affects the rate of flow.. 
Rocks having large pores receive and conduct water many times 
more rapidly than those having small pores. 

(3.) The greater the pressure, other conditions remaining 
the same, the more rapid the flow. A pressure of one pound per 
square inch is required to support each 2.31 feet of a column of 
distilled water at the temperature of 60 degrees F. The weight 
of water from the deep zones is increased by solids in solution 
and in suspension, and is affected by changes in temperature. 
Something more than a hundred pounds pressure to the square- 
inch is required to cause a flow from the bottom of a well 231 feet 
deep. Something more than 500 pounds pressure to the square 
inch is required to cause the rise of water in a boring, a distance 
of 1,150 feet. Pressure of this magnitude must materially assist 
in forcing water through the rock. 

(4.) The temperature of the water is found to influence the 
rate of flow. Slichter finds that a change from 50 to 60 degrees F. 
increases the capacity to transmit water, under identical condi¬ 
tions, by about 16 per cent.f 

DEPTH OF UNDERGROUND WATER. 

The limit of the downward extent of wafer has not been 
reached by borings or tunnels, some of which exceed a mile in 

fWater Supply and Irrigation Paper, U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 140, p. 13* 
1905. 



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAE SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAE REPORT. PE. 10. 



Fig. 1.—Palmetto flatwoods. View taken on Amelia Island in Nassau 

County. 



Fig. 2.—Palmetto flatwoods. View taken five miles east of Ft. Myers, 

Lee County. 














EXPLANATION OF PLATE 11. 


Fig. i.—Scrub. This type of soil consists of white sand and is not 
adapted for farming. Photograph by R. M. Harper. View taken on east 
side of Lake Kingsley, Clay Comity. 

Fig. 2 —Well drained pine lands. This type of soil is well drained, and 
consists of a sandy loam. The prevailing vegetation is pine, wire grass 
and oaks. The soil is light, and is suitable for early vegetables^ and for 
orange growing. As a farming soil it requires building up and fertilizing. 
View taken near DeLeon Springs, in Volusia County. 

Fig. 3.—Open flatwoods. The soil consists of a dark sandy loam 
underlaid at the depth of one to five feet by clay subsoil. The prevailing 
vegetation is pine and wire grass. These flatwoods are naturally poorly 
drained. When properly drained, however, the soil is good and suitable 
for trucking and general farming. View taken three miles east of DeLeon 
Springs. 


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 11. 
























EXPLANATION OF PLATE 12. 


Fig. 1.—Muck soil. The Everglades of Florida along the drainage 
canal, west of Fort Lauderdale. The soil here consists of muck to a depth 
of three to five feet, underlaid by sands which, in turn, rest upon oolitic 
limestone 1 . 

Fig. 2.—Prairie soil. One of the typical small prairies. View taken 
10 miles west of Sebastian. The soil consists of light colored sands to a 
depth of several feet, underlaid by clay or hardpan. The small prairie 
shown in the foreground is surrounded by palmetto flatwoods. 

Fig. 3.—Calcareous hammock soil. A view in Turnbull Hammock, one 
mile west of Daytona. Shell marl here lies at or very near the surface. 
The native vegetation includes cabbage palmetto and various deciduous 
hardwood trees. The calcareous soils are desirable, particularly for vege¬ 
table growing. 


FLORIDA GEOROGICAG SURVEY. 


ElETH ANNUAI, REPORT. PE. 12. 















EXPLANATION OF PLATE 13. 


Fig. 1.—Sand dune. This view illustrates one of the recent sand dunes 
near Mayport, at the mouth of the St. Johns River. 

Fig. 2.—Ancient sand dune. This view is taken at the crossing of the 
public road across the dunes, about two miles west of Daytona. The dune 
here consists of light colored sand to a depth of four or five feet, under¬ 
laid by ochre yellow sands. 

Fig. 3 .— Clay soil. Exposure at Saw Pit Landing on the St. Marys 
River, in Nassau County. The soil here is a sticky clay soil residual from 
the decay of the clayey limestone. 




FIFTH ANNUAI, RFPORT. PL,. 13. 


FLORIDA GFOFOGICAT SURVFY. 












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. PL. 14. 



Fig. 1.—Exposure of hardpan along Black Bluff on Clarks Creek, eight 
miles from Fernandina. 



Fig. 2.—Artesian well used for power belonging to H. T. Bowden, Mel¬ 
bourne, Brevard County. The water from the artesian well affords 
power by which water is pumped from a nearby shallow well. 











WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 135 

depth. Water, while thus known to penetrate to a depth greater 
than a mile, probably does not reach beyond five or six miles at 
the most. The movement, as has been stated, is through natural 
openings in the rock. Pressure increases in the earth with depth, 
and it is estimated that, at a depth of approximately six miles, 
the pressure is so great that the pores and cavities of even the 
strongest rocks are completely closed,$ making it impossible for 
water to penetrate beyond this depth. Most of the water, how¬ 
ever, returns to the surface after a comparatively short under¬ 
ground course, only a small part of it reaching to this great depth. 

HYDROGEN SUEPHIDE IN UNDERGROUND WATER. 

The underground water of Florida is very generally im¬ 
pregnated with hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S), also known as sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen, and hydro-sulphuric acid. Water containing 
hydrogen sulphide is commonly known as “sulphur water.” 
Sulphur water is especially characteristic of the areas of artesian 
flow. In those sections in which open, porous limestone is the 
surface formation, hydrogen sulphide is usually absent from the 
first water encountered, although, even here, it is found to exist 
in the water from the deep wells and in some springs. 

Source:—Hydrogen sulphide may originate, in nature, in 
any one of several ways. The following have been suggested: 
(1) The decay of organic matter containing sulphur; (2) the 
reaction of organic matter upon sulphides or sulphates; (3) the 
reaction of acids upon sulphides; (4) partial oxidization of 
sulphides; (5) steam passing over sulphur. 

The decay of organic matter is an obvious source of hydrogen 
sulphide in the underground waters of Florida. Chemical analysis 
shows that sulphur is very generally present in Florida soils,* 
and apparently invariably present in muck soils. Analyses of 
samples of peat, which is, like muck, a vegetable accumulation, 
will be found in the paper on peat deposits published in 1910. 
The amount of sulphur in the Florida peat, in the dried samples, 
varies from less than 1 per cent, to over 4 per cent. 


M. Hoskins, 16th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv., Part I, p. 859, 1896. 



136 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Hydrogen sulphide is formed in connection with the decay of 
eggs. In this case the albumen of the egg, according to Ostwald, 
contains the sulphur.f H 2 S is also found escaping from sewer 
drains and cesspools, and is formed, during the decomposition, 
both of animal and vegetable substances. The H 2 S occurring in 
shallow springs from marsh lands is, doubtless, supplied largely 
from organic material. 

The sulphur in soils is, probably, often present as sulphates. 
Thorpe states that the decay of organic matter in contact with 
sulphates results in the formation of H 2 S 4 The reaction in this 
case, probably, results from reducing properties of decaying 
organic matter, the sulphates being first reduced to sulphides, 
according to the following reaction: Na 2 S O4-I-C2 (carbon of 
organic matter) = 2 CC) 2 -f-Na 2 S. The sulphide is then acted upon 
by the carbonic acid to form H 2 S as follows: Na2S+H2C03=: 

H2S+Na2C03. The reaction of organic matter upon the sulphides 
is regarded, by Van Hise, as another important source of H 2 S in 
underground water.* * 

The formation of hydrogen sulphide, as a result of the action 
of acids upon metallic sulphides, is one of the most familiar of 
laboratory experiments. This suggests the possibility of the 
formation of this gas, as the result of the action of acid's upon 
metallic sulphides, contained in the rocks. Sulphides, especially 
those of iron, are widely scattered in the earth’s crust, and occur 
in sufficient quantity to account for the formation of H 2 S gas in 
water. Hydrogen sulphide is a weak acid, and its salts are de¬ 
composed by a stronger acid. Sulphuric and other mineral acids 
should certainly react upon sulphides liberating H 2 S. Carbonic 
acid, when abundant, reacts upon alkali sulphides to produce 
hydrogen sulphide. It is true that the alkali sulphides are 
normally not abundant in the crust of the earth. Stokes has 
shown, however, that the reaction of sodium carbonate within the 

^Bulletin 43, Florida State Experiment Station, pp. 653, 657, 659, 1897. 

fOstwald, Principles of Inorganic Chemistry, page 274, 1904. 

^Dictionary of Chemistry, Vol. Ill, p. 697, 1900. 

*A Treatise on Metamorphism, Mon. XLVII U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 
1112, 1904. 



WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 


137 


earth, upon pyrite or marcasite, produces sodium sulphide. The 
reaction given by him is as follows: (L. C. page 1107.) 

8FeS2-f-15Na2C03=4Fe203+14Na2S+Na2S203-|-15C02. 

It is a well-known fact that the carbon dioxide, which unites 
with water to form carbonic acid, is abundant in the deep waters, 
especially in the limestone formations; the pressure existing at 
considerable depth enabling the water to hold great quantities of 
carbonic acid. The series of reactions given by Stokes accounts 
for the presence of alkali sulphides in solution in the deep waters. 
It may be added that all sulphides are soluble, to some extent, in 
water and, in that condition, may be acted upon by carbonic acid.f 

The partial oxidation of sulphides is, according to Van Hise, 
a possible additional method of formation of hydrogen sulphide, 
the reaction being as follows: (L. C. p. 1113.) 

3FeS2-|-4H20V40=Fe304-|-4H2S+2S02. 

The oxidizing processes are the most rapid near the surface, 
especially above the underground water level, and H 2 S derived 
from this source, probably, supplies relatively shallow rather than 
deep waters. 

The formation of H 2 S by steam passing over sulphur, which 
occurs in connection with volcanoes, may be dismissed in consider¬ 
ing the sulphur waters of Florida, since Florida has no volcanoes 
and no indications of volcanic activity. 

SULPHUR WATER NOT EVIDENCE OF BEDS OF SULPHUR. 

There is a widespread belief that the presence of sulphur water 
must necessarily indicate the existence of beds of the mineral 
sulphur. This conclusion does not follow. The probable sources 
of the sulphur in sulphur waters, as indicated above, is organic 
matter, together with metallic sulphates and sulphides scattered 
through sedimentary rocks. 

fInorganic Chemistry. International Library of Technology. Sec. 

12, p. 11. 



138 


FLORIDA STATL GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


SULPHUR DEPOSITS FORMED FROM HYDROGEN SULPHIDE. 

As stated in the last paragraph, sulphur waters are not to be 
regarded as resulting from beds of pure sulphur. On the con¬ 
trary, it is probably true that these waters may, in some instances, 
result in the formation of such deposits. Hydrogen sulphide, 
when acted upon in the water by oxygen, breaks up, forming 
water and sulphur; the reaction being H2S+0=H20+S. It is 
thus possible that H 2 S in the underground water, or escaping 
from the underground water, may become disassociated, forming 
deposits of pure sulphur. Such deposits of economic value have 
not been reported in Florida. It is a noteworthy fact, however, 
that one large mass of sulphur has been found underneath phos¬ 
phate beds in Citrus County.* The formation of this mass of 
sulphur is probably due to hydrogen sulphide. A flocculent white 
coating of sulphur, or a sulphur compound invariably forms 
around sulphur springs and flowing sulphur wells. 

ABSENCE OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE FROM CERTAIN WATERS 

IN FLORIDA. 

The absence of hydrogen sulphide from the first water obtained 
from areas in which the open porous limestone is the surface 
formation, has already been stated. It is a well-known fact that 
if sulphur water is allowed to stand in the open air the gas will 
escape. This method of freeing water from an excess of H 2 S gas 
is a common practice wherever sulphur water is used for domestic 
purposes. Wherever porous limestone lies at or near the surface 
the sulphur gas, which the water may have contained, will find a 
ready means of escape. In other parts of the State, where 
compact and impervious formations rest upon the limestone, the 
gas is prevented from escaping and sulphur water is obtained. 


*Florida Geological Survey, First Annual Report, p. 44, 1908. 



WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 139 

AMOUNT OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE INFLUENCED BY 
PRESSURE. 

The quantity of H2S gas, which the water is able to hold in 
solution under these conditions, is determined by the pressure. 
The law of the solubility of gases in liquids is as follows: The 
quantity of the gas which the liquid is able to dissolve is directly 
proportional to the pressure on the gas. In the open, porous 
limestone with no confining stratum above, the water at the top 
of the underground water level is merely under atmospheric 
pressure. After passing the underground water level, however, the 
pressure increases rapidly. The increase of pressure is not simply 
that due to the atmosphere, but that due to the weight of the 
overlying column of water plus the atmosphere. According to 
Van Hise:* “The pressure, which really is determinative as to 
the amount of gas which may be held in solution, is that of a 
column of water extending to the free surface, plus the atmos¬ 
pheric pressure.” From this law it follows that water, at a great 
depth and under great pressure, is capable of holding a large 
quantity of hydrogen sulphide in solution. When brought to the 
surface the pressure is relieved and the gas rapidly escapes. The 
artesian waters, in the flowing areas of the State, are under con¬ 
siderable pressure, thus enabling them to hold a large quantity of 
hydrogen sulphide as well as a high proportion of mineral solids 
in solution. 

In order that the deep waters may hold large quantities of 
H2S in solution, it is necessary that the gas be available. This 
implies that the gas in the artesian and other deep waters 
originates at some considerable depth rather than at or near the 
surface. 


ARTESIAN WATER. 

The term “artesian’'’ has been variously used by different 
writers. Flowing wells first became well known in the province 
of Artios, France, and hence were called “artesian wells,” and 


*L. c., page 70. 



140 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

i 

their water “artesian water.” The first meaning of “artesian 
well” was, therefore, a flowing well; and of “artesian water,” 
water under sufficient pressure to cause it to flow. With the 
extension into other areas of the use of deep wells as a source of 
water supply, many instances were found in which the water, 
although under pressure and rising almost to the surface, would 
not flow. In some cases the water will flow in areas of low 
surface elevation, and yet fail to flow in a slightly elevated area 
nearby. Artesian water thus came to mean water under pressure, 
causing it to rise in a boring when tapped, regardless of whether 
or not the pressure was sufficient to cause the water to rise above 
the surface level, and hence to flow. In the same way, and for 
similar reasons, the term “artesian well” came to include not 
only flpwing wells, but also' wells in which the water rises when 
the water-bearing stratum is tapped, regardless of whether or 
not the rise is sufficient to cause a flow. Occasionally, in popular 
usage, the term “artesian well” has been applied to any deep bor¬ 
ing, and “artesian water” to water from such a well. In this 
report the term artesian is applied to water under pressure, and 
hence rising in a boring when tapped. The water may, or may 
not, rise to or above the surface. An “artesian well” is any well 
reaching to and tapping a stratum bearing such water; a “flowing 
well” is an “artesian well” that gives a surface flow. Artesian 
pressure is the pressure causing the water to rise in the boring 
when tapped. This is essentially the usage of these terms as 
adopted by the Division of Hydrology of the U. S. Geological 
Survey.* 


CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN ARTESIAN 

WATER. 

As essentials for artesian water, it is necessary to have (1) 
an adequate source of water, and (2) the proper structural condi¬ 
tions to retain the water under hydrostatic or artesian pressure. 
It will be convenient to discuss first the structural conditions. 


*Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, U. S. Geological Survey No. 160. 



WATER SUPPL,Y OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PRORIDA. 141 

artesian basin. 

A variety of conditions in the arrangement and structure of 
the underlying deposits may bring about artesian pressure. The 
simplest, although probably not the most common, is that of a 
basin-like arrangement of successive relatively pervious and 
impervious strata. This typical structure, known as an artesian 
basin, is shown in the accompanying diagram. It consists of a 
pervious layer (a), out-cropping at the surface on either side and 
sagging at the middle, above which is an impervious or water- 



Fig. 1.—Illustrating Structure of an Artesian Basin. 


tight confining layer (c), and below which is also an impervious 
layer (b). Water enters the pervious layer at its surface ex¬ 
posures at the sides. The water collecting in the central part of 
the basin is under pressure from the weight of the additional 
water entering from the sides. Therefore, a well put down to 
the water stratum in any part of the basin will obtain artesian 
water, or water which will rise in the boring. The rise in the 
boring is determined by the elevation of the in-take area, and can 
in no case rise above the elevation of the exposed edges of the 
stratum. As a matter of observation, it is found in all cases to 
rise not quite so high as the exposed edge of the stratum, the loss 
being due to the friction of movement through the rock. This- 
loss of head due to friction necessarily varies with the texture 
of the stratum through which it passes, the passage being more 
free through the coarse material, and hence meeting with less 
friction than through fine. Whether or not wells put down in 
the basin will obtain flowing or non-flowing artesian water, 
depends upon the surface elevation of the mouth of the well. The 
diagram illustrates a basin in which flowing artesian wells may 
be obtained. 











142 


FLORIDA STATE} GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


ARTESIAN SLOPE. 

The basin arrangement of strata is not the only possible struc¬ 
ture resulting in artesian pressure. The same result may, among 
other ways, be brought about quite effectively by an inclined 
porous stratum wedging out between two impervious strata. This 
condition is illustrated by the accompanying simple sketch, in 
which the pervious stratum (a) is represented as pinching out 
and disappearing between impervious strata. A pervious stratum 
grading into an impervious, or less pervious condition resulting 



Fig. 2.—Illustrating structures that may prevail in an artesian slope; 
a. a pervious water-bearing stratum which pinches out between impervious 
strata; b. a pervious water-bearing stratum which grades into a less pervi¬ 
ous stratum; c. a pervious water-bearing stratum in which the artesian 
pressure is due merely to the friction of water moving through the pores 
of the rock. 

in artesian pressure, is represented by (b) of the same drawing. 
These conditions are often met with in the strata of the coastal 
plain. Not infrequently, a sandstone formation grades off shore 
Into a finer sandstone, and ultimately into a shale. This condition 
comes about naturally through the sorting power of w r ater acting 
along what was the coastal line at the time of formation of the 
strata under consideration. The coarser sand particles are 
dropped near the shore and form the sandstone; the finer sand- 
grains, together with more or less clay, are carried farther out, 







WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 143 


and form a finer grained sandstone grading ultimately into a clay. 
Similarly, a sandstone, or other pervious formation, may pinch 
out as a result of the thickening of a shale or clay bed. The term 
“artesian slope” has been applied to such an area to distinguish 
it from an artesian basin. 

The friction of water threading its way long distances 
through the pores of an inclined pervious formation may result 
in an appreciable artesian pressure. That this is true, may be 
demonstrated by the following very simple experiment: Fill a 
tube of any length with sand, and incline at a convenient angle. 
The sand of the tube represents the pervious water-bearing 
stratum; the tube itself, the impervious confining strata. Let 
smaller tubes placed vertically be welded into the larger tube. 
These vertical tubes represent bored wells. The water will be 
found to rise in the vertical tubes, exhibiting an appreciable 
artesian pressure due to the friction of flow through the sand. 

ARTESIAN WATER FROM UNCONFINED HORIZONTAL BEDS. 

It is, doubtless, possible to obtain artesian water in some in¬ 
stances from unconfined horizontal beds. This condition is illus- 



Fig. 3.—Illustrating artesian water from unconfined horizontal beds. 
The pressure in this case is due to the friction of water moving through 
the pores of the rock. 


trated by the following sketch taken from the report of M. L. 
Fuller.* It is possible that some of the small local flows obtained 
in the lake region of interior Florida are due to similar conditions. 

ARTESIAN WATER FROM SOLUTION PASSAGES. 

Solution passages through limestones undoubtedly facilitate 
the free movement of water. If limestones should be otherwise 










144 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


relatively water tight, flows might still be obtained, in some 
instances, from water conducted through the cavities in the lime¬ 
stone. Such possible conditions are illustrated by the accompany¬ 
ing sketch, also taken from Mr. Fuller’s paper.* Several other 
possible structural conditions that may give rise to artesian flows 
are described and illustrated in the paper referred to. Those 
illustrated above, however, include the structural conditions which 
seem likely to prevail in Florida. 



Fig. 4.—Sketch illustrating artesian flow obtained from solution pass¬ 
ages in the limestone. After Fuller. 


SOURCE OF ARTESIAN WATER OF FLORIDA. 

The idea is rather prevalent that the artesian waters of Florida 
are in no sense local but are derived from the Appalachian 
Mountains, or some other remote inland point. This is an error, 
which, if not corrected, may prove detrimental. That the supply 
is local is evidenced by the fact that the artesian wells of the 
State are affected by local rains. Many of the well owners have 
recognized the effect of local rains on their wells; others who 
have observed less closely recognize no such variation. That the 
rainfall is sufficient to supply the large quantities obtained has 
already been demonstrated. 

FORMATIONS SUPPLYING THE ARTESIAN WATER OF 
EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 

As explained in the chapter on Geology, the principal artesian 
reservoir of the eastern and southern part of Florida is the Vicks- 

*U. S. Geological Survey, Bull. 319, p. 39, 1908. Summary of the 
Controlling Factors of Artesian Flows. 



























WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 145 


burg group of limestones. In some localities, however, forma¬ 
tions lying above the Vicksburg group supply a flow, although 
the flow from these more shallow formations is rarely ever so 
strong as from the deeper or Vicksburg limestones. 

DEPTH OF THE ARTESIAN WATER. 

The depth at which the artesian water is obtained is variable 
in different parts of the area. To find the depth for any particular 
locality, it will be necessary to refer to the subsequent chapters 
in which the several counties are treated individually. 

COST OF WELLS. 

It has been only within the past few years that artesian wells 
have begun to supplant shallow, open dug wells in the rural dis¬ 
tricts. One cause of the rapid increase of artesian wells in these 
districts is the necessity of irrigation in order to safeguard truck¬ 
ing and general crops against droughts. Again, from a health 
standpoint, the water from these deeper wells is less liable to 
contamination than is the water from the shallower or surface 
wells. 

The cost of an artesian well depends upon the depth to which 
it is necessary to drill, the size of the well desired, the amount of 
casing used and the character of the material that will probably 
be penetrated in drilling. With a knowledge of the nature of the 
underlying formations in a given area well drillers know approxi¬ 
mately the time and labor it will take to complete a certain size 
well. In such an instance it is frequently the case that a well is 
completed for a stipulated amount, regardless of the depth. It is 
more customary, however, to let a contract for a certain size well 
at a given price per foot. These prices vary in different sections 
of the State, but on the average two-inch wells are sunk for from 
$1.00 to $1.25 per foot; three- and four-inch wells from $1.50 to 
$2.00 per foot. The larger wells range in proportion, a ten-inch 
well costing about $3.50 per foot. The driller, at these prices, 
furnishes the casing. 


146 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


INCREASED FLOW OF ARTESIAN WEEDS WITH INCREASED 

DEPTH. 

As a rule, the amount of flow or yield of wells in Eastern 
Florida increases with depth. To this rule there are, doubtless, 
exceptions, since the amount of flow, in all cases, depends upon 
the variable structure of the rock through which the drill passes. 
As illustrations of increased flow with increased depth, the follow¬ 
ing may be cited: 

In the new city well at Jacksonville, well No. 10 of the city 
water supply, the first flow obtained was a light flow of 5 gallons 
per minute at a depth of 270 feet. At a depth of 498 feet the 
flow increased to 112 gallons per minute. Upon reaching the 
Vicksburg Limestone, at a depth of 510 feet, the flow increased 
to 200 gallons per minute. The flow at the depth of 635 feet was 
found to be 500 gallons per minute. At 900 feet the flow was 
about 900 gallons per minute. At 980 feet, the full depth of the 
well, the flow was from 1,500 to 2,000 gallons per minute. For 
the detailed measurements of flow on this well the Survey is 
indebted to the drillers, the Hughes Specialty Well Drilling Com¬ 
pany of Charleston, South Carolina. 

A like increase of flow is shown by the Ponce de Leon well in 
St. Johns County, the measurements of which were kept, and have 
been kindly supplied by Messrs. McGuire and McDonald, con¬ 
tractors. The first flow in this well of 50 gallons per minute was 
obtained at a depth of 170 feet. At 177 feet the flow increased to 
350 gallons per minute. At 410 feet the flow was 2,083 gallons. 
At 520 feet the flow had increased to 4,860 gallons. At 1,110 feet 
the flow was 6,075 gallons. The well was continued to a total 
depth of 1,440 feet. The record of the well, however, contains no 
mention of increased flow below 1,110 feet. While exact measure¬ 
ments, like those given above, are seldom made; the drillers, with 
few exceptions, report increased flow with increased depth. 

INCREASED HEAD WITH INCREASED DEPTH. 

Not only does the amount of flow of the water in this section 
of the State increase with increased depth, but the head or pres- 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 147 


sure, or height above the ground to which the water will rise like¬ 
wise increases. The head is, in reality, only a measure of the 
pressure. The amount of flow is within limits dependent upon 
the amount of pressure. Other conditions remaining the same, 
an increased pressure will result in an increased flow. For the 
records regarding pressure, it is necessary to rely chiefly upon the 
Jacksonville and St. Augustine wells already referred to. 

At 680 feet the pressure of the artesian water in the Jackson¬ 
ville well was 12 pounds per square inch, or sufficient pressure to 
cause the water to rise vertically in a pipe 27.72 feet. At 900 feet 
the pressure, as shown by the gauge, was 15 pounds, or sufficient 
to cause the water to rise 34.65 feet. 

The Ponce de Teon Hotel well, at St. Augustine, afifords valu¬ 
able information as to the possibility of obtaining increased head, 
in this section of the State, by drilling to greater depths. This 
well was drilled to a total depth of 1,440 feet. A measure of the 
head was made at frequent intervals while drilling. The first 
considerable flow obtained at St. Augustine is under a pressure, 
causing it to rise about 32 feet above sea. At the depth of 350 
feet the head was found to have increased to 38 feet above sea. 
At the depth of 520 feet the head had increased to 42 feet, a total 
gain of 10 feet. The head at greater depths than 520 feet is not 
specifically recorded. 

INCREASED TEMPERATURE WITH INCREASED DEPTH. 

The temperature of the water at St. Augustine was found to in¬ 
crease with the depth. The temperature of the water in the Ponce 
de Leon well, at the depth of 35 feet, is reported as 62 degrees F. 
At approximately 100 feet the temperature was 72 degrees F. At 
170 feet the temperature was 74 degrees F. The increased flow 
obtained at 177 feet showed a temperature of 76 degrees F. At 
520 feet the temperature of the water in the pipe was found to be 
79 degrees F. At 1,110 feet the temperature was 80 degrees F. 
Between 1,170 and 1,225 feet the water taken from the sand pump 
showed a temperature of 85 degrees F. Water taken from the 
sand pump, between 1,340 and 1,390 feet, showed a temperature 
of 86 degrees F. 


148 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


This record of the Ponce de Leon well, at St. Augustine, is 
supplemented by the record from the new city well at Jackson¬ 
ville. In the Jacksonville well the following temperatures were 
recorded: At a depth of 498 feet, the temperature of the water 
flowing from the pipe was 71 degrees F. At 635 feet the tempera¬ 
ture was 74 degrees F. At 900 feet the temperature still registered 
74 degrees F. These measurements made, as the water escapes 
from the pipe, are necessarily approximate measurements. Not 
only does the water lose in temperature in moving to the mouth 
of the pipe, but it mingles with the higher and colder waters enter¬ 
ing the pipe, which necessarily equalizes the temperature of the 
whole. They show, however, increase of temperature with 
increase of depth. 

TABLE SHOWING PROGRESSIVE LOSS 


RECORD OF JACKSONVILLE 





dj, T. 









*3 

£ 

*4-1 

S3 

o 

W 

CL 

E 

o 

25 C3 2 

fl 









0 

Ui 

"53 

5 

u 

s 

(U 

^ 4)fN 

1886 

1888 

1889 

1891 
May 30 

1892 
Nov. 1 

1893 
Jan. 1 

1894 
Jan. 1 

1895 

& 

2 

o 

-s 

5 

a> 

®a- S 









3 

fc 

N 

CO 

03 

C3 

> fl X 

°og 











Nov. 










1 

6 

1885 

864,000 

864,000 

799,860 

568,073 

309,096 

264,384 

243,000 

221.616 

200,232 



Dec. 


4 

12 

1896 

1.854,320 










April 









6 

10 

1901 

2,095,639 









Aug. 









7 

10 

1904 

651,500 
































Mch. 










2 

6 

1886 

1,296,000 

1,296,000 

1,167,360 

808,485 

458,784 

412,128 

381,024 

332,424 

309,096 



Feb. 


3 

10 

1889 

3,360,052 



3,360,652 

1,995,840 

1,829,952 

1,752,192 

1,440,152 

1,347,840 



April 



5 

8 

1899 

590,676 
























f 











I 





! 


Total Flow. 


2,160,000 

1,967,040 

4,737,210 

2,763,720 

2.506,464 

2,376,216 

1,994,192 

1,857,168 

Loss 

; in Flow... 



192,960 

590,482 

2,770,170 

1,973,490 

257,256 

130,248 

382,024 

137,024 

Gain hv 

New ' 

Well. 

























































WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 149 


LOSS OF HEAD AND REDUCTION IN FLOW. 

Exact measurements of loss of head and reduction in flow in 
artesian wells are usually difficult to obtain. In the case of the 
Jacksonville city water supply, fortunately, measurements of flow 
have been taken at intervals from the time the first wells were 
put down in 1885 to the present time. These measurements kept 
through a period of 24 years afford records of especial interest 
and value. The following table of flow was supplied J}y Capt. 
R. N. Ellis, Superintendent of the Jacksonville city water supplv. 
Two basins are used to receive the flow known as the north 
basin and the south basin. The wells are grouped in the table 
according to the basin into which they flow. The wells are 


OF FLOW OF ARTESIAN WELLS. 
CITY WELLS, 1885-1904. 


1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

April 

; 

1900 

1901 

1902 

Jan. 

1902 
Nov. 29 

1903 

1904 
April 1 

1904 
Oct. 26 

188,568 / 
1,354,320) 



208.640 

662.640 

207,360 

602,640 

191,8051 
419,902 r 
1,883,093J 






1,108,080 

881,280 

,2,287,440 

1,710,720 

1,710,720 

1,684,800 

1,684,800 





. 


. 



Aug. 1 
601,500 








. 














285,69b] 

l,093,456j 


.J 








1,368,576 

1,368,576 

1.322,220 [ 
590,676J 

. 

1,829,947 

1,441,147 

1,418,907 

1,368,576 

1,368,576 

1,347,840 

1,099,080 
























1 









2,922,087 

289,451 

1,064,869 

I 

2,476,656 

445,381 

2,249,876 

226,800 

2,784,176 

56,356 

534,320 

2,639,947 

144,529 

3,935,947 

587,093 

1,296,000 

3,706,347 

229,600 

1 

3,079,296 

627,057 

3,079,296 

3,032,640 

46,656 

3,385,380 

352,740 

248,760 






. 












































150 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


numbered chronologically in the order of the date when com¬ 
pleted. 

This table shows conclusively that, although the rate of flow 
is variable for different wells and for the same wells at different 
periods, yet in this group of wells there is a continuous and 
progressive loss of flow. That the same is true of other wells 
throughout this area, there can be no reasonable doubt. Those 
who give no special attention to their wells suppose, as a rule, 
that the.flow remains unaffected indefinitely. Many other well 
owners, however, have observed this loss in flow with succeed¬ 
ing years. The reduced flow is best observed near the margin 
of the flowing area in wells located on somewhat elevated ground. 
Many of the wells from which the water will flow only a few 
feet above the surface when first drilled may, in time, cease to 
flow. In these cases the pressure which originally caused the 
flow having been partly relieved, the water no longer rises above 
the surface of the ground. 

Exhaustion and ultimate failure of an artesian reservoir is 
not unknown. It is, probably, true that, in nearly all artesian 
sections, the original pressure gradient in the water-bearing rock 
is appreciably lowered by the drafts made upon the subterranean 
supply, with a consequent actual decrease in the capacity of the 
wells. In this connection, Professor C. S. Slichter states :* “It 
must be kept well in mind that there is a limit to the amount of 
water that can be withdrawn from an artesian basin. There is 
no such thing as an inexhaustible supply in this connection. The 
amount of water available is limited on the one hand by the 
amount of rainfall upon the catchment area, and the facility with 
which the rainfall can obtain entrance to the porous stratum and, 
oh the other hand, by the capacity of the water-bearing rock to 
transmit the water over long distances and diminution through 
leakage and seepage. These two limiting conditions are usually 
of sufficient magnitude to render the overdrawing of the supply 
a practical and present danger, which should be constantly kept 
in mind.” 

With regard to the artesian basin at Denver, Colorado, the 


*U. S. Geol. Surv., Water Supply Paper, No. 67, p. 94, 95, 1902. 



WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORlDA. 151 


failure of which was unusually rapid, Slichter says: “This basin 
was discovered in 1884, and in a few years about 400 wells had 
been drilled within an area extending a distance of 40 miles, 
along South Platte River, in a strip about 5 miles wide on both 
sides of the stream. Most of the wells were within the limits 
of the city itself. Many of the wells had a good pressure and 
strong flow when first constructed. In 1886 it was not thought 
that any general decrease in the flow of the wells could be 
detected. Between 1888 and 1890, however, a continuous decrease 
in the flow of the city wells took place, and by the end of the 
latter year all but six of the city wells had to be pumped, while 
numerous wells in the basin were permanently abandoned.” 

CAUSE OF THE BOSS OF FLOW. 

The loss of flow may be due to several causes. It is frequently 
the case that the life of an artesian well is limited. The escape 
of water through the well relieves the pressure, which results in 
a reduced flow. In some instances, pressure has so far been 
relieved that wells have ceased to flow entirely. This may be 
regarded as a natural and unavoidable loss of flow. 

The second cause of reduced flow, which may have affected 
the Jacksonville and other wells, is interference of wells. Num¬ 
erous instances are on record where one artesian well has 
affected surrounding wells. 

A third possible cause is clogging of the wells through 
accumulation of sand or other material in the pipes, or in the 
formations through which the water comes. In addition to the 
accumulation of sand, it is not impossible that the porosity of the 
formation immediately around the well may have been more or 
less affected by chemical deposition since the well was drilled. It 
seems probable, however, that the clogging of the pores of the 
rock is more likely to be caused by material mechanically trans¬ 
ported than by chemical deposition. 

Improper casing is likewise a frequent cause of failure. It is 
frequently the case that an insufficient length of casing is used in 
the well. In such cases the sand gains entrance, or the well 


152 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


caves below the casing - , clogging or partly clogging the opening, 
thereby reducing or entirely stopping the flow. 

NECESSITY OF GUARDING AGAINST WASTE OF ARTESIAN 

WATER. 

The records that have been given above indicate clearly that 
useless waste of water should not be permitted. An artesian well 
draws not on an inexhaustible supply of water from some remote 
source, but draws upon a relatively local supply which is appreci¬ 
ably affected by continued use. A well permitted to flow uninter¬ 
ruptedly draws not only on the supply of the land on which it is 
located, but affects also the supply of the adjacent land. A State, 
a community, or an individual that permits the useless and reck¬ 
less waste of artesian water will ultimately find a most valuable 
asset impaired by extravagance, and possibly no longer adequate. 

It is urged by some well owners that to cut off a well, or to 
stop the flow when not in use is unsafe as sand or other material 
may get into and clog the well. The flow of the well can be 
reduced to one-third or one-fourth its normal volume and the 
danger from the accumulation of sand, when there is such danger, 
guarded against. Moreover, where wells are cased, as they 
should be to the Vicksburg Limestone, it is doubtful if there is 
danger of clogging and reducing or stopping the flow. A law 
restricting the waste of artesian water is urgently recommended. 

SIMPLE METHOD OF determining FLOW OF ARTESIAN 

WELLS. 

A simple method for measuring approximately the flow from 
an artesian well has been devised by Professor J. E. Todd, 
formerly State Geologist of South Dakota. The following is 
Professor Todd’s method in full: 

“It is often desirable to know the amount of water delivered 
by an artesian well. Frequently a contract calls for a certain 
amount. It is also well to know whether the flow is diminishing 
and how much. 

“When a well is small, its flow may be measured easily with 


WATER SUPPLY OR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 153 


a watch and a gallon measure, or a keg or a barrel of known 
capacity, but for wells flowing over twenty or thirty gallons a 
minute, it is not so easy to determine with accuracy. 

“If the well is large it may be measured with a weir, but that 
is constructed only with considerable trouble. If the water runs 
in a sluice or ditch of uniform width, its cross section may be 
estimated and its velocity taken. This method, however, is not 
very accurate. The following are methods which give fairly 
accurate results with little trouble and in short time. All that is 
necessary for the purpose is that the water be discharged through 
a pipe of uniform diameter, a foot rule, still air, and care in taking 
measurements. 

“Two methods are proposed, one for pipes discharging 
vertically, which is particularly applicable before the well is 
permanently finished, and one for horizontal discharge, which is 
the most frequent way of finishing a well. For the measuring a 
vertical flow we have extended a method which wa's first used 
by Mr. P. E. Manchester, C. E., of Chamberlain, who published 
a table adapted to large wells, in the Chamberlain Register, 
December, 1895. 

“The table below is adapted to wells of moderate size as well 
as to larger. In case a well is found of other diameter than that 
given in the table, its discharge may be obtained without much 
difficulty from the table by remembering that other things being 
equal the discharge varies as the square of the diameter of the 
pipe. If, for example, the pipe is one-half inch in diameter its 
discharge will be one-fourth of that of a pipe one inch in diameter, 
whose stream reaches the same height, so also a pipe eight inches 
in diameter may be obtained by multiplying that of the four-inch 
pipe by four. 

“In the first case the inside diameter of the pipe may be 
measured, then the distance from the end of the pipe to the 
highest point of the dome of water above, in a strictly vertical 
direction —a to b in the diagram. Then these distances may be 
found in the table and the corresponding figure will give the num¬ 
ber of gallons discharged per minute. The blowing of the wind 


154 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


need not interfere in this case as long as the measurements are 
taken vertically. 

“The method for determining the discharge of horizontal 
pipes requires a little more care. First, measure the diameter of 
the pipe as before, then the vertical distance from the middle of 
the opening of the pipe, or some convenient point corresponding 
to it on the side of the pipe, vertically downward six inches —a to 




Fig. 5. —Illustrating method of measuring the flow of an artesian well 
from horizontal and vertical pipes. After Todd. 

b, then from this point strictly horizontally to the center of the 
stream— b to e. With these data, the flow in gallons per minute 
may be obtained from the table. It will be readily seen that a 
slight error may make much difference in the discharge. Care 
must be taken to measure horizontally and also to the middle of 
the stream. 

“Because of this difficulty, it is desirable to check the first 
determination by a second. For this purpose, columns are given 
in the tables for corresponding measurements twelve inches below 
the center of the pipe. Of course, the discharge from the. same 
pipe must be the same in measurements of the same stream. In 
this case, the occurrence of wind, blowing either with or against 









































WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 155 


the water, may vitiate results to an indefinite amount, therefore 
measurements should be taken while the air is still. 

“The flow of pipes of diameters not given in the Table II, 
may be easily obtained for corresponding measurements, as 
follows: For Yz inch, multiply discharge of 1-inch pipe by .25; 
for ^4-inch, by .56; for 1^4-mch, by 1.56; for 1^4-inch, by 2.25. 
For 3-inch, multiply 2-inch pipe by 2.25; for 4-inch, by 4; for 5- 
inch, by 6:25; for 6-inch, by 9; for 8-inch, by 16. 

TABLES FOR DETERMINING YIELD OF ARTESIAN WELLS. 


I. Flow from Vertical Pipes 


Height of Jet. 

Discharge 
Minute from 
of Diameter 

in Gallons per 
Respective Pipes 
given in Inches. 

1 

1% 

iy 2 

2 

3 

In. 






y 2 

3.96 

| 6.2 

8.91 

15.8 

30.6 

i 

5.60 

| 8.7 

12.6 

22.4 

51.4 

2 

7.99| 

| 12.5 

1S.0 

32.0 

71.9 

3 

9.81 

15.3 

22.1 

39.2 

88.3 

4 

11.33 

17.7 

25.5 

45.3 

102.0 

5 

| 12.68 

19.8 

28.5 

50.7 

113.8 

6 

13.88 

21.7 

31.2 

55.5 

124.9 

7 

14.96 

23.6 

33.7 

59.8 

134.9 

8 

16.00 

| 25.1 

36.0 

64.0 

144.1 

9 

17.01 

26.6 

38.3 

68.0 

153.1 

10 

17.93 

28.1 

40.3 

71.6 

161.3 

11 

18.80 

29.5 

42.3 

75.2 

169.3 

12 

19.65 

30.7 

44.2 

78.6 

176.9 

13 

20.46 

31.8 

45.9 

81.8 

184.1 

14 

21.22 

33.0 

47.6 

84.9 

190.9 

15 

21.95 

'34.2 

49.3 

87.8 

197.5 

16 

22.67 

35.2 

50.9 

90.7 

203.9 

17 

23.37 

36.3 

52.5 

93.5 

210.3 

18 

24.06 

37.5 

54.1 

96.2 

216.5 

19 

24.72 

38.6 

55.6 

98.9 

222.5 

20 

25.37 

39.6 

57.0 

101.6 

228.5 

21 

26.02 

40.6 

58.4 

104.2 

234.3 

22 

26.66 

41.6 

59.9 

106.7 

240.0 

23 

27.28 

42.6 

61.4 

109.2 

245.6 

24 

27.90 

43.5 

62.8 

111.6 

251.1 

25 

28.49 

44.4 

64.1 

114.0 

256.4 

26 

29.05 

45.3 

65.3 

116.2 

261.4 

27 

29.59 

| 46.1 

66.4 

118.2 

266.1 

28 

| 30.08 

46.9 

67.5 

120.3 

270.4 

29 

30.55 

47.5 

68.5 

121.9 

274.1 

30 

30.94 

48.2 

69.4 

123.4 

277.6 

36 

34.1 

53.2 

76.7 

136.3 

306.6 

48 

39.1 

61.0 

88.0 

156.5 

352.1 

60 

43.8 

68.4 

98.6 

175.2 

394.3 

72 

48.2 

75.2 

108.0 

192.9 

434.0 

84 

51.9 

81.0 

116.8 

207.6 

467.0 

96 

55.6 

86.7 

125.0 

222.2 

500.0 

108 

58.9 

92.0 

132.6 

235.9 

530.8 

120 

62.2 

98.0 

139.9 

248.7 

559.5 

132 

65.1 

102.6 

146.5 

260.4 

585.9 

144 

68.0 

106.4 

153.1 

272.2 

612.5 


II. Flow from Horizontal Pipes 


_ ^5 

Flow in Gallons per Minute 
for Pipes. 

o 



1 


0-3 

1 inch in Diam. 

2 inch in Diam. 

.sti 





U r3 
© 8 

6 in. | 

12 in. 

6 in. 

| 12 in. 

level. | 

level. | 

1 

level. | 

level. 

1 

In. 


1 



6 

7.01 

| 4.95 

27.71 

19.63 

7 

8.18 | 

| 5.77 

32.33 

22.90 

8 

9.35 

6.60 

36.94 

26.18 

9 

10.51 

7.42 

41.56 

29.45 

10 

11.68 

8.25 

46.18 

32.72 

11 

12.85 

9.08 

50.80 

35.99 

12 

14.02 

9.91 

55.42 

39.26 

13 

15.19 

10.73 

60.03 

42.51 

14 

16.36 

11.56 

64.65 

45.81 

15 

17.53 

12.38 

69.27 

49.08 

16 

18.70 

13.21 

73.89 

52.35 

17 

19.87 

14.04 

78.51 

55.62 

18 

21.04 

14.86 

83.12 

58.90 

19 

22.21 

15.69 

87.74 

62.17 

20 

23.37 

16.51 

92.36 

65.44 

21 

24.54 

17.34 

96.98 

68.71 

22 

25.71 

18.17 

101.60 

71.98 

23 

26.88 

18.99 

106.21 

75.26 

24 

28.04 

19.82 

110.83 

78.53 

25 

29.11 

20.64 

115.45 

81.80 

26 

30.38 

21.47 

120.07 

85.07 

27 

31.55 

22.29 

124.69 

88.34 

28 

32.72 

23.12 

129.30 

91.62 

29 

33.89 

23.95 

133.92 

94.89 

30| 

35.06 

24.77 

138.54 

98.16 

311 

| 36.23 

25.59 

143.16 

101.43 

321 

37.40 

26.42 

147.78 

104.70 

331 

38.57 

27.25 

152.39 

107.98 

341 

39.64 | 

28.08 

157.01 

111.25 

351 

[ 40.45 

| 28.64 

161.63 

114.52 

36 

41.60 | 

59.46 

166.25 

117.19 

1 

Continue 

by addin 

ig for eac] 

ti inch: 


1.15 | 

, 

.82 

1 

4.62 

3.27 

































156 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


“In both these tables it has not been thougnt necessary to 
make any allowance for the resistance of the atmosphere. Doubt¬ 
less, when the velocity of the stream is great, the resistance is 
considerable; but as the pressure checks the flow, and our object 
is simply to measure the amount of flow, it need not be taken 
into consideration. In case pipes are found of diameters not: 
corresponding to the table, the same rule may be applied as in 
the first case. 

“Whenever fractions occur in the height or horizontal distance 
of the stream, the number of gallons may be obtained by dividing' 
the difference between the readings in the table for the nearest 
whole numbers, according to the size of the fraction. For 
example, if the distance from the top of the pipe to the top of 
the stream, in the first case, is nine and one-third inches, one-third 
of the difference between the readings in the table for nine and 
ten inches must be added to the former to give the right result. 
In case one measures the flow of his well according to both 
methods, he may think that they should correspond, but such is. 
not' the case. In the vertical discharge, as there is less friction, 
the flow will be larger, so also difference will be found according 
to the length of horizontal pipe used in the second case. The 
longer the pipe, the more friction and less the flow. 

“As pipes are occasionally at an angle, it is well to know that 
the second method may be applied to them, if the first measure¬ 
ment is taken strictly vertically from the center of the opening, 
and the second from that point parallel with the axis of the pipe 
to the center of the stream as before. The measurements may 
then be read from the table as before. 

“This method is also applicable to measuring the discharges., 
of different pipes when water is distributed about a farm or in 
a city. 

“Pipes which have been cut in the usual way are frequently 
diminished in diameter by the incurving of the edge of the pipe. 
This will diminish the flow, but how much can only be roughly 
estimated. It will be greater than that of a straight pipe having; 
the exact diameter of the opening as reduced.” 


WATER SUPPRY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ERORIDA. 157 
THE AREAS OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN FLORIDA. 

The accompanying map indicates, in a general way, the flow¬ 
ing and non-flowing areas of the State. In using such general 
maps it should be borne in mind that artesian water depends 
primarily upon the structure of the underlying formations, and 
these are subject to variations of which there may be no surface 
indications. Moreover, local elevations which affect flow can not 
be indicated on a small scale map. Thus while the map indicates 
approximately the limits of flow, the exact limits can be deter¬ 
mined in most cases only by drilling. 

The shading on the map indicates those parts of the State in 
which flowing wells have been obtained, or may be expected. 
There are, as will be seen, three principal areas of flow as follows: 
the Atlantic Coast area, the Southern Gulf Coast area and the 
Western Gulf Coast area. 

THE ATLANTIC COAST AREA. 

The Atlantic Coast area includes much of Nassau and Duval 
Counties, and, with the exception of local elevated areas, all of 
St. Johns County; it follows the valley of the St. Johns River 
almost if not quite to the head waters, while a narrow strip reaches 
south along the Atlantic Coast for 250 to 300 miles. The artesian 
water-bearing formation dips in passing to the south, being- 
reached at Palm Beach at the depth of about 1,000 feet. In addi¬ 
tion to its increased depth the water at Palm Beach was jfound to 
be too salty to be used for household purposes. Between Palm 
Beach and Key West no wells have been drilled deep enough to 
reach this formation. The deep well drilled on Key Vaca by the 
Florida East Coast Railway terminated at 700 feet in quartz sands, 
with sandstones and clay in streaks, not having reached the Vicks¬ 
burg Limestone.* 

At Key West two wells have* been drilled to the Vicksburg, 
which is reached at that locality at a depth of about 700 feet. 

The first of these wells, drilled in 1895, is reported to have 


^Florida Geol. Survey, Second Annual Report, p. 205, 1909. 



158 


Florida state; geological survey. 


reached a depth of 2,000 feet. The well was non-flowing and the 
water salty. No adequate record of this well was kept, and it is 
not known to what depth the well was cased, nor whether or not 
there was any attempt made to drill beyond and case off the salty 
water. The second well was drilled, in 1909-10, by S. O. Johnson 
and reached a total depth of 1010 feet. This well is cased about 
150 feet. It is non-flowing and salty. Two samples of water 
from this well have been received from Mr. Johnson. One is 
said to have been taken from the water near the top of the well: 
the other from near the bottom of the well. The first of these 
samples contains chlorine 2,340 parts per million parts water. The 
sample said to have come from the bottom of the well contains 
1358 parts chlorine per million parts water. 

THE SOUTHERN GULF COAST AREA. 

Flowing wells have been obtained in areas of low elevation 
at Tampa, St. Petersburg and elsewhere, along the Gulf Coast 
for some distance north of St. Petersburg. It is only near the 
sea level in this northward extent of the area that a flow is to be 
expected. In Manatee County, along the Manatee River, strong 
flowing wells have been obtained; some of them having a pressure 
of eight or more pounds. The wells in this county are used 
extensively for irrigation. In DeSoto County flowing wells occur 
at Punta Gorda, and along Peace Creek into Polk County. Some 
of the wells at Punta Gorda have a head of about fifty feet. In 
Lee County flowing wells have been obtained at Ft. Myers, along 
the Caloosahatchee River to Labelle, and in the interior southeast 
of Ft. Myers. In the well of A. P. Miller, of Ft. Myers, having 
a depth of 535 feet the water was found to be under a pressure 
of 17 pounds, giving it a head of 39 feet above the surface. The 
southward extent of this flowing area has not been determined. 
Approaching the southern limit the amount of salt in the water 
increases, certain of the wells toward the southern part of Lee 
County becoming too salty for use. The Vicksburg Limestone is 
probably the water bearing formation in Southern as in Eastern 
Florida. 

Whether or not flowing wells can be obtained in the Ever- 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 159 


glades, east and south of Lake Okeechobee, has not been deter¬ 
mined as no wells have been drilled in this part of the State. 
While definite information is lacking, it is considered probable that 
flowing wells will be obtained within the Everglades; particularly 
toward the western side. Subsequent records may show that the 
Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast flowing areas are connected bv 
way of the Everglades and around Lake Okeechobee. 

While the northern limit of the Southern Gulf Coast area has 
been given as the Pinellas Peninsula, from recent well records it 
seems probable that a flow may be obtained north of this limit, 
and possibly entirely around the Gulf Coast. Two wells have 
reached this deeper flow, one at Crystal River, in Citrus County, 
and one at Perry, in Taylor County. The well in Taylor County 
reached a depth of 1,199 feet. The total dissolved solids in this 
water, as shown by analysis made by the State Chemist, is 5,650 
parts per million parts water. The chlorine alone amounts to 590 
parts per million parts water. The water is reported to have 
medicinal qualities. The well in Citrus County reached a depth 
of 1,900 feet. The following is an analysis of the water from 
this well made for the State Survey by the State Chemist in 1907: 


Ingredients. 

Calcium oxide (CaO) ... 
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 

Sulphate (SO 4 ) . 

Chlorine (Cl) .. 

Silica (SiCL) . 


Parts per million. 

. 1,385.0 

. 480.6 

. 2,684.0 

. 903.9 

. 30.0 


Total solids 


6,474.0 


WESTERN GULF COAST AREA. 

The Western Gulf Coast area begins at Carrabelle, in 
Franklin County, and extends to the western line of the State. 
The flow along this westward extension of the State is evidently 
due to the rapid southward dip of the formations exposed along 
the northern line of the State, and in southern Georgia and Ala¬ 
bama. Both the Oligocene and the Miocene formations exposed 









160 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


along the Ocklocknee, Apalachicola and other rivers crossing 
Western Florida, from north to south, dip and pass from view 
in approaching the coast. It is doubtless from these or from later 
formations that the flowing water of this section is obtained. At 
Apalachicola the artesian water has a head bringing it only a 
few feet above the surface. The wells at this locality vary m 
depth from 350 to 620 feet. A number of deep wells have been 
drilled along St. Andrews Bay, in Washington County. The 
artesian water in this section will rise several feet above sea level. 
One of the city wells at Panama City is reported to flow 13.02 
feet above the surface, or about 15 feet above sea level. A second 
city well, located on higher ground, is non-flowing although 
drilled to a depth of 630 feet. 

Several wells, ranging in depth from 181 to 210 feet, have 
been drilled along Choctawhatchee Bay, in Walton County. A 
strong flow is obtained in this section. A well 210 feet deep, 3 
miles south of Freeport, owned by the Baker-Wingfield Company, 
had a pressure when measured September 22, 1910, of 15 pounds, 
equivalent to a head of 34.65 feet above surface. Another wed 
near by, 189 feet deep, belonging to the Choctawhatchee Lumber 
Company, had a pressure on the same date of 12J4 pounds, equiva¬ 
lent to a head of 28.87 feet above the surface. Both of these wells 
are located on low ground, near sea level. A well, 181 feet deep, 
belonging to Messrs. J. C. Blackburn and J. N. McLain, located 
on higher ground, in the town of Freeport, had a pressure of 6y 2 
pounds, equivalent to a head above the surface of 15 feet. 

At Pensacola, and generally along the coast in Escambia County, 
good flowing wells are obtained. A well at Northrop, 1,030 feet 
deep, belonging to Stephen Lee, is reported to have a head of 60 
feet above the surface. At Muscogee a well, 175 feet deep, 
belonging to the Southern States Lumber Company, is reported 
to have a head of 38 feet above the surface. A well on Bayou 
Grande, near Pensacola, belonging to Messrs. Stephen and W. F. 
Lee, is reported to be 1,000 feet deep and to have a pressure of 
24 pounds, equivalent to a head of 55.44 feet above the surface. 
The temperature of the water is given as 92 degrees F. and the 
flow as 225,000 gallons per day. 


WATER SUPPLY' OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 161 


Among the isolated flowing wells in the State two at Grace- 
ville, in Jackson County, are of especial interest. The first well 
at this locality was drilled some years ago by Mr. F. J. White. 
When first drilled, Mr. White says, the well flowed slightly above 
the surface, but soon afterwards ceased to flow. On the day fol¬ 
lowing the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906, however, the 
well was observed to be flowing, and it has continued flowing 
from that date. The second well at Graceville was drilled in 
1910 for the city by Mr. C. D. Williams. This well is 287 feet 
deep. The water has a head sufficient to rise about 2 feet above 
the surface. The well is eight inches in diameter for 161 feet, 
and six inches to the bottom. The flow is estimated at 20 gallons 
per minutes. Although no well samples have been obtained it 
seems probable from the driller’s notes that the wells at this lo¬ 
cality pass through the Vicksburg Limestone and enter an under¬ 
lying formation. 

A well drilled as a test well for oil about six miles south of 
Chipley, in Washington County, is said to have flowed at a depth 
of about 1,250 feet. 

During 1912 flowing wells were obtained at and near Ponce 
de Leon, in Plolmes County. These wells vary in depth from 200 
to 213 feet. The water rises 5 to 6 feet above the surface. After 
passing through about 100 to 130 feet of sands, sandstone, and 
blue marl, limestone is reached from which the artesian water is 
obtained. The following is a log of one of these wells drilled 
for the town of Ponce de Leon. This well flows 65 gallons per 
minute and has a head of six feet above the surface. The record 
is by the drillers, M. J. Gray & Company. 


Feet. 

Coarse yellow sand . 0- 10 

White sandy clay . 10- 39 

Yellow sand .... 39- 43 

Sandstone ....... 43-60 

Blue marl ... 60-130 

White limestone . 130-203 








162 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


DISCUSSION BY COUNTIES 


NASSAU COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Nassau County lies bordering the Atlantic Ocean in extreme 
northeastern Florida. The St. Mary’s River, taking its source 
in Okefenokee and other swamps along the Florida-Georgia boun¬ 
dary line, after flowing south and southeast until approximately 
on a parallel with the mouth of the St. Johns River, turns abrupt¬ 
ly and flows directly north for a distance of 30 miles. From this 
point the river flows slightly south of east to the Atlantic. Nas¬ 
sau County occupies the northern and western part of the penin- 
sula-like extension of Florida formed by the northward bend of 
this river, the northern and western boundaries of the county 
being formed by the river. 

The surface is in general level or rolling. The highest eleva¬ 
tion found within the county is near the western side, where a 
flat-topped ridge extends north and south, lying only a few miles 
distant from the St. Marys river. Towns lying on this ridge 
are as follows: Boulogne, elevation 70 feet; Hilliard, elevation 
66 feet; Crawford, elevation 85 feet; Kent, elevation 70 feet 
Some places on this ridge may exceed 100 feet in elevation. 
Aside from this ridge no points are recorded in Nassau County 
having an elevation reaching 50 feet. 

That part of the county east of this ridge, including fully two 
thirds of the county, is lower in elevation and is prevailingly of 
the open flatwoods type of soil. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

Up to the present time the identification of the age and char¬ 
acter of the different strata encountered in drilling in Nassau 
County has been difficult owing to the fact that no complete set 
of well samples from any well in this county has been obtained. 



WATER SUPPLY OE ^ASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 163 

From an incomplete set of samples from the J. R. Wilson well 
at Callahan, kindly saved by the driller, Mr. H. C. Russell, it is 
seen that limestone was encountered at a depth of from 212 to 
255 feet. The limestone was very hard and massive and no fos¬ 
sils were observed in the sample. Just above this stratum of rock 
is reported a twelve foot layer of sand and black pebbles, and in 
fact these black pebbles were seen imbedded in the underlying 
limestone. Water is reported to flow frojm this depth. Below 
this stratum of rock 100 feet of blue marl with inclusions of 
several thin strata of shells is reported. In a sample from this 
stratum the sand was gray in color and the grains were round in 
outline. The black pebbles, smaller than those in the above 
stratum, occur also at this depth but may have dropped down 
from above. At a depth of from 355 to 364 feet a very hard 
rock is reported, but no further notes were made of this and no 
samples kept. From 364 to 418 feet indurated gray sand and 
blue marl are reported and immediately below this is encountered 
a rock, apparently limestone, in which the water is reported to 
increase in head and in volume of flow as each hard layer is pene¬ 
trated. From all information that could be gathered it seems 
probable that this limestone is the Vicksburg. 

Exposures of clayey, impure limestones are found along the 
St. Marys River, at High Bluff, about six miles and at Saw Pit 
Bluff, about two miles above the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
bridge; also at Chalk Bluff and at Orange Bluff, near King’s 
Ferry. 

The section at Saw Pit Bluff is as follows • 

Feet. 


Sticky blue clay with some soil. 5 

Impure limestone . .. o 


At Chalk Bluff, about two miles above King’s Ferry, the fol¬ 


lowing section was observed: 

Feet. 

Sticky blue clay with some soil at top. 2 

Calcareous clay resembling fuller’s earth. 2 

White chalky material. 1 

Clay resembling fuller’s earth .,. 2 









164 


FLORIDA SFATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Going down the river from Kings Ferry no rock or shell ex¬ 
posures are seen until Reeds Bluff, near Crandall, is reached. 
This bluff, which lies on the Florida side of the St. Mary’s River, 
is semi-circular in shape and is about three-fourths of a mile long. 
The following section was made near the middle of this bluff: 


Feet. 

Incoherent pale yellow sands. 20-40 

Oyster shell reef imbedded in fine, sandy clay. 10-15 

Blue sands and sandy clays oxidizing yellow. 10-20 


The oyster reef in this section rests irregularly upon the un¬ 
derlying sands, the base of the reef being- 10 to 20 feet above 
low tide. The oyster reef extends about two hundred feet along 
the face of the bluff. 

The unusual thickness of the loose yellow sands at the top of 
the bluff is due to the fact that the upward moving currents of 
air carry sand as it is loosened along the face of the bluff to the 
top, where it accumulates as a sand dune. 

Roses Bluff, also on the Florida side of the river, about two 
miles below Crandall, is semi-circular in shape and is fully two 
miles long. The following section was made near the middle of 
this bluff: 

Feet. 


Dark colored sand and soil. 4 

Dark iron-stained sand (hardpan). 7 

Ochre yellow sand. 8 

Sand with some clay. 5 

Sandy shell bearing marl, blue, oxidizing yellow. 4 

Sloping to water’s edge at low tide. 5 


33 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN NASSAU COUNTY. 

That part of Nassau County in which flowing wells can be 
obtained is indicated on the accompanying map by shading. 
Flowing wells may be obtained as shown by the map, Fig. 6, 
in approximately the eastern twc-thirds of the county. A rela¬ 
tively small area, including the ridge already mentioned, lying 
near the western part of the county and extending north and 
south, parallel with the St. Marys River, stands too high to obtain 











WATER SURREY OR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 165 


flowing wells. In this section, however, non-flowing artesian 
water may be obtained which will stand within a few feet of the 
surface. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

CALLAHAN. 

There are several flowing wells at and in the vicinity of Cal¬ 
lahan, varying from 410 to 489.7 feet in depth. Three different 
water-bearing strata are reported in all the deeper wells at Cal¬ 
lahan, the -first occurring at about 50, the second at from 160 to 
200, and the third at 400 to 425 feet. The water from the first 
stratum does not flow, but rises to within 6 to 10 feet of the 
surface, and is found in a shell formation. The water from the 
other two strata rises from 28 to 48 feet above the surface. 

The first deep or artesian well at Callahan was drilled in 
1904. This well was put down at the instance of several of the 
residents, by D. C. Stafford. It is a three-inch well and reported 
to be about 400 feet deep. The main source of domestic water 
supply at Callahan until the completion of this well had been 
shallow wells. These wells, which vary in depth from 25 to 60 
feet, obtain their water supply chiefly from the underlying sands 
and clays. The water from these sands and clays, while soft 
and very desirable for domestic purposes, seemed to be contami¬ 
nated by surface impurities as was indicated by the many cases 
of typhoid fever. Several of the citizens suspected that this sick¬ 
ness was due to the drinking of this surface water and their 
combined efforts resulted in the completion of this first artesian 
well. Since the completion of this and other deep wells the 
healthfulness of the locality has greatly improved. 

A three-inch well drilled for J. R. Wilson in 1908 by H. C. 
Russell reached a total depth of 412 feet. It is reported cased 
188 feet and has a pressure of 21 pounds, as shown by the pres¬ 
sure gauge February 3, 1910, or a head of 48.51 feet above the 
surface. The elevation of the depot at Callahan, as given by the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, is 20 feet above sea. The location 
of the above well is approximately 2 feet lower than the depot. 


166 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


or about 18 feet above sea, thus making a total head of 66.51 feet 
above sea. 

Another three-inch well was drilled by H. C. Russell for 
T. R. Wells & Brother. This well reached a total depth of 420 
feet and is cased 192 feet. The pressure of this well, as shown 
by the pressure gauge, February 3, 1910, was 19 pounds or a 
head of 43.89 feet above the surface. The elevation of the well is 
approximately 3 feet higher than the depot or 5 feet higher than 
the Wilson well. The head would thus be 66.89 feet above sea 
or about the same as that of the Wilson well. 

In February, 1910, H. C. Russell completed a second well for 
J. R. Wilson. This well is located about three-fourths of a mile 
east of Callahan. It is a three-inch well and reaches a total 
depth of 489.7 feet. 212 feet of 3-inch casing was used. The 
first flow in this well was encountered at 200 feet, the second at 
275 feet and the third at 425 feet. Although the drilling in this 
well was continued to a depth of 489.7 feet it is reported that no 
increase of water was obtained below 460 feet. The following 
is a log of this well as constructed from the notes kept by the 
driller and from samples of the drillings saved by him: 


Feet. 

Sand . 0- 2 

Red clay . 2- 10 

Blue clay and sand. 10- 45 

Shell deposit, including a thin layer of hard rock at 52 ft. 

Water above and below this rock comes to within ten 

feet of surface . 45- 60 

Blue marl with occasional beds of shells 3 or 4 feet thick 

and containing black to dark gray water-worn pebbles. 60-200 
Medium coarse sand with numerous very small black grains 


or pebbles. A flow was obtained at this depth.200-212 

Limestone (sample) .212-255 

Blue marl and fine sands with inclusions of several thin 

strata of shell. (Sample).255-355 

Very hard rock. 355-364 

Indurated gray sand and blue marl.364-418 


Rock, hard and soft strata with increase of flow upon pene¬ 
trating each hard stratum. No increase reported below 
460 feet. Driller reports the rock to be closer grained 
from 460 to 489.7 feet, and not containing much water..418-489.7 











WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 167 


CRANDALL. 

Two wells are reported at Crandall, both of which are owned 
by Messrs. L. A. Davis & Brother. These wells are three 
inches in diameter and both are reported cased to a depth of 
80 feet. One was drilled to a depth of 480 feet; the other 
a depth of 450 feet. The water is reported to rise 35 feet above 
the surface. The water from one of the wells is used for the 
boiler supply at the sawmill and is said to form a hard scale. 
The other well is used for general drinking purposes. 

EVERGREEN. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Evergreen postoffice, a village 
about four miles distant from Evergreen station on the Sea¬ 
board Air Line Railway. A well owned by Mr. L. L. Owens 
and drilled by Mr. D. C. Stafford in 1909 is about 500 feet deep. 
It is two inches in diameter and is reported cased 270 feet. The 
water is reported to rise 25 feet above the surface. 

FERNANDINA. 

Fernandina, the county seat of Nassau County, is located in 
- the northeastern part of the county, on Amelia Island. This is¬ 
land is thirteen miles long and is from one to three miles wide. 
The greater portion is low and flat, while other parts are gently 
undulating. The highest elevation on the island is to be found 
along the line of sand dunes bordering the ocean. The dune 
on which the lighthouse is placed reaches an elevation of about 
55 feet above the sea. 

The first flow of water in and near Fernandina is reported to 
be encountered at a depth of from 400 to 500 feet after drilling 
through a considerable thickness of sand and blue to greenish 
clay or marl. The water at this depth, as indicated by notes 
obtained from well drillers, comes from a sand stratum confined 
there by the overlying, very compact, blue to greenish clays. 

The second water bearing stratum or chief source of supply is 
obtained at or about the depth of 600 feet. In the log of the 


168 


FLORIDA STAFF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


new well at the city water works limestone or what was termed 
by the driller, Mr. H. Walker, “water rock” was encountered at 
a depth of 556 feet. This was reported to consist of alternating 
hard and soft strata and the flow of water to increase with depth 
as each hard stratum was penetrated. 

The first well drilled on Amelia Island was put down for the 
City of Fernandina by Messrs. Wade and Hampton in 1888. 
This well is located 5 blocks east of the city postoffice and is 
eight inches in diameter and was drilled to a total depth of 640 
feet. It is reported cased 618 feet. At this depth an abundance 
of flowing water was obtained but as the well subsequently be¬ 
came filled with sand the flow decreased to such an extent that 
in order to get a sufficient amount of water to supply the city 
pumping had to be resorted to. Later the well was drilled deeper 
to a depth of 731 feet. The flow, however, is reported not to be 
as great as it was originally, although the deepening of the well 
increased the amount of flow to such an extent that the pumping 
of the water became unnecessary. This well is reported to have 
had a pressure of 14 pounds when first drilled in 1888. The 
following record of measurements of the flow of this well were 
kindly supplied by Mr. R. V. Nolan, superintendent of the City 
Waterworks. 


Flow of well. 

Date. Gallons per day. 

1890.... 1,152,000 

1902. 641,832 

1904 . 495,408 

1905 . 440,564 

1907. 425,952 

1909. 408,000 


In 1906 a second well was drilled for the city by Mr. H 
Walker. This well contains 120 feet of 10-inch casing; 356 feet 
of 8-inch casing; and 455 feet of six-inch casing and is drilled 
to a total depth of 733 feet. The head of the water in this we 1 ! 
as shown by the pressure gauge January 28, 1910, was 14 pounds 
to the square inch or 32.3 feet above the surface elevation of the 
well, which is about 29 feet above sea, thus making a total head 








WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 169 


of 61.3 feet above sea. The flow of this well in 1909 was 672,- 
000 gallons per day. 

The following is a log of the new well at the City Waterworks 
as given by Mr. H. Walker, the driller: 


Feet. 

Sand . 0-110 

Medium hard rock. 110-126 

Sand and clay.126-185 

'Clay .185-400 

Sand .400-450 

Green clay .450-512 

Rock .512-517 

Blue clay .517-556 

Limestone, termed “bed rock,” with alternating hard and 

soft strata . 556-733 


A well three and one-fourth miles south of Fernandina owned 
by the Nassau Truck & Farm Company was drilled by J. W. 
Wiggins in 1909. This is a six-inch well, 650 feet deep and 
cased 442 feet. The first hard rock is reported at a depth of 
500 feet. The pressure of this well was taken January 14, 1910, 
and was found to be 20J^ pounds or a pressure sufficient to 
cause the water to rise 47.3 feet above the surface. 

The following is a log of this well as constructed from the 
notes kept and kindly made available by Mr. Walter Schucht, 


Superintendent of the company: 

Feet. 

Muck . 0- 3 

Hardpan. A small flow just below this. 3- 9 

Sand . 9-100 

Blue clay. A good flow of water reported.100-200 

Sand .200-400 

Coarse sand and black pebbles.400-500 

Hard rock .500-630 

Limestone, hard and soft strata. Increase of flow upon 

breaking through each hard stratum.630-650 


The following is an analysis of the water drawn from this 
well January 14, 1910. Analysis made for the State Survey in 
the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 



















170 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica, (Si0 2 ) . 24.0 

Chlorine, (Cl) . 30.0 

Sulphates, (SO 4 ) . 133.0 

Phosphates, (PO 4 ) . 0.0 

Carbonates, (CO 3 ) . 0.0 

Bicarbonates, (HCO 3 ) . 195.0 

Sodium and Potassium (Na & K). 30.0 

Magnesium (Mg) . 13.0 

Calcium (Ca) . 55.0 

Iron and Alumina, (Fe & Al).Trace 

Toss on Ignition. 130.0 

Total dissolved solids.. 500.0 


A well just across Amelia River and about two miles south¬ 
west of Fernandina was driven by James Jones for L. G. Hirth. 
The well is 94 feet deep, two inches in diameter and the water 
stands 7 feet below the surface. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well made 
by Dr. E. R. Flint, Chemist, University of Florida, Gainesville, 


Fla.: 

Constituents. Parts per million. 

Free Ammonia . None 

Albuminoid Ammonia .Slight Trace 

Nitrites ...SlightTrace 

Nitrates . None 

Chlorine . 20.40 

Total Solids . 192.01 

Organic and Volatile Solids. 30.00 

Hardness (CaCOs) .. 54.85 

Permanent Hardness . None 


HILTIARD. 

Hilliard is located in northwestern Nassau County, on the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, and about eight miles distant from 
the St. Marys River. No flowing wells have been reported in 
this part of the county, the elevation being too great. The eleva¬ 
tion of the depot at Hilliard as recorded by the Atlantic Coast 
Line Railroad is 66 feet. Mr. D. W. Griffing has kindly fur- 























WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PRORIDA. 171 


nished several points of elevation covering the property of the 
Cornwall Farm Land Company 

The only deep well reported at Hilliard is owned by The 
Cornwall Farm Land Company and was drilled by J. W. Wig¬ 
gins in 1909. It is an eight-inch well, 648+ feet in depth and 
cased about 400 feet. The elevation at the well is somewhat 
above the depot and the water is reported to rise to within 12 
feet' of the surface. Hard rock was encountered at 300 feet and 
the principal supply of water is reported as being obtained from 
the depth of 400 feet. The following is an analysis of the water 
from this well. Analysis by the Chemical and Engineering Com¬ 
pany, 35 Kinzie Street, Chicago, Ill.: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Organic Matter . 37.0 

Silica . 36.0 

Calcium Carbonate (Lime 91. parts per mil.). 151.0 

Calcium Sulphate . 16.0 

Magnesium Sulphate . 105.0 

Magnesium Chloride . 40.8 

Sodium Chloride (common salt). 20.3 


ITALIA. 

One deep well is reported at Italia. This well is now owned 
by McLeod Bros. & Airth and was drilled in 1905. It is a 2-inch 
well and reached a total depth of 430+ feet. It is reported cased 
40 feet and to have a head of 30 feet above the surface. 

KING’S FERRY. 

Kings Ferry is located on the St. Marys River, about 30 miles 
up the river from Fernandina. One deep well owned by W. J. 
Carlton is reported from Kings Ferry. This well is two inches 
in diameter and about 400 feet deep and was drilled in 1909 by 
D. C. Stafford. The pressure of this well could not be ascer¬ 
tained but it furnishes a strong flow and was reported to rise 
more than 31 feet above the surface in a one-inch pipe. 









172 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LESSIE. 

A deep well at Lessie, owned by J. R. Wilson & Company 
and drilled by D. C. Stafford, is reported to have a depth of 450 
feet. It is a two-inch well and furnishes an abundant supply 
of water. 

EOFTON. 

The well of J. W. Rodgers at Lofton was bored in 1906 and 
is reported to have a depth of 510 feet. It is two inches in 
diameter and gives a good flow, but the height to which the water 
would rise above the surface was not learned The water from 
the well is used for general domestic purposes and to supply the 
turpentine still. 

DUVAL COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Duval County joins Nassau County on the south, and is sepa¬ 
rated from it by the Nassau River and its tributary, Thomas 
Creek. The St. Johns River flows through Duval County. The 
surface drainage from this county is carried off largely through 
these rivers and their tributaries. 

The surface is in general flat or but slightly rolling. The 
surface elevation rises gradually from sea level. The highest 
elevation reached is found in the southwestern part of the county, 
where the “Trail Ridge” forms part of the boundary. A narrow 
strip along this part of the county exceeds 100 feet in elevation. 
With this exception practically all parts of this county lie below 
the 100-foot contour line, while much of the area lies below the 
25-foot contour line. 

The elevations in Nassau and Duval Counties have been ob¬ 
tained from various sources. An important line of levels extend¬ 
ing from Trout Creek across Nassau and Duval Counties in a 
southwesterly direction, made' during the summer of 1909, in con¬ 
nection with a preliminary survey for a ship canal across Florida, 
were kindly made available for this purpose in the office of the 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 173 


United States Engineer at Jacksonville. Similar surveys made 
by the same office in 1879 supplied elevations from Fernandina 



Fig. 6.—Map of flowing area of Nassau and Duval Counties. The: 
area in which flowing wells can be obtained is indicated by shading. 


to Maxville and at various points along the St. Marys River.* 
In addition much information as to elevations has been obtained 


* Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1880, pp. 973-1010. 
































174 


FLORIDA state; geological survey. 


from the profiles of the several railroads crossing this section, 
particularly the Seaboard Air Line from Jacksonville to Maxville, 
the Florida East Coast from Jacksonville to Mayport and the 
Atlantic Coast Fine from Jacksonville to the St. Marys River. 

From Jacksonville westward the rise in elevation, as shown 
by the profile of the Seaboard Air Line Railway, is very gradual, 
to a point three miles west of Jacksonville where an elevation of 
27 feet is reached. From this summit the elevation drops off 
slightly, the elevation of Cedar Creek being 17 feet. Beyond 
Cedar Creek the elevation rises more rapidly. Marietta station 
is approximately GO feet above sea. The summit of this rise is 
reached two miles west of Marietta where the elevation is 94 
feet. White House station is 82 feet above sea Beyond McGirts 
Creek one and one-half miles an elevation of 91 feet is reached. 
From this point there is a very gradual slope to Baldwin, this 
latter place being 86 feet above sea. South from Baldwin the 
contour rises in general, reaching an elevation of 93 feet at Max¬ 
ville and 100 feet one-half mile beyond the county line. 

The line of levels run by United States Engineers extends 
from Trout Creek, passing just to the south of Brandy Branch 
station, or Bryceville postoffice. The summit elevation in Nas¬ 
sau and Duval Counties along this line occurs about four miles 
northeast of Brandy Branch, where an elevation of 90 feet is 
recorded. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deeper wells in Duval County reach and terminate in the 
Vicksburg Limestone. This is known to be the case at Jack¬ 
sonville, at which place the Vicksburg is reached at approxi¬ 
mately five hundred feet from the surface. The wells at Jack¬ 
sonville, the deepest of which reach a total depth of something 
over a thousand feet, do not, so far as the records show, pass 
entirely through the Vicksburg. 

The formations lying above the Vicksburg are less charac¬ 
teristic lithologically and are not easily differentiated. The sur¬ 
face deposits include both recent and Pleistocene material. During 
a part of Pleistocene time this section of the State stood at a 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 175 


lower level than at present, permitting the ocean to extend inland 
some distance beyond the present coast line. Conrad* has re- 

*Conrad, T. A., Am. Journ. Sci. (2) 11, 38, 1846. 
corded the occurrence of marine shell deposits of post-Pliocene 
age along the banks of the St. Johns River at an elevation of 
from ten to fifteen feet above the present high tide. Conrad also 
reports a similar post-Pliocene deposit about one-half mile from 
the bank of the river near the ancient village of PTasard. Marl 
deposits are said to occur near the mouth of the St. Johns River, 
on the banks of Ft. George Inlet. That the depression of the 
coast during Pleistocene time was general is indicated by the 
records from several other localities. 

Beneath the Pleistocene, Pliocene deposits probably occur over 
some parts of the county. The total thickness of the Pleistocene 
and Pliocene, if both are represented, is, however, not great, as 
the fossiliferous Miocene limestone was reached at Jacksonville, 
in the boring at the city well, at a depth of 33 feet. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN DUVAL COUNTY. 

The area of artesian flow in Duval County is indicated on the 
accompanying map by shading. As will be observed the flowing 
area borders the Atlantic coast, Nassau and St. Johns Rivers 
and extends some distance inland, following each smaller stream 
and tributary. The wells in western Duval County are non¬ 
flowing. A topographic map of this section would assist in deter¬ 
mining flowing and non-flowing sections, since the flow is to a 
large extent correlated with elevation. It is to be borne in mind, 
however, that artesian water depends primarily upon the struc¬ 
ture of the underlying formations and these formations are liable 
to variations of which there is no surface indication. For this 
reason, while the map indicates the area of probable flow the 
exact limits of the area are best determined by drilling. 



176 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LOCAL, DETAILS. 

BALDWIN. 

Baldwin is located on the Seaboard Air Line Railway, nine¬ 
teen miles west of Jacksonville. The elevation is approximately 
86 feet above sea. Three wells have been drilled at or near Bald¬ 
win. The deepest of these, located at the Atlantic Coast Line Rail¬ 
road crossing, one-half mile north of Baldwin, is reported to reach 
a total depth of 580 feet and is cased 511 feet. A second well 
nearby reaches a depth of 100 feet. A third well located at Bald¬ 
win reaches a depth of 92 feet. All of these wells are non-flowing, 
although the water rises within a few feet of the surface. The 
distance at which the water stands from the surface in the deep 
web is not reported beyond the statement that the well is non- 
flowing. 

BAYARD. 

Bayard is located on the Florida East Coast Railway, fifteen 
miles south of Jacksonville. The elevation of this place is ap¬ 
proximately 22 feet above sea. Flowing water is obtained at 
Bayard, one well having been put down for the Carter-Lucas 
Co. This is a three-inch well, reported to have been drilled to a 
depth of 280 feet. The water here will rise at least fifteen feet 
above the surface. 

JACKSONVILLE. 

The large number of wells occurring at Jacksonville precludes 
the possibility of listing or describing all. Probably not less than 
five hundred flowing wells occur in or near this city. 

The first flow obtained at Jacksonville, according to the rec¬ 
ords of the city well, was a light flow from a depth of 487 feet. 
A large flow, however, is not obtained until the drill enters the 
Vicksburg limestones, at a depth of about 524 feet. After reach¬ 
ing the Vicksburg the flow increases upon breaking each compact 
layer. At a depth of 632 feet the flow in the new city well was 
found to be one million gallons per day. At a depth of 980 feet 


WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 177 


the same well supplied a flow of two million gallons per day. 

The material penetrated in the drilling at Jacksonville, for a 
depth of about 500 feet, consists largely of clays, sandy clays, 
and sands with some fossiliferdus limestone and some shell de¬ 
posits. From about 500 to 524 feet the record shows considerable 
dense hard rock. After penetrating this stratum the limestones 
of the Vicksburg group are reached. 

The water supply for the city of Jacksonville is obtained from 
artesian wells. At present ten artesian wells are in use. Details 
as to the depth and construction of these wells will be found in 
the table of well records Nos. 1 to 10. The log of well No. 6 
was given in the Second Annual Report, p. 109. The samples 
from which this log was made were obtained by Superintendent 
Ellis by first drilling an eight-inch well, and afterwards reaming 
it out to a ten-inch well. 

The following is the record of the new city well at Jackson¬ 
ville. Sample of drillings from this well, together with notes on 
the materials penetrated, were kindly kept by Mr. S. L. Hughes 
of the Hughes Specialty Well Drilling Company, of Charleston, 
South Carolina: 


Filled ground and sand . 0 

Sand with some clay.... 15 

Sandy limestone, yellowish or light buff in color. 33 

Light colored clay marl . 37 

Blue sticky clay with black phosphatic pebbles. 70 


Marls, usually green or olive green in color containing 
variable amount of sand, and clay. Black phosphatic 
pebbles together with some shell fragments occur 
throughout the marl. Occasional thin layers of 
light colored limestone are reported within this 
interval. First flow of water at 270 feet 5 gallons 


per minute . 100 

Buff clay resembling fuller’s earth mixed as seen in the 

sample, with green sandy marl.. 320 

Greenish and sandy clayey marl.. 340 

Indurated sands or sandstones . 390 

Greenish sandy marls ...». 396 

Light colored limestone . 415 

Greenish calcareous sandy clay. 420 

Dark colored hard sand rock . 434 


- 15 

- 33 

- 37 

- 70 
-100 


-320 

-340 

-390 

-396 

-415 

-420 

-434 

-435 















178 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Olive green calcareous sandy clay ... 435 -455 

Light sandy marl ... 455 -455J4 

Green sandy marl . 455^4-462 

Dark sandy clay . 462 -490 

Very hard dark or gray sand rock . 490 -493 

Silicified and very hard shell rock with siliceous phos- 
phatic pebbles. After passing through this rock the 
flow is increased to 112 gallons per minute, tem¬ 
perature 71 degrees F. 493 -498 

Light colored marl . 498 -500 

]Jard rock ..... 500 -506 

Light gray sandy calcareous rock with black phosphatic 

pebbles . 506 -510 

Feet. 


Light colored fossiliferous limestone (Vicksburg). Upon 
reaching this formation the flow is increased to 200 
gallons per minute. At 625 to 635 feet the harder 
stratum was drilled through, which flowed 500 gallons 
per minute, temperature 74 degrees F. At 680 feet the 
water pressure measured, as shown by the gauge, 12 

pounds . .510-680 

Limestone, prevailing brownish in color, and as a rule hard¬ 
er than above. Occasional thin layers of marl and 
shell. Slight increase of flow at 780, water pressure at 
900 feet 15 pounds; flow about 900 gallons per minute; 

temperature 74 degrees F .680-900 

Limestone similar in character to above, but as a rule not 
so hard. Flow at 980 feet, 1,500 to 2,000 gallons per 
minute . 900-980 

The Vicksburg Limestone was reached in this well at a depth 
of about 510 feet. The first 170 feet of the Vicksburg is prevail¬ 
ingly light colored or white and fossiliferous. Below 680 feet 
the limestone is as a rule brownish in color, compact and harder 
in texture and not so fossiliferous. The amount of flow, the 
pressure and the temperature increased as the deeper layers of the 
Vicksburg Limestone were penetrated. 

The formations lying above the Vicksburg Limestone can 
scarcely be differentiated. The Jacksonville formation, Miocene, 
is reached at the depth of 33 feet. At‘about 320 feet some clays 
resembling fuller’s earth were obtained. At from 415 to 420 feet 
light colored clayey limestones were encountered. With these 














WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 179 


exceptions the interval from 37 feet to 510 feet consists largely 
of an olive green sandy man. 

An analysis of the water of the public supply at Jacksonville 
was made in 1898. Analyst, Albert Leeds, 

Technology. The analysis is as follows 

Constituents. 

Silica and insoluble matter . 0.729 

Alumina . 0.047 

Carbonate of lime . 3.866 

Sulphate of lime . 4.053 

Sulphate of magnesia . 2.927 

Sulphate of soda . 5.843 

Chlorides of soda . 4.811 

Free ammonia ... 

Albuminoid ammonia . 


is, Stevens 

Institute of 

Grains per 

Parts per 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

. . 0.729 

12.497 

. . 0.047 

8.057 

. . 3.866 

66.274 

. . 4.053 

69.480 

. . 2.927 

50.177 

. . 5.843 

100.166 

. . 4.811 

82.474 


0.143 


0.044 


The following is an analysis of the water from the well of 
the Florida East Coast Railway, at South Jacksonville. The well 
is 651 feet deep. The analysis is by the American Water Soften¬ 
er Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Grains per 

Parts per 

Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Calcium carbonate . 

.32 

5.48 

Calcium sulphate .. 

. 15.00 

257.14 

Calcium chloride . 

. 1.23 

21.08 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 5.94 

101.82 

Sodium chloride . 

. 0.69 

11.82 

Free carbon dioxide. 

. 0.41 

7.02 

Iron, aluminum and silica.. 

.... 0.09 

1.54 

Incrusting solids . 

. 22.59 

387.26 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 0.69 

11.82 

Total solids. 

. 25.90 

444.00 


The following is a log of this well obtained through Mr. G. A. 
Miller, as reported by the driller, Mr. H. Walker. 


Feet. 

Dark sand . 0- 6 

Clay . 6- 7 

White sand . 7- 9 

Gravel .!. 9- 13 





























180 FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

White clay . 13- 17 

White clay and sand. 17- 31 

Hard rock, clay and rock. 31- 35 

Blue clay . 35-50 

Rock . 50- 56 

White clay and sand. 56- 89 

Sand . 89- 90 

White clay and sand. 90-129 

Soft rock .129-130 

Blue clay and sand...130-200 

Loose sand . .200-201 

Tough clay and sand.201-310 

Sand .310-312 

Loose sand .312-355 

Clay and sand.355-365 

Clay ..365-387 

Clay and gravel.387-388 

Rock .....388-396 

White clay ..396-406 

Rock and clay...406-412 

Hard rock .412-414 

Clay with thin strata of soft rock.414-451 

Clay and sand.451-465 

Blue clay .465-477 

Sand .477-481 

Soft sandy rock.481-486 

Sand .486-492 

Loose sand .492-501 

Hard rock .501-510 

Soft rock .510-536 

Limestone . 536-650 

MANDARIN. 

Mandarin lies within the flowing area which borders the St. 
Johns River. Several wells have been put down in this section. 
A well near Mandarin, drilled by H. Walker for J. D. Mead, 
reached a total depth of 600 feet. This well is cased 377 feet 
and the water is reported as rising 60 feet above the surface. 

































WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 181 
MANHATTAN BEACH. 

The following is a log of a well drilled at Manhattan Beach 
by H. VanDorn for the Florida East Coast Railway. This well 
flows 15,000 gallons per hour through a two-inch pipe. The 
pressure at the surface is 20.5 pounds. The record has been 
obtained through Mr. G. A. Miller. 

Feet. 

Sand .. 0- 35 

Clay. 35- 47 

Clay resembling soapstone .,. 47- 90 

Clay. 90-140 

Soft rock .140-155 

Clay .155-160 

Soft rock .160-170 

Sand and clay .170-185 

Sand ..185-210 

Clay . 210-275 

Rock .275-280 

Clay .280-290 

Rock .. 290-292 

Sand and clay . 292-310 

Rock ..!.310-311 

Clay .311-320 

Sand and clay .320-340 

Clay .340-350 

Sand . 350-357 

Clay ..357-361 

Rock .361-363 

Clay .363-369 

Rock .369-370 

Clay .370-385 

Rock .385-387 

Sand . 387-390 

Rock .390-391 

Clay .391-395 

Rock . 395-396 

Clay .396-398 

Rock . 398-404 

Water-bearing rock .404-450 

Soft rock .450-490 

Hard rock .490-520 

Water-bearing rock .520-540 





































182 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Hard and soft rock in thin layers .640-555 

Soft rock .555-57G 

Hard and soft rock in thin layers .576-GOO 


MAXVILLE. 

Maxville is located on the Seaboard Air Line Railway, near 
the southwestern corner of Duval County. The elevation at this 
point is, according to the profiles of the railroad, about 93 feet 
above sea. A well drilled at this place in 1902 for Mr. R. V. 
Douglass is reported to have reached the depth of 650 feet. This 
well is non-flowing. 

MAYPORT. 

The following is an analysis of the water of the well of the 
Florida East Coast Railway at Mayport. The well is 600 feet 
deep and has a pressure of 22 pounds. Analysis by the American 
Water Softener Company, Philadelphia, Pa.: 


Grains per Parts per 


Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 3.57 

60.20 

Calcium sulphate . 

. 5.33 

91.37 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 4.46 

76.45 

Sodium carbonate . 

.70 

] 2.00 

Sodium chloride .... 

. 2.45 

42.00 

Free carbon dioxide . 

. .32 

5.48 

Iron, aluminum and silica . 

. .33 

5.65 

Incrusting solids . 

. 13.69 

234.68 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 3.13 

53.65 

Total solids . 

. 18.09 

310.11 


The following is a log of a well drilled at Mayport by B. S. 
Partridge for the Florida East Coast Railway. The record has 
been made available by Mr. G. A. Miller: 


Feet. 

Sand and muck . 0- 57 

Rock . 57- 61 

Sand . 61- 85 

Rock . 85- 87 





















WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 183 


Clay . 87-160 

Rock ..160-165 

Clay .165-200 

Sand .200-240 

Clay .240-275 

Rock .275-280 

Sand . 280-350 

Rock . 350-353 

Clay ...353-363 

Rock . 363-366 

Clay .366-375 

Rock .375-379 

Sand .379-400 

Clay ..400-440 

Soft rock .440-447 

Soft water-bearing rock .447-627 

Hard rock .627-630 


ST. JOHNS COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

St. Johns County lies in northeastern Florida, bordering the 
Atlantic Ocean. On the north it joins Duval County and on the 
south Volusia County. The western boundary is formed by the 
St. Johns River. The county has a total length of sixty miles. 
In width it varies from eighteen to twenty-four miles. The total 
area is approximately 1,000 square miles. 

Owing to the location of St. Johns County between the St. 
Johns River, on the west, and the Atlantic Ocean, on the east, no 
great variation in elevation is to be expected. It is probable, 
however, that small areas in the interior of the county lie above 
the fifty-foot contour. In passing from St. Augustine to Jack¬ 
sonville, levels made by the Florida East Coast Railway show 
near the county line an elevation over a small area of 57 feet. 
The greatest elevation recorded between St. Augustine and Hast¬ 
ings is in the vicinity of Hurds. A line of levels run from the 
coast at St. Augustine, at the instance of Mr. B. A. Carter, gave 
for Hurds an elevation of thirty-eight feet. Revels obtained from 
the U. S. Engineers’ Office, Jacksonville, Florida, give, for a point 



















184 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


a short distance east of Hurds, a level of thirty-six feet. From 
East Palatka south information regarding elevation is unfortu¬ 
nately very deficient. From the fact that such wells as have been 
put down at Dinner Island, Espanola, Bunnell and Dupont, are 
non-flowing, it is probable that this part of the county is above 
the twenty-five-foot contour line, and parts of this area may, in 
fact, approach or exceed the fifty-foot contour. Along the west 
side of the county bordering the St. Johns River areas varying 
in width from 3 to 10 or more miles lie below the twenty-five- 
foot contour line. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The Vicksburg Limestone is the chief source of the artesian 
water supply of St. Johns County, although a small flow is prob¬ 
ably obtained before reaching this formation. The Vicksburg 
Limestone consists of alternating hard and soft fossiliferous 
strata and is usually easily recognized. At St. Augustine, accord¬ 
ing to determinations made by Dr. W. H. Dali,* fossils charac¬ 
teristic of this formation were obtained from a depth of 224 feet. 
At Hastings, 17 miles southwest of St. Augustine, well records 
indicate that a limestone similar in character to the Vicksburg is 
reached at a depth of from 175 to 200 feet. At Orange Mills, in 
Putnam County, 3 miles southwest of Hastings, Orbitoides, ap¬ 
parently representing some member of the Vicksburg group, 
were obtained at a depth reported at 110 feet. At the time the 
sample was received the well was drilled to a total depth of only 
130 feet. Toward the northern part of St. Johns County the 
Vicksburg Limestone probably dips deeper, since, at Jacksonville, 
this formation is first reached at a depth of about 524 feet. 

The superficial material in this county is largely Pleistocene 
and recent sands together with Pleistocene and recent shell de¬ 
posits. Oscillations of level have affected the surface elevation, 
and consequently the relative extent of land and water area in 
this county within comparatively recent time. That this part of 
the State stood at a lower level during a part of Pleistocene time 
is evident from the occurrence of marine shell deposits of Pleisto- 


WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 185 


cene age at some distance inland and at an elevation of several 
feet above the present sea level. Oyster banks, probably of 
Pleistocene age, are exposed along a small drainage ditch on 
the farm of A. W. Corbett, four miles southwest of St. Augus¬ 
tine, at an elevation of at least 15 to 20 feet above the present 
sea level. That this depression during Pleistocene time was 
general for this part of the State is indicated by the evidence 
already given. 

The identification of the formations lying above the Vicksburg 
limestones and beneath the superficial sands, from well records 
alone is a matter of difficulty. This interval in St. Johns County 
is occupied largely by clays, although some sand, shell and rock 
strata occur. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN ST. JOHNS COUNTY. 

The areas of flowing and non-flowing wells in St. Johns 
County are indicated on the accompanying map. 

The shaded lines on the map indicate the area in which flow¬ 
ing artesian wells can be obtained in this county. As will be 
seen from the map the flowing area borders the Atlantic coast 
and the St. Johns River, and has a width along the coast and also 
along the St. Johns of from two or three to eight or ten miles. 
The flowing area extends inland following the streams. So far 
as present records show, a narrow strip extending north and 
south through the central part of the county is non-flowing. A 
fresh water spring is reported to occur in the ocean opposite 
Matanzas. Springs of this character represent the natural escape 
of the underground waters into the ocean. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

ANASTASIA ISLAND. 

A six-inch well, drilled in 1895, at South Beach, on Antastasia 
Island, reached a total depth of 260 feet. A strong flow of sul¬ 
phur water was obtained-from this well. 


*U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 84, p. 125, 1892. 



186 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig. 7.—Map showing the area of artesian flow in St. Johns County. 
The area in which flowing wells can be obtained is indicated by shading. 


























WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 187 


ARMSTRONG. 

Flowing wells have been obtained in the vicinity of Armstrong. 
A four-inch well, drilled in 1908, for J. W. Williams by N. H. 
Monck, reached a total depth of 200 feet. This well is cased 70 
feet and the water is reported to rise 12 feet above the surface. 

BUNNELL. 

An effort was made in 1909 to obtain a flowing well at Bun¬ 
nell. A five-inch well was drilled at this place by Mr. N. H. 
Monck for Messrs. Lambert & Moody. This well was cased to 
a depth of 130 feet and is reported to have been drilled to a total 
depth of 300 feet. A flow is not obtained in this well, although 
the water rises to within about two feet of the surface. 

A second well owned by Messrs. Lambert & Moody, drilled 
by Bellough & Melton in 1910, is 128 feet deep. The following 


log of this well was supplied by the drillers: 

Feet. 

Surface material and sand . 0 -45 

Blue clay . 45 - 90 

Black material looking like' gunpowder or pepper . 90 -109 

Blue clay .109 -119 

Shell and sand .119 -124 

Blue hard rock.124 -124^4 

Cavity 6-inch, sand and shell. Water rises to within 

1.4 feet of surface .124^2-125 

Blue hard rock, more water, with same head; drilling 

stopped in second cavity. 125 -128 


DINNER ISLAND. 

A record of one well has been obtained at Dinner Island. 
This is a three-inch well drilled by Mr. H. Mervin for Padgett 
& Company. It has a total depth of 200 feet and does not 
flow, although the water is reported to rise to within two feet of 
the surface. 

ELKTON. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Elkton. A five-inch well drilled 
by N. H. Monck, in 1908, on the Middleton farm, reached a total 










188 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


depth of 260 feet. The well is cased 100 feet and the principal 
supply of water comes from a depth of 200 feet. The water is 
reported to rise five feet above the surface. 

ESPANOLA. 

A few wells occur in or near Espanola. The wells immedi¬ 
ately in the town do not flow. Flowing wells are obtained, how¬ 
ever, from one to five miles south, along Flaw Creek. 


FEDERAL POINT. 

Federal Point lies within the flowing area bordering the St. 
Johns River. A considerable number of wells have been drilled 
in the vicinity of this place. The material encountered here, to 
the depth of about 125 feet, consists largely of clays. Water is 
obtained at a depth of from 200 to 250 feet, the wells terminating 
in limestone. 

The following is a partial log of the well of Messrs. Hubbard 
and Hart, one-fourth mile northwest of Federal Point. This is 
a six-inch well drilled by Lloyd Crary in 1889. The well has a 
total depth of 225 feet and is cased 60 feet. The water is re¬ 
ported to rise twenty feet above the surface or about thirty feet 
above sea level. The principal supply is obtained at a depth of 
two hundred feet. 

Feet. 

Record incomplete, said to consist largely of clays, 

bluish in color except where oxidized yellow at surface 0-128 


A sample from the depth of 128 feet consists of frag¬ 
ments of dark-colored rock, more or less water 
worn, including small sharks’ teeth, fragments of 

bones, occasional shining black phosphatic pebble's.128-130 

Yellowish sandy clays .130-145 


Dark fossiliferous rock. Fragments of this rock are 
of grayish color and contain inclusions of a dark- 
colored mineral similar in character to rock, found 
at St. Augustine at a depth of 178 feet. Sharks’ 
teeth and black phosphatic pebble's also occur as 
well as numerous shell fragments . 145-130' 





WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 189 

A mixed sample contained material similar to above 
with addition of gray sandy clay . 

Buff colored sandy clay ... 

White granular fossiliferous limestone . 

This well probably reaches the Vicksburg group of limestones, 
as indicated by sample, from the depth of 180 to 225 feet. The 
material obtained between the depth of 168 and 180 feet may 
represent the Upper Oligocene, as it has certain lithological re¬ 
semblances to parts of the Alum Bluff formation. The conglom¬ 
erate material from 145 to 160 feet together with a part of the 
overlying clays probably represents the Jacksonville formation 
of the Miocene. 

HASTINGS. 

Hastings is in the western part of St. Johns County, and is 
located on Deep Creek, a tributary to the St. Johns River. The 
town site is inland about three miles from the river. The eleva¬ 
tion at Hastings, at the residence of T. H. Hastings, is, according 
to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 8 feet above sea. 

A considerable number of artesian wells have been put down 
at and in the vicinity of Hastings. Record has been obtained of 
fifty-one wells within a radius of three miles of the town. 

Wells at Hastings are largely used for irrigating purposes. 
The average depth of the wells now in use is 148 to 272 feet, 
although some reach a greater depth. Most of the wells are 
4 to 6 inches in diameter. The length of casing used in the wells 
is variable, ranging from 65 to 170 feet. 

Aside from the superficial soil and sand the material penetrated 
at Hastings to a depth of about 170 feet consists largely of clays 
although some water-bearing sands are reported and a shell 
stratum at a depth of 60 to 62 feet is specially mentioned. 

At a depth of 170 to 180 feet a dark colored, very hard stratum 
occurs. This rock appears from the well records to be similar in 
character to the rock found at St. Augustine at a depth of 170 
to 180 feet. After passing through this stratum the wells pene¬ 
trate limestone consisting of alternating hard and soft strata, the 


160-168 

168-180 

180-225 





190 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


flow increasing as each hard stratum is penetrated. This lime¬ 
stone, probably representing the Vicksburg group, has been pene¬ 
trated at Hastings about 200 feet or to a total depth of 365 feet, 
feet. 

Of the many wells at Hastings it is possible to give an in¬ 
dividual record of only a few. The following is a log of the 
well of F. R. Allen, kindly supplied by the driller, Mr. H. Walker. 
This is a 6-inch well, located three miles southeast of town. It 


was drilled in May, 1908, and is used for irrigating purposes. 

Feet. 


Yellow clay. 

Blue clay . 

Shell stratum . 

Clay. 

Soft rock . 

Clay. 

Rock supplying small flow 

Limestone. 

Shell and limestone. 

Material not reported 


0 - 6 
6 - 60 
60 - 64 

64 -160 

160 -165 

165 -171 

171 -171J4 

17154-183 
183 -245 

245 -300 


The following is a partial log of the well of Henry Bugbee 
taken from the notes kept by I. C. Peck. This is a four-inch 
well drilled in 1902 and located two and one-half miles south of 
Blastings. The well has a total depth of 257 feet and is cased 


178 feet. It is used for irrigating purposes. 

Feet. 

Surface material, soil and sand . 0- 6 

Mostly clay, some sand at 32 feet. Material from 38 

to 70 feet not reported . 6-186 

Seven feet of very hard rock through which it was 

possible to drill only a few inches a day .186-193 

Porous limestone from which flowing water is obtained.. .193-208 
Soft limestone, flow increasing with depth .208-257 


HOLY BRANCH. 


Flowing wells are obtained at Holy Branch. A four-inch 
well drilled in 1908 for Charles Slater by N. H. Monck reached a 
total depth of 240 feet. This well is cased 200 feet and the water 
is reported to rise 12 feet above the surface. 
















WATER SUPPRY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 191 

The following is a log of the well of Mr. G. A. Beach, sup¬ 
plied by the driller, Mr. Frank Bartlett. This is a 4-inc'h well, 


257 feet deep, and is cased 184 feet: 

Feet. 

Surface sand and soi k l . 0 - 6 

Red clay. 6 - 20 

Hardpan, black . 20 - 24 

White sand . 24 - 30 

Blue clay and marl. 30 - 33 

Sand and shell . 33 - 53 

Blue clay and marl . 53 - 59 

Shell and sand, water rises to within nine feet of surface 59 - 80 

Blue clay and marl. 80 -130 

Black quicksand, water plentiful.130 -146 

Very hard blue marl and clay. 146 -180 

Black quicksand, water-bearing.180 -186 

Blue marl.186 -196 

Very hard black flint, water flows.;.196 -19714 

Hard rock, flint and more water.19714-20114 

Softer limestone, more water with increase of depth.201^4-251 


HURDS. 

Hurds is located on the Florida East Coast Railway, seven 
miles southwest of St. Augustine. The elevation at Hurds, ac¬ 
cording to levels made for Mr. B. A. Carter, is 38 feet above 
sea. The deepest well recorded at this point is 385 feet. This 
is a 4-inch well and was drilled in 1906. It was cased to a depth 
of 160 feet. This well does not flow, although the water rises to 
within five feet of the surface. The well was drilled for B. A. 
Carter by I. C. Peck. 

MOULTRIE. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Moultrie. A six-incb well put 
down here for the St. Augustine Industrial School reached a 
total depth of 300 feet. The water at this locality is reported to 
rise 32 feet above sea level. The surface elevation in the vicinity 
of Moultrie varies from 0 to about 30 feet above sea. 

















192 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


PICOLATA. 

Picolata is in the extreme western portion of St. Johns County, 
almost due west of St. Augustine, on the St. Johns River. A 
four-inch well, drilled about the year 1890, is now owned by 
R. H. Bohn. The depth was reported to be about 300 feet. The 
pressure of this well was taken January 10, 1910, and was found 
to be 15 pounds. The elevation of the well is approximately 8 
feet above the river. This, together with a pressure of 15 pounds, 
would give the well a head of 42.65 feet above the level of the 
water in the St. Johns River. 

RIVERDALE. 

Riverdale is a settlement along the St. Johns River, in south¬ 
western St. Johns 'County. At this place several artesian wells 
have recently been drilled. A well 302 feet deep was sunk in 
1909 by Mr. R. C. Walker for the Riverdale Land Company. 
This is a six-inch well and is cased 107 feet. The well is re¬ 
ported to have a head of 33J^ feet above the surface and the 
surface elevation above the St. Johns River is estimated to be 
8 feet, which gives the well a total head of 41J^ feet. The first 
rock encountered was at a depth of 175 feet, and at this depth 
the water was found to be under sufficient pressure to rise to 
the surface. An increase in the flow of water was reported at 
a depth of 190 feet. 

Mr. R. C. Walker completed on February 1, 1910, a well for 
Mr. J. D. Clark. This well is six inches in diameter, 318 feet 
deep, and is cased 136 feet. At the depth of 174 feet a one-foot 
stratum of bluish, clayey limestone was encountered. An in¬ 
crease in water is recorded at the depth of 200 feet, from which 
depth the first flowing water is reported. The well samples in¬ 
dicate that this flow comes from a very hard, bluish colored rock 
and water-worn small pebbles. Immediately on passing through 
this stratum, which was 19 feet in thickness, the Vicksburg Lime¬ 
stone was reached, as is shown by the presence of Nummulites. 
This determination was made from a very complete set of samples 
of the drillings from this well, kindly saved by the driller, Mr. 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 193 


R. C. Walker. This limestone was penetrated for nearly 100 feet, 
the total depth of the well being 318 feet. The following is a 


log of this well, constructed from the notes and the samples sent 
in by Mr. Walker: 

Feet. 

Surface sand, yellow in color. Soft water . 0- 18 

Light gray sands . 18- 30 

Dark gray sands, partly indurated; some clay. 30- 44 

Shell, sand and gravel . 44- 55 

Very dark (almost black) marl, similar in appearance 

to Miocene marls, including shell fragments .. 55- 63 

Light greenish sandy marl . 63- 80 

Dark green marl, small shark’s tooth observed. 80-100 

Gray sand and shell fragments; water .lOO-l^ 

Gray sand and shell, water, shark’s tooth, also minute 

black phosphatic pebbles .112-133. 

Blue clayey marl .133-135. 

No sample .'..135-153 

Blue marl with inclusions of black phosphatic pebbles . ...153-174 

Blue clayey limestone; water-bearing ...174-175. 

Dark green marl with some black phosphatic pebbles .175-200 

Very hard bluish colored rock, and water-worn small 
pebbles; water commenced to flow upon pene¬ 
trating this stratum . 200-219 

Limestone, Vicksburg as indicated by the presence of 

Nummulites.219-318 


ROY. 

Roy is located on the Florida East 'Coast Railway, about six 
miles inland from the St. Johns River. One deep well is reported 
from this place. This is a four-inch well drilled by Mr. S. I. 
Killingsworth for Mr. L. J. Campbell. The well has a total depth 
of 298 feet and is cased 150 feet. The flow is reported to rise 
four feet above the surface. 

ST. AUGUSTINE. 

St. Augustine, the county seat of St. Johns County, is located 
on Matarizas Bay. An abundance of flowing water is obtained 
at this place. Probably not less than 100 wells occur in and near 
















194 


1''LOR IDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


St. Augustine. Of this large number it is possible to mention 
only a few. 

The first considerable flow in and near St. Augustine is ob¬ 
tained at a depth of from 170 to 180 feet after drilling through 
a five- or ten-foot stratum of dense hard rock. The material 
penetrated before reaching this hard rock stratum consists largely 
of sand near the surface, followed by 'blue clays with some shell 
and occasional thin layers of rock. A shell stratum often de¬ 
scribed as “coquina” occurs at a depth of about 60 feet. 

The material below the depth of about 180 feet consists of 
alternating hard and soft strata, largely limestones, with probably 
occasional flints. The flow of water increases as the limestone is 
penetrated. The chief large increase of flow occurs at a depth 
of about 520 feet and most of the wells at St. Augustine terminate 
at this depth. 

Water for the city of St. Augustine is obtained from two ar¬ 
tesian wells located about one mile north of the city. Well No. 1 
was drilled in 1897 by Mr. Hugh Partridge and had originally 
a depth of 371 feet. About 1903 this well was deepened to a 
total depth of 550 feet. The well is 12 inches in diameter for 
354 feet; 9 inches for 17 feet, and four inches for 179 feet. It is 
reported cased to a depth of 100 feet. The head of the water is 
given as 33 feet above the surface or about 38 feet above sea 
level. The flow of the well when first drilled in 1897 was 2,396,- 
000 gallons per day (1,664 gallons per minute). 

Well No. 2 is a 10-inch well and has a total depth of 500 feet. 
It is cased about 140 feet. The head of the water is the same as 
well No. 1 or about 38 feet above sea. The total flow of this 
well is not recorded. This well was drilled in 1903 by Mr. Plorace 
Walker. 

The water system at St. Augustine is now owned by the city. 
Formerly the city was supplied by five artesian wells, the system 
then being under private ownership. These wells were located 
in various parts of the city. They vary in depth from 250 to 500 
feet and range from 6 to 8 inches in diameter. The first of these 
wells was drilled in 188-1. They are now in use as private wells. 


WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 195 


Several wells have been drilled at St. Augustine to supply 
water to the Ponce de Peon and other hotels of the Florida East 
Coast Hotel Company. One of these, commonly known as the 
Ponce de Leon well, reached a total depth of 1,440 feet, and is 
the deepest well in St. Johns County. The following log of this 
well has been made up from records kindly supplied by Messrs. 
McGuire & McDonald, under whose direction the well was 
drilled, supplemented by a partial set of samples from the boring. 
The original intention was to go to a depth of about 3,000 feet 
:'n the expectation of obtaining warm water. The well was begun 
November 27, 1886, and drilling continued until February 24 
of the following year. Owing to delay caused by the loss of the 
drill, boring was finally discontinued at the depth of about 1,440 
feet. 


Feet. 


Sand. Temperature’ of the water at 35 feet, 

60 degrees F. 

0 - 

35 

Sand, with some shell. 


35- 

50 

Blue clay. 


50- 

57 

Shell . 


57- 

65 

Sand . 


65- 

76 

Indurated clay and sand. 


76- 

95 

Blue clay and black sand, pieces of hard 

stone. Tern- 



perature of the water 72 degrees at 

110 feet, 74 




degrees at 170 feet. Head 32 feet above sea. Sul¬ 


phur water, 50 gallons per minute at 170 feet. 95- 170 

Hard rock. Temperature of water 76 degrees at 177 

feet. Flow 350 gallons per minute at 177 feet. 170- 177 

Limestone. Flow 1,800 gallons per minute at 350 feet.. 177- 350 

Limestone. Temperature of water 76 degrees at 410 

feet. Flow of 2,083 gallons per minute’ at 410 feet.. 350- 410 

Limestone . 410- 495 

Dense light brown limestone. Temperature of water 79 
degrees at 520 feet. Head 42 feet above sea at 520 
feet. Flow of 4,860 gallons per minute at 520 feet.. 495- 520 

White “chalk,” green clay, dark porous limestone. 520- 557 

Limestone .. 557- 675 

Hard rock . 675- 685 

Limestone . 685- 770 

Limestone, gray to light yellow. 770- 960 

Thin stratum of hard limestone, followed by limestone 
similar to above. Temperature of water 80 degrees 















196 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


at 1,110 feet. Flow of 6,075 gallons per minute' at 


1,110 feet . 960-1110 

Hard rock, said to be sandstone, with some flint. 1110-1140 

Material not recorded . 1140-1170 

“Sandstone,” followed by limestone. Temperature' of 

water 85 degrees at 1,225 feet. 1170-1225 

Limestone, as above . 1225-1278 

“Sandstone.” Sample not seen. 1278-1293 

Fossiliferous limestone . 1293-1340 

Fossiliferous limestone, easily penetrated. Temperature 

of water 86 degrees at 1,340 feet. 1340-1390 

Denser limestone. 1390-1440 


The following is a log of the well of Mr. W. J. Sherman. 
This well was drilled by the owner in 1886 and is 210 feet deep. 
It is two inches in diameter and is cased 110 feet. The head is 
reported to be 32 feet above sea and the flow about 80 gallons per 


minute: 

Feet. 

Sand . 0 - 5 

Clay . 5 - 6 

White quicksand . 6 - 11 

Clay. 11 - 11 % 

Coarse pebbles and some shells.,. 11 %- 43 

Coarse gray to greenish sands, water-bearing; slight flow 43 - 45 

White plastic clay and fine sand. 45 - 90 

Greenish clay, very compact . 90 -142 

Hard rock . 142 -143 

Greenish clay with a mixture of black sand. 143 -172 

Hard rock; water rises 32 to 37 feet above sea. 172 -180 

White chalk rock (probably Vicksburg) . 180 -210 


SWITZERLAND. 

Switzerland is located in the area of artesian flow on the St. 
Johns River, in the northwestern part of St. Johns County. Wells 
at this locality reach a depth of from 350 to 500 feet, and the 
water is reported to rise 29 to 30 feet above the surface. 

YELVINGTON. 

Records of two wells have been obtained from and near Yel- 
vington. Well No. 1 is located near Yelvington depot and is 






















WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 197 


owned by E. E. Campbell. This well was drilled by Frank Bart¬ 
lett in 1909 and reached a total depth of 352 feet. It is reported 
as having 95 feet of four-inch casing. The head of this well was 
measured December 11, 1909. The water was found to stand at 
this time 7J4 feet below the surface. 

Well No. 2 is located one mile west of Yelvington depot. It 
is a four-inch well and is owned by Campbell & Killingsworth. 
This well was drilled in 1907 by S. I. Killingsworth and is re¬ 
ported to be 300 feet deep and cased 180 feet. The water is said 
to stand two feet below the surface. 

CLAY COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Clay County has a varied topography. The eastern portion, 
bordering the St. Johns River, is low and flat and consists largely 
of open pine woods. Extending westward from the river the 
elevation rises and the country becomes more rolling. The county 
is intersected by a number of streams, the largest of which is 
Black 'Creek, a tributary to the St. Johns River. This stream is 
navigable for small boats to or above Middleburg, at which point 
it divides, forming the north and south forks. The north fork 
rises in Lake Kingsley, and with its tributaries drains the north¬ 
western part of the county. The south fork rises in Blue Pond 
and other lakes and drains the central part of the county. In the 
southwestern part of the county many small lakes occur. 

The elevations in this county have been obtained from the 
levels made by the railroads crossing the county, including the 
Seaboard Air Line, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Georgia 
Southern and Florida Railway. In addition levels made during 
1909 by the U. S. engineers in connection with a preliminary 
survey for a ship canal have been available. These levels show 
that the water level in Lake Kingsley stood at the time the levels 
were made 170 feet above sea. The measurements of depth show 
that this lake averages 58 to 60 feet, although one place was found 
at which the depth exceeded 78 feet, the full length of the sound- 


198 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


ing line. The country surrounding this lake stands at or about 
175 feet above sea. According to the levels made by the Seaboard 
Air Line Railway the town of Highland, in the northwestern part 
of the county, stands 210 feet above sea. Newburg and Brook¬ 
lyn, in the lake region of the southwestern part of the county, 
have elevations, as recorded by the Georgia Southern and Florida 
Railway, of 155 and 157 feet, respectively. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

Most of the flowing wells of Clay County terminate in the 
Vicksburg Limestone. The first flow at Green Cove Springs, in 
the eastern part of the county, is obtained at a depth of from 
325 to 400 feet. 

The Miocene formations underlie much if not all of Clay 
County. In the pit of Union Brick Company, at Middleburg, the 
following section was observed: 

Feet. 


Eoose sand and soil. 1 

Sandy clays oxidized red .. 7 

Blue sticky clay, comparatively free from sand. 10 

Eight-colored sands . 3 


The clay exposed in this pit is probably the same as the clays 
in the clay pit near Jacksonville. Beneath these clays, as indi¬ 
cated by well borings, calcareous and phosphatic Miocene rocks 
are encountered. This part of the Miocene, the Jacksonville for¬ 
mation, is exposed at many localities along Black Creek and its 
tributaries. The section exposed at High Bluff, on the south 
fork of Black Creek, about five miles above Middleburg, has 
already been given. 

Other exposures of this formation were noted at the following 
localities along the river. At Fowler’s Landing, on the south 
fork of Black Creek, three miles above Middleburg, fifteen feet 
of the Jacksonville formation is exposed. At Buddington’s Land¬ 
ing, one and one-half miles above Middleburg, seventeen feet of 
the Jacksonville formation is exposed. Hogan’s Landing, just 
below Middleburg, shows twenty-eight feet of the Jacksonville 






WATER SUPPTY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 199 


formation. A bluff at the mouth of the south fork shows twenty- 
five feet of the Jacksonville formation. A bluff on the north bank 



Fig. 8.—Map showing the areas of artesian flow in Clay and Putnam 
Counties. The' area in which flowing wells can be obtained is indicated 
by shading. 



























200 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


of the north forks, one and one-half miles from Middleburg, 
shows three feet of the Jacksonville formation. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN CLAY COUNTY. 

The area of artesian flow in Clay County is confined to that 
portion bordering the St. Johns River and its tributaries. As has 
already been stated, upon leaving these streams the elevation soon 
becomes too great for a flow to be obtained. The location of 
successful flowing wells, together with the consideration of the 
elevation, will aid in the determination of the flowing and non¬ 
flowing sections , in the county. The flowing area in this county 
is outlined on t'he accompanying map: 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

DOCTORS INLET. 

A well owned by D. D. Denham and drilled in 1908 by D. C. 
Stafford is located near Doctors Inlet. This is a four-inch well, 
372 feet deep, in w'hich the water is said to rise twelve to fifteen 
feet above the surface. 

A second well, two and a half miles east of Doctors Inlet, was 
drilled by H. Mervin for Messrs. DeLoach & Edwards in 1907. 
This is a three-inch well and is 400 feet deep. It is reported cased 
120 feet and the water is said to rise twelve feet above the sur¬ 
face. Blue marl or clay from the depth of 198 to 398 feet is re¬ 
ported as encountered in this well. Immediately below this blue 
marl or clay the first hard rock was struck. 

GREEN COVE SPRINGS. 

€> 

Green Cove Springs, the county seat of Clay County, is sup¬ 
plied with water from two artesian wells. These wells are under 
private ownership. One is owned by N. B. Ivey, the other by 
O. A. Buddington. The well owned by Mr. Ivey is 815 feet 
deep, four inches in diameter, and cased 556 feet. The well is 
reported to have a head of 23 feet above the surface. The eleva- 


WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 201 


tion of the well above the St. Johns River is given as 24 feet, 
thus giving the well a total head of 47 feet above the level of 
the water in the St. Johns River. The first flow in this well was 
encountered at a depth of 400 feet. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well drawn 
January 6, 1910. Analysis made for the State Survey in the 
office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . 7 

Chlorine (Cl) . 9 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 7 

Phosphates (PO4) . 0 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) . 0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . ITT 

Magnesium (Mg) . 4 

Calcium (Ca) . 16 

Iron and Alumina (Fe and Al).Trace 

Loss on Ignition . 67 

Total dissolved solids . 155 


Aside from the above well, the following two records of wells 
have been obtained: A well on the property of Mrs. George Hal- 
liday (known as the Borden estate), is 825 feet deep and six 
inches in diameter. The head is reported as 25 feet above the 
surface. A little southeast of this well is one owned by L. A. 
Hamilton. This has a reported depth of 785 feet, is six inches 
in diameter and is cased 100 feet. The head is given as 25 feet 

above the surface. A well four and one-half miles southwest of 

% 

Green Cove Springs, drilled by H. Mervin in 1907 for the TaVilla 
Turpentine Company, is mon-flowing. This well contains 128 feet 
of three-inch casing and 320 feet of two-inch casing. It is 406 
feet deep and the water stands 17 feet below the surface. The 
first rock noted in this well was at a depth of 170 feet. 

A well directly east of Green Cove Springs and across the 
St. Johns River is owned by W. A. Hallows. This well was 
drilled by N. B. Ivey and is used for irrigation and general do¬ 
mestic purposes. It is 500 feet deep, six inches in diameter and 
is cased about 200 feet. The water is reported to rise 35 feet 
above the surface. 













202 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Another well owned by N. B. Ivey is located about two miles 
southwest of Green Cove Springs. This well is used for irriga¬ 
tion and was sunk by the owner in 1907. It is a four-inch well 
and is reported to be 500 feet deep. At this depth the water is 
reported to rise five feet above the surface. 


HIBERNIA. 

One well is reported from Hibernia. This well was com¬ 
menced July 20, 1885, and was finished in October of the same 
year. It was drilled by O. H. Wade for F. A. Fleming. The 
well is 468 feet deep, four inches in diameter and is cased 377 
feet. This well when first drilled, in 1885, had a pressure of 23 
pounds. Unfortunately, when visited in January, 1910, the 
pressure could not be obtained. The elevation of the well is 
about 25 feet above the St. Johns River. A pressure of 23 
pounds will cause the water to rise 53.1 feet above the surface, 
or about 68.1 feet above the St. Johns River. The first water¬ 
bearing stratum in this well was, reported at a depth of 400 feet, 
and the first rock noted was at a depth of 120 feet. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well drawn 
December 17, 1909. Analysis made for the State Survey in the 
office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 


Constituents. 

Silica (SiCU) . 

Chlorine (Cl) . 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 

Phosphates (PO 4 ) . 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) . 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K) 

Magnesium (Mg) ... 

Calcium (Ca) . 

Iron and alumina (Fe' and Al). 

Loss of ignition . 

Total dissolved solids . 


Parts per million. 


5 

0 

0 

. . 98 

. . 23 

5 

. . 14 

Trace 


45 

122 


LENO. 

There are two deep wells at Leno, owned by the Leno Tur¬ 
pentine Company, and drilled in 1903 by H. Mervin. One well, 















WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 203 


404 feet deep, is four inches in diameter and the water stood 
when measured January 6, 1910, 12.5 feet from the surface. The 
second well is two inches in diameter and 220 feet deep. The 
water is reported to stand at about the same level. 

MAGNOLIA SPRINGS. 


Magnolia Springs, a station on the Atlantic Coast Line Rail¬ 
road, one mile north of Green Cove Springs, takes its name 
from a small spring located along the western bank of the St. 
Johns River. A four-inch well owned by O. D. Seavey, pro¬ 
prietor the Magnolia Springs Hotel, was sunk by W. J. Sher¬ 
man in 1882. This well is said to be 325 feet deep and flows 
several feet above the surface, although the exact head could 
not be obtained. This water is bottled and sold as a medicinal 
and table water. The following analysis shows the mineral con¬ 
stituents. Analysis by C. F. Chandler, Ph. D., School of Mines, 
Columbia College, New York, N. Y.: 


\ 


Constituents. 

Sulphate of potash . 

Sulphate of lime . 

Chloride of sodium . 

Carbonate of soda. 

Carbonate of lime .. 

Oxide of iron and alumina 

Silica ... 

Organic and volatile matter 


Parts per million. 

.Trace 

. 21.3 

. 14.4 

. 26.1 

. 40.4 

.Traces 

. 31.0 

. 16.4 


190.4 

Two other wells occur on this same property, but a record 
of these was not obtained. They are both reported to furnish 
an abundant supply of water and are used for general household 
purposes. 

middleburg. 

Middleburg lies in the north-central portion of Clay County, 
just at the point where Black Creek divides, forming the north 
and south forks. There are several flowing wells in the vicinity 
of Middleburg. The wells vary in depth from 355 to 498 feet. 










204 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The 498-foot well is owned by George A. Chalker and was drilled 
in 1907 by D. 'C. Stafford. The well is six inches in diameter 
at the top and one and a quarter inches at the bottom. The pres¬ 
sure of this well as indicated by the pressure gauge, January 10, 
1910, was 18.5 pounds, or a pressure sufficient to cause the water 
to rise 42.7 feet above the surface. The elevation of the well is 
approximately 24 feet above the level of the water in Black 
Creek; thus, with the head of 42.7 feet above the surface, would 
give the well a total head of 67.7 feet above the water in Black 
Creek. The temperature, of the water at the point of overflow 
was reported as 72° F. The first rock of which note was made 
was at a depth of 68 feet. 

The well of C. C. Howard, two miles northeast of Middle- 

burg, has a depth of 490 feet. The well was bored by D. C. 

Stafford in 1907, is cased 80 feet, and is four inches in diameter. 
The pressure of this well could not be taken, but it is reported 
to have a head of 21 feet above the surface. 

Another well, two and a half miles northwest of Middleburg, 
was sunk by D. C. Stafford for Messrs. Long & Buddington, in 
1907. The exact depth of this well could not be obtained, but 

it was reported to have a depth of about 370 feet. The well 

flows and gives an abundant supply of water, but measurement 
of the head could not be made. 

In addition to the above wells is one eight and one-half miles 
northwest of Middleburg, or six miles southeast of Maxville, on 
the west bank of Yellow 'Water Creek, a tributary of the north 
fork of Black Creek. This well is located in the northwest part 
of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 17, 
Township 4, Range 24 east. It is owned by Messrs. Long & 
Buddington, and is said to be 370 feet deep. It is a three-inch 
well and was drilled in 1907 by D. C. Stafford. The head of 
this well is reported to be 30 feet above the surface and the first 
flow encountered was at a depth of 44 feet in a stratum of black 
pebbles. 


WATER SUPPEY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ERORIDA. 205 


PEORIA. 

A deep well was put down by Mr. Joseph Doyle at Peoria. 
This well was drilled to a total depth of 498 feet. The water 
rises to the surface, giving a slight flow. The well is located about 
one-half mile west of Peoria station and on the ridge probably 
40 or 50 feet above the St. Johns River. 

RUSSELL. 

One flowing well is reported from Russell. This well is now 
owned by the Florida Farmers’ Land Company and was drilled 
by L. J. Campbell. The well flows several feet above the sur¬ 
face, but a measurement could not be made and information in 
regard to the depth and size was not procured. It is used for 
general drinking purposes. 

WALKILL. 

A deep well at Walkill, drilled by H. Mervin in 1903 for 
E. B. Willcoxon & Company, reached a total depth of 352 feet. 
This well contains 128 feet of three-inch casing and 330 feet of 
two-inch casing. The water is reported to rise 25 feet above the 
surface. 

WEST TOCOI. 

A record of one well has been obtained from West Tocoi. 
This is a three-inch well, reported to have a depth of 313 feet, 
and is owned by the R. W. Mattox Company. The head of this 
well is given as 21 feet above the surface. 

WILLIAMS CROSSING. 

Messrs. De Loach and Edwards have one deep well at Wil¬ 
liams Crossing. This well is 395 feet deep and is three inches 
in diameter and was sunk by H. Mervin in June, 1907. The 
pressure of this well, as shown by the pressure gauge, January 


206 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


6, 1910, was eight and one-half pounds or a pressure sufficient to 
cause the water to rise 19.6 feet above the surface. 

PUTNAM COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Putnam County lies bordering the St. Johns River. On the 
north it joins Clay County, and on the south Marion and Volusia 
Counties. The total area of the county is 772 square miles. The 
elevation increases inland from the St. Johns River. At Flora- 
home, in the northern part of the county, along the line of the 
Georgia Southern and Florida Railway, an elevation is reached 
of 150 feet. On the Rochelle branch of the Atlantic Coast Line 
Railroad an elevation of 105 feet occurs at Interlachen, in the 
central part of the county. That part of the county bordering 
the St. Johns River includes palmetto flatwoods and some open 
flatwoods. Much of the southern and western part of the county 
is occupied by the lake region, many small, beautiful lakes oc¬ 
curring in this section. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The data regarding the formations reached by the wells in 
Putnam County is very meager, owing to the fact that few well 
samples have been preserved. 

After passing through the superficial sands in this county, 
calcareous clay and sands are reached, in which are imbedded 
black p'hosphatic pebbles and water-worn gravels. From such 
imperfect information as has been obtained it seems probable 
that some of the wells terminate in this formation and do not 
reach the Vicksburg Limestone. The log of a well at Orange 
Mills, which terminated in loose, clear-grained sand at a depth 
of 160 feet, is given on a subsequent page. A second well within 
a half-mile of this well apparently reached the Vicksburg Lime¬ 
stone at or about the depth of 160 feet. Samples from the well 
of B. F. Dotney, at San Mateo, drilled in 1909, by H. Mervin, 
show the presence of black phosp'hatic pebbles as deep at least 


WATER SUPPEY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 207 


as 175 or 180 feet. At a depth of 315 feet light-colored calcare¬ 
ous sands were penetrated. It is probable, as these wells seem 
to indicate, that the Vicksburg Limestone here, as at some other 
localities, has a very irregular top surface. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN PUTNAM COUNTY. 

The flowing area of Putnam County includes a relatively 
narrow strip bordering the St. Johns River and its tributaries. 
Upon leaving the river the elevation rises and flowing wells are 
not obtained. The flowing area in this county is indicated by 
shading on the map. 


LOCAL DETAILS. 

BOSTWICK. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Bostwick. A three-inch well, 
drilled in 1904 for J. W. Glisson by H. Mervin, reached a total 
depth of 248 feet. This well is reported cased 60 feet and the 
water is reported to rise 18 feet above the surface. 

Another well three and one-half miles northeast of Bostwick 
was drilled in 1906. This well is now owned by the R. W. Mat¬ 
tox Company and is used for the general supply around the tur¬ 
pentine camp. It is a three-inch well and reached a total depth 
of 215 feet. 

CRESCENT CITY. 

Crescent City lies in southeastern Putnam County, on the 
western shore of Crescent Lake. Immediately along this west¬ 
ern border flowing wells are obtained. 

The first flow of water at this locality is obtained from a 
shell stratum lying from 30 to 60 feet below the surface. Most 
of the wells at Crescent City terminate at this depth. In some 
instances this shell stratum is reported absent and in such cases 
the water is reported as coming from a very fine sand. The 
water from this depth is usually more or less hard and is impreg- 


208 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


nated with 'hydrogen sulphide gas. These wells are reported to 
have a head of about 15 or 16 feet above the surface. 

The second flow in and near Orescent City is obtained at a 
depth of about 300 to 316 feet. From the immediate vicinity of 
Crescent Lake westward to the St. Johns River flowing wells 
are not obtained. The intervening country includes rolling, sandy 
hills. Surface wells, terminating in the sands and sandy clays 
furnish an abundant supply of soft water. 

Aside from the use of private wells, Crescent City is supplied 
with water from four artesian wells. The water supply system 
is under private ownership. Two of the wells are two inches in 
diameter, while one is six inches in diameter. They are all re¬ 
ported as reaching a depth of approximately 316 feet, and cased 
about 100 feet. The wells are located on Crescent Lake and have 
approximately the same elevation. The head is reported 26 feet 
above the surface or about 27 feet above the level of the water 
in Crescent Lake. In addition to supplying the town the flow 
from one two-inch well is used for condensing purposes and for 
the manufacture of ice. Part of the flow from the other three 
wells is used for power to run an overshot wheel, which in turn 
runs a pump, pumping the surplus flow of water to a reservoir 
or tank where the water is distributed to different parts of the 
city by gravity. 

ORANGE MILLS. 

Orange Mills is located on the Florida East Coast Railway, 
midway between Hastings and East Palatka. The wells in this 
vicinity are used for the purpose of irrigation. The depth of 
the wells range from 143 to 200 feet. All of the wells of which 
record 'has been obtained are four inches in diameter. The length 
of casing used in the wells averages 60 feet. 

Four wells drilled for J. H. Bahrenberg & Brother by N. H. 
Monck in December, 1909, gave the following pressure: Well 
No. 1 is 143 feet deep and is cased 65 feet. The pressure of this 
well as shown by the pressure gauge December 4, 1909, was 5$4 
pounds. Well No. 2 is 160 feet deep and is cased ?’4 feet. The 


WATER SURREY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 209 

pressure December 4, 1909, was 5/4 pounds. Well No. 3 is 219 
feet deep and is cased 54 feet. The pressure of this well on the 
same day was 5J4 pounds. Well No. 4 is 160 feet deep and is 
cased 58 feet. This well was not finished at the time the pressure 
of wells Nos. 1, 2 and 3 was taken. As will be seen from the 
above records the pressure in the case of these three wells di¬ 
minished with depth. In this respect the wells are exceptional. 
The amount of flow of these three wells was not obtained. The 
following is the record of well No. 4, made from the samples 


kindly kept by the driller: 

Feet. 

Sand . 0 - 5 

Olive green calcareous clay, with black phosphatic pebbles 
and fragments of shell, and flattened water-worn 

gravels. 5- 40 

No sample . 40- 45 

Similar or somewhat more calcareous green clay or clayey 
marl. This sample' contains occasional fragments 
of chert . 45- 80 


This sample contains the black phosphatic water-worn 
pebbles in greater number than the above sample. 

Clear quartz grains are numerous. Flattened, water- 
worn siliceous pebbles up to size 1x^2 inches occur... 80- 90 
In this sample clear quartz grains predominate. These are 
mixed with gray sand grains. Calcareous gray sand 
nodules occur, water-worn chert gravels are present, 


also numerous large, water-worn chert fragments.... 90-113 

No sample..... 113-115 

Loose, clear-grained sand in mass appearing light gray and 
contains a small amount of calcareous matter in the 
form of fragments of shell .. 115-160 


PALATKA. 

Palatka, the county seat of Putnam County, is located on the 
St. Johns River, 55 miles south of Jacksonville. The elevation 
of the Atlantic Coast Line depot, as recorded by the U. S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, is thirteen feet above sea. Records from 
35 wells have been obtained from and in the vicinity of Palatka. 

The first flowing water encountered at Palatka is obtained 
from a shell stratum at a depth varying from 30 to 60 feet. A 








210 


FLORIDA STATIC GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


great many wells in the city terminate at this depth. The water 
from this formation is more or less hard, but is not so strongly 
impregnated with hydrogen sulphide gas as is the water from 
the deeper water-bearing formations. 

These more shallow wells at one time ceased to flow and 
pumps had to be resorted to. When the deeper wells were put 
in, the shallow wells in this vicinity commenced flowing again. 
As an instance of this, the well now owned by Messrs. L. H. 
and W. A. Merryday and located in the yard of the Putnam 
House, may be cited. This is a two-inch well and is 50 feet 
deep. It is reported as being cased the total depth. TJie well 
flowed when first put in, but in subsequent years had ceased to 
flow. During the year 1908 Mr. H. Mervin drilled a four-inch 
well for Dr. G. E. Welch about two blocks to the north. This 
well reached a total depth of 220 feet and is reported cased 120 
feet. Immediately on the completion of this well the Merryday 
well commenced to flow. This seems to indicate that these wells 
are supplied with water through leakage from the wells reaching 
the deeper water-bearing strata. 

The principal flow in and near Palatka is obtained from a 
depth of 175 to 250 feet. At this depth an abundance of water 
is obtained having a head varying from 18 to 26 feet above sea. 
A measurement was made of the pressure in the well of A. D. 
Curry, about three-fourths of a mile southwest of Palatka, in 
December, 1909. The well at this time was found to have a 
pressure of eleven and one-half pounds. The pressure was taken 
at the top of the pipe which stands about two feet above the 
surface of the ground. 

A number of wells have been put down across the river and 
in the vicinity of East Palatka. The elevation of the depot at 
East Palatka, as given by the 'Coast and Geodetic Survey, is 
seventeen feet above sea level. A four-inch well drilled for PI. 
Hanna at this place by N. H. Monck in 1909 reached a depth of 
225 feet. It is reported cased 135 feet and the water is reported 
as rising fifteen feet above the surface. A second well drilled 
for the Florida East Coast Railway by N. H. Monck in 1909 was 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 211 


drilled to a depth of 256 feet. This is a four-inch well and is re¬ 
ported cased 135 feet. The water is said to rise fifteen feet 
above the surface. 

The following is an analysis of the water from the city well 
at Palatka. The water was sent in by Dr. E. S. Crill. Analysis 
made in the office of the Chemist, B. H. Bridges, analyst: 


Constituents. 

Silica (SiC> 2 ) .. 

Chlorine (Cl) . 

Sulphate's (SO4) . 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) .. 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) ... 
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) ... 
Total solids . 


Parts per million. 

. 18.0 

. 156.0 

. 76.9 

. 7.3 

. 156.1 

. 43.3 

. 97.1 

. 531.0 


PENIAL. 

A three-inch well was drilled at Penial by H. Mervin in 1904. 
This well is now owned by E. E. Parker and is used for general 
supply around the turpentine camp. This well reached a total 
depth of 235 feet and is reported cased 110 feet. The water is 
reported to rise 16 feet above the surface. 

RICE CREEK. 

A two-inch well drilled at Rice Creek in 1904 reached a total 
depth of 175 feet. This well is reported cased 60 feet. It has a 
small flow of sulphur water, perhaps 12 to 15 gallons a minute. 
The head as shown by the pressure gauge December 8, 1909, is 
25.1 feet above the surface. 

RODMAN. 

An attempt was made in 1909 to obtain a flowing well at 
Rodman. Two four-inch wells were drilled by H. Mervin for 
the Rodman Lumber Company. Well No. 1 reached a total depth 
of 139 feet and is reported cased 110 feet. Well No. 2 has 110 










212 


FLORIDA STAFF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


feet of four-inch casing, 200 feet of three-inch casing and 420 
feet of two-inch casing, and was drilled to a total depth of 507 
feet. The head did not increase with depth in this well, as is 
shown by the level of the water in either well, the head being 
three and one-half feet below the surface. 

Approximately one mile east of Rodman a flow is obtained. 
A well drilled by H. Mervin for J. P. Buie in 1909 at this point 
has a head of four feet above the surface. It is a three-inch 
well and has a depth of 270 feet. The flow as measured Decem¬ 
ber 9, 1909, is twelve gallons per minute. 

SAN MATEO. 

Flowing wells are not obtained at San Mateo, the surface 
elevation of the town, according to barometic readings, being 
approximately sixty feet above the St. Johns River. A four- 
inch well drilled for B. F. Dotney in 1900 by H. Mervin reached 
a total depth of 365 feet. The water in this well rises to within 
48 feet of the surface. A number of flowing wells have been ob¬ 
tained, however, along the river, near San Mateo. 

V-CTA-; 

SATSUMA. 

No artesian wells are in use at Satsuma. The water used at 
this place comes from surface sands or clays at a depth varying 
from 25 to 46 feet. Flowing wells have been obtained along the 
river west of town. 

WELAKA. 

Welaka is located on the St. Johns River, about twelve miles 
south of Palatka. Records of two wells have been obtained at 
this place. One of these is the well now owned by the Welaka 
Mineral Water Company, a three-inch well, drilled in 1906. The 
first water under pressure was encountered at a depth of 160 
feet. Below 160 feet the size of the boring was reduced to two 
inches, and was continued to a total depth of 329 feet, at which 
depth a highly mineralized water is obtained. The well has 98 
feet of three-inch casing and 213 feet of two-inch casing. The 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 213 


elevation of the well above the St. Johns River is reported to be 
22 feet. The water in the well comes to within 16 feet of the 
surface or stands 6 feet above the level of the water in the St. 
Johns River. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well. An¬ 
alysis by Robert Spurr Weston, 14 Beacon street, Boston, Mass.: 


Constituents. 

Silica . 

Alumina . 

Iron carbonate . 

Calcium chloride 
Calcium sulphate 

Calcium nitrate. 

Magnesium bromide . 
Magnesium chloride . 
Magnesium carbonate 

Sodium chloride . 

Potassium chloride .. 


Parts per million. 

. 12.00 

. .8.57 

. 12.00 

. 586.32 

. 697.75 

. Trace 

. 5.14 

. 507.45 

. 241.72 

.8808.52 

. 13.70 


A second well at Welaka is owned by Mrs. Franklin Swift 
and was drilled by H. Mervin in 1909. This is a four-inch well 
and has a total depth of 151 feet. It is reported to be cased 104 
feet and the water is said to stand eight feet below the surface. 


WOODBURN. 


A well was drilled one and one-half miles northeast of Wood- 
burn in 1905 by H. Mervin for J. E. Edmonson. This is a four- 
inch well and has a depth of 185 feet. It is reported cased 120 
feet and to have a head of five feet above the surface. 













214 


FLORIDA STAFF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


ORANGE COUNTY * 
LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 


Orange County lies in South Central Florida, bordering the St. 

0 Johns River. This county has an area of 1,250 square miles and 
presents considerable diversity in soil and topography. The 
northwestern one-half of the county is included within the lake 
region of Florida and is dotted with innumerable small and large 
lakes. This part of the county has a rolling surface topography, 
the uplands rising considerably above the lakes. The eastern 
and southeastern part of the county bordering the St. Johns 
River is of lower elevation and consists largely of pine lands of 



Fig. 9.—Map showing the area of artesian flow in Orange County. 
The area in which flowing wells can be obtained is indicated by shading. 


including Seminole County, which was created from Orange County 
after this paper was set in type. 





























WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 215 


the palmetto flatwoods type. The surface elevation in this county 
varies from about 20 feet above the sea in the northern part of 
the county to elevations of from 100 to 150 feet at points in the 
interior. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deep wells in Orange County terminate in the Vicksburg 
Limestone. At Sanford, in the northern part of the county, this 
formation lies comparatively near the surface, being reached at 
a depth of from 113 to 125 feet. Owing to the lack of a com¬ 
plete set of well samples the depth at which the formation is to 
be expected in other parts of the county has not been accurately 
determined. The formations lying above the Vicksburg have 
not been fully differentiated. It is probable that the Miocene 
occurs over the county, as the surface exposure of this formation 
has been recognized at Rock Springs, in the northwestern part 
of the county.* 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW OF ORANGE COUNTY. 

The flowing area of Orange County is confined to a narrow 
strip bordering the St. Johns River. At Sanford this strip has 
a width of from three to five miles. Passing inland these low 
lands quickly give place to the more elevated, rolling lands of 
the lake region. With the exception of a few wells immediately 
bordering some of the lakes, flowing wells in this upland section 
have not been obtained. The flowing area in this county is out¬ 
lined on the accompanying map. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

CHU-LUOTA. 

A two-inch flowing well three miles east of Chuluota is owned 
by Mr. G. M. Jacobs. The well is 114 feet deep, is cased 75 feet, 

*Smith, E. A., On the Geology of Florida. Amer. Journ. Sei. (3) XXI, 
292-309, 1881. 



216 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


and has a head of eight feet above the surface. The water is 
used for stock. 

GENEVA. 

There are several non-flowing wells in Geneva, the elevation 
being too great for a flowing well to be obtained. Mr. H. H. 
Pattishall has a two-inch well 133 feet deep and cased 85 feet. 
This well was drilled by the Geo. H. Fernald Company in 1909. 
The water is said to rise to within 29 feet of the surface. 

Mr. J. T. McLain owns a well one and one-half miles north 
of Geneva. This is a two-inch well and is 135 feet deep. The 
water is reported to rise to within 31 feet of the surface. The 
water from this well is hard and is charged with hydrogen sul¬ 
phide. In addition to the above well Mr. McLain has two wells 
on Mullet Lake, on the St. Johns Riven, about four miles slightly 
west of north from Geneva. Both of the wells furnish salt water 
impregnated with hydrogen sulphide and are not used. One is 
seventy-five feet deep and is said to flow two feet above the sur¬ 
face ; the other is 135 feet deep and the water is reported to rise 
within one foot of the surface. The apparent difference in head 
is due to the difference in the elevation of the two wells. 

Mr. W. B. Raulerson owns a two-inch well five miles north¬ 
west of Geneva and near the St. Johns River. This well is 76 
feet deep and is cased 72 feet and furnishes a small flow of salt 
water which rises a few inches above the surface. The first flow 
in the well was encountered at a depth of 70 feet. An increased 
flow was obtained at 72 J4 feet. The first water was reported to 
be more salty than the second, as was indicated when the first 
flow was cased off. Owing to inability to drill deeper with the 
light drilling outfit used, the boring was discontinued. Mr. 
Raulerson states that the water is more salty in seasons of drought 
than in seasons of normal or heavy rainfall. 

A two-inch well owned by Chase & Company, two miles south¬ 
east of Geneva, on Lake Harney, is 35 feet deep. This well was 
sunk by F. B. Bradley and is cased 34 feet. It has a head of four 
feet above the surface. The water is fresh and is only slightly 
dharged with hydrogen sulphide. 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 217 


ORLANDO. 

Orlando, the county seat of Orange County, lies in the lake 
region of Florida. The elevation at the depot, as given by the 
Atlantic Coast Fine Railroad, is 111 feet. Several wells have 
been drilled at Orlando. These are nomflowing wells, the ele¬ 
vation being too great to obtain a flow. The deep wells at this 
locality are used principally for drainage purposes and for irri¬ 
gation, the city water supply being obtained from one of the 
small lakes. A few private wells in and around Orlando are used 
as a source of water supply. 

A well near the north edge of the city owned by Mr. F. A. 
Lewter, has a total depth of 216 feet and is cased 86 feet. The 
water is used for general purposes. 

A second well at the ice plant is used in cooling pipes in the 
manufacture of ice. This well is 470 feet deep. 

The use of wells to carry off surface waters at this locality 
was described in the Third Annual Report. One of these drain¬ 
age wells has developed at intervals the unusual phenomenon of 
spouting. An account of this well, together with an explanation 
of its unusual behavior is given in the report referred to, page 72. 

OVIEDO. 

Oviedo lies on the eastern edge of the lake region of Orange 
County. The region is sandy and the topography is flat to gently 
undulating. The country east of Oviedo is of the prevailing flat- 
woods type bordering the St. Johns River and Lake Jessup, and 
flowing wells are here obtained at comparatively shallow depths. 
Both flowing and non-flowing wells occur at Oviedo, depending 
on the local elevation. 

Mr. N. J. Tanner’s well, about one-eighth of a mile east of the 
postoffice at Oviedo, located in a depression, is about 114 feet 
deep, two inches in diameter, and is cased 75 feet. The water 
from this well flows just above the surface. It is a hard, sulphur 
water and is used for irrigating purposes. 


21 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The well of Mr. A. J. McCulley is To feet deep, two inches in 
diameter and is cased TO feet. This well was sunk by the owner 
in 190T. The water is reported to rise to within 14 feet of the 
surface. Mr. McCulley owns another two-inch well which is T3 
feet deep, and is' cased 68 feet. The water in this well is said to 
rise to within three feet of the surface. This apparent difference 
in head is due largely to a difference in elevation of the wells. 

A two-inch well, 11T feet deep, one and one-quarter miles 
west of Oviedo, was completed for Mr. D. W. Curry in 1910 
by Mr. A. J. McCulley. This well gives a good flow of sulphur 
water and had, when measured in April, 1910, a pressure of four 
and one-quarter pounds, the measurement being made about five 
feet above the ground. The first flow in this well was encoun¬ 
tered at a depth of T9 feet. 

A well fourteen miles east of Oviedo, on the Econlockhatchee 
Creek, furnishes a flow of salt water. This well was drilled in 
190T by A. J. McCulley and is 114 feet deep, two inches in diam¬ 
eter, and is cased T5 feet. The first flowing water, which was 
salty, was found at a depth of TO feet. 

SANFORD. 

Probably not less than 1,000 wells 'occur in and around San¬ 
ford. These wells are used for irrigating purposes and obtain 
flowing artesian water at a comparatively shallow depth, the 
average being from 125 to 200 feet. Bordering Lakes Monroe 
and Jessup and the St. Johns River, the wells are more shallow 
and terminate at a depth of from 66 to 85 feet. 

The first flow in the wells at Sanford is encountered at a 
depth of from 100 to 125 feet, after drilling through a rock more 
or less hard and penetrating the characteristic “water rock” or 
the Vicksburg Limestone. In some instances a light flow is 
obtained above this harder rock immediately overlying the Vicks¬ 
burg. When such is the case it seems the water comes from a 
quicksand or sometimes from a stratum of sand and shell. In 
order to get a sufficient and permanent flow, however, the boring 
is continued until the Vicksburg Limestone is reached. 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 219 

In a well owned by Mr. L. E. Morrow, four miles south of 
Sanford, on the Sanford-Orlando public road, and drilled by 
Mr. W. E. Holmes in April, 1910, the Vicksburg Limestone was 
reached at a depth of 113 feet. The first flow was obtained at 
a depth of 110 feet, coming from a light yellow sand. The fol¬ 
lowing is an approximate log of this well constructed from notes 
given by the driller and from a partial set of samples kindly 


saved by him: 

Feet. 

Surface soil. 0- 5 

Yellow sand . 5- 40 

Shell and sand, water, no flow. 40- 60 

Sand . 60-91 

Shell and sand with shark’s teeth . 91- 95 

Dark blue rock with black phosphatic pebbles.. 95-100 

Very dark rock . 100-101 

Light yellow sand . 101-113 

Vicksburg Limestone . 113- 


The principal supply of water for the city of Sanford is drawn 
from Lake Ada, about four miles southeast of the city. The soft 
water from the lake is preferred to the hard, sulphuretted ar¬ 
tesian water. However, the city has four artesian wells, which 
serve as a source of supply when the lake is low. These wells 
are all four inches in diameter and are reported to have an aver¬ 
age depth of 130 feet. Measurements in regard to the volume 
of flow of these wells could not be obtained. 

Several flowing wells occur at Cameron City, on Lake Jessup, 
about six miles southeast of Sanford. The wells here are of 
about the same depth as those in and near Sanford and good 
flows are obtained. The principal use of the water is for irri¬ 
gating purposes. 

At Monroe, a station four miles northwest of Sanford, on the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, a number of wells have been sunk. 
According to reports from drillers the artesian conditions here 
are essentially the same as at Sanford. A well about one-fourth 
of a mile southwest of the depot was drilled for the Title, Bond 
and Trust 'Company by W. E. Holmes & Son. This is a two-inch 
well, 180 feet deep and cased 120 feet. The pressure of this 











220 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



well April 19, 1910, was eight and one-half pounds, the measure¬ 
ment being made one and one-half feet above the surface. About 
one-fourth mile beyond the above is a second well. This well 
indicated a pressure of eight pounds, the measurement in this 
instance being made three feet above the surface. Unfortunately 
the total depth of this well could not be learned. A third well 
about one and one-fourth miles beyond this second well indicated 


Fig. 10.—Artesian well of K. Hy. Palmer on the west side of Lake Jessup. 

a pressure of one pound. This well has a total depth of 201 feet, 
is two inches in diameter and is cased 154 feet. As will be seen 
these wells decrease in pressure on leaving the river. This de¬ 
crease in pressure is due to the increase in elevation. All of the 
above mentioned wells are along the grade of the now abandoned 
railroad from Paola to Monroe. 

. Another well four miles southwest of Sanford and owned by 
Mr. J. V. Weeden, terminated in the Vicksburg Limestone, as 
is shown by a mixed sample of the drillings gathered after the 
well was completed. Unfortunately neither the total depth of 
the well nor the depth at which the Vicksburg Limestone was 
reached could be learned. This well is two inches in diameter 
and furnishes a good flow of water. 

The well of Mr. E. Hy. Palmer, seven miles south of Sanford, 







WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 221 


near the western shore of Lake Jessup, is 75 feet deep and was 
drilled in 1907. This is a four-inch well and is cased 40 feet. 
The pressure of this well as indicated by the pressure gauge, April 
26, 1910, was nine and one-half pounds, or a pressure sufficient 
to cause the water to rise 21.9 feet above the point of connection 
of the gauge, which was three feet above the surface. The well 
is estimated to be about 12 feet above Lake Jessup, which estima¬ 
tion will give the well a total head of 36 feet and 9 inches above 
the surface of the lake. 

The deepest well at Sanford is the well owned by Mr. J. E. 
Pace. This well is located just outside of the known flowing area 
and was sunk in the hopes of obtaining a flow. The well is six 
inches in diameter to a depth of five hundred feet, below which 
depth the size of the drill hole was reduced to four inches. It 
has a total depth of 670 feet and the water rises to within one 
and one-half feet of the surface. The well is reported cased only 
94 feet. A detailed record of the well could not be obtained, but 
it was stated by Mr. Pace that no apparent increase in head re¬ 
sulted from the increased depth, although no exact measurements 
regarding this were made. 

VOLUSIA COUNTY. " ! i ■; 1 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Volusia County lies between the St. Johns River and the At¬ 
lantic Ocean. It joins St. Johns County on the north and Bre¬ 
vard County on the south. The area of the land surface of this 
county is approximately 1,281 square miles. Much of the eastern 
part of the county is level and consists largely of palmetto flat- 
woods. Bordering the Atlantic Ocean, however, is an extensive 
strip of hammock known as Turnbull Hammock. Back of the 
hammock is found the line of sand dunes. Bordering the St. 
Johns River is found some open flatwoods. Running in a general 
north and south direction through the western part of the county 
is a ridge including much sandy pine land. Numerous lakes 
occur in this upland section which forms a part of the lake region 
of Florida. Elevations above sea level recorded by the Atlantic 


222 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Coast Line Railroad which traverses this ridge are as follows: 
Seville, 52 feet; Pierson, 78 feet. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

No complete set of well samples having been obtained from 
any one well in Volusia County the information regarding the 
underlying formations is very meager. In the city well at De- 
Land the first Water was obtained at a depth of 113 feet after 
passing through eight feet of clay and entering a twelve-foot 
shell stratum. The stratum of shell overlies a bed of rock re¬ 
ported to be 24 feet thick. The next rock encountered is at a 
■depth of 237 to 247 feet. At Daytona the Vicksburg Limestone, 
as shown by the comparatively shallow depths of the wells, lies 
close to the surface and is presumably reached at from 125 to 
150 feet. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN VOLUSIA COUNTY. 

The area of artesian flow in Volusia County is confined to a 
strip bordering the Atlantic Ocean on the east and a strip on the 
west bordering the St. Johns River. This area is indicated on the 
accompanying map. There are no doubt areas not mapped where 
flowing wells can be obtained. The area mapped, however, is 
based on definite information and on well records. In the north¬ 
ern portion of the county flowing wells are obtained as far west 
as Crescent Lake. This part of the county is flat and of low 
altitude. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

DAYTONA. 

Daytona lies in the flowing artesian section in eastern Volusia 
County, along the western bank of Halifax River. The city is 
supplied with water from four artesian wells, all of which are six 
inches in diameter. These wells were drilled in 1909, but in order 
to obtain an increased flow were deepened in 1910 and now range 
in depth from 165 to 260 feet. The 260-foot well on April 7, 1910, 



WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 223 


had a head of 9.3 feet above the surface or approximately 13.3 
feet above sea. The wells now furnish an abundant supply of 
hard sulphuretted water. 



Scale of Miles 
0 8 


Fig. 11.—Map showing the areas of artesian flow in Volusia County. 
The areas in which flowing wells can be obtained are indicated by shading. 


































224 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


In addition to the city wells above mentioned numerous pri¬ 
vate wells occur in and near Daytona. Of these it is possible to 
list only a few. Mr. Paul Petion owns a two-inch well about two 
and one-half miles south of the city. The well was drilled by 
Mr. H. VanDorn in 1910. It is 145 feet deep and is cased 85 
feet. The first flowing water is reported to have been encoun¬ 
tered at a depth of 85 feet after drilling through about one foot 
of hard rock. 

Messrs. Bellough and Melton completed a two-inch well for 
Mr. Chas. Lee about two miles southwest of Daytona in April, 
1910. This well is 130 feet deep and has a head of five feet above 
the surface. The first flow is reported from a depth of 88 feet 
just below a hard rock upon which the casing was landed. The 
following is a log of this well as given by Mr. Melton: 

Feet. 


Dark sandy soil. 

White marl . 

Sand and shell. 

Blue clay . 

Sand and shell . 

Limestone, medium hard. First flow at 88 feet, increase of 
water with depth. 


0 - 6 
6- 15 
15- 30 
30- 65 
65- 87 

87-130 


The following is a log of Mr. H. VanDorn’s well. The well 
is one-half mile west of the postoffice and was completed by Mr. 
VanDorn in April, 1910. It is a four-inch well, 205 feet deep, 
and is cased 83 feet: 


Feet. 

Dark sandy soil . 0- 3 

Hardpan . 3- 5 

White sand . 5- 40 

Coquina and shell . 40- 45 

White sand . 45- 65 

Blue clay . 65- 83 

Hard rock. Light flow just above this rock. 83- 84 

Light-colored limestone, with harder and softer layers. In¬ 
crease of water with increase of depth.*.. 84-205 


The wells listed are representative of the wells surrounding 
Daytona. Flowing water is obtained at a comparatively shallow 
















WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 225 


depth. From the above two logs it will be seen that hard rock 
was encountered at the depth of 87 and 84 feet, respectively. 
Immediately under this hard rock a softer limestone is reported 
and in this limestone the first flowing water is obtained. The 
description of this formation given by the drillers characterizes 
it as the Vicksburg which is apparently reached in this section 
at a depth of not more than 125 to 150 feet. 

DE LAND. 

The city of DeLand, the county seat of Volusia County, lies 
in the southwestern portion of the county. There are a number 
of non-flowing artesian wells in and near DeLand. The city is 
at present supplied by two deep wells located at the pumping 
station. The six-inch well is 406 feet deep and was sunk in 1895. 
This well was reduced in diameter in the process of drilling and 
is cased as follows: Six-inch casing to 100 feet, four-inch casing 
to 290 feet, two-inch casing to 390 feet. The second well, which 
was drilled in 1906 by W. F. Hamilton, is ten inches in diameter 
and is 269 feet deep. At the depth of 191 feet hard rock was en¬ 
countered upon which the casing was landed. The 'head of the 
wells, regardless of the difference in depth, was reported to be 
27 feet below the surface in both cases. The following log and 
analysis of the water from this well were kindly made available 
by Mr. E. D. McLeod: 


Feet. 

Sand . 0- 25 

Clay. 25- 45 

Shell . 45- 50 

Rock .... . 50- 55 

Sand . 55-105 

Clay. 105-113 

Shell, water-bearing . 113-125 

Rock .. 125-149 

Sand . 149-157 

Rock ■ ... . 157-197 

Sand and shell . 197-237 

Rock. 237-247 














226 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Clay . 

Sand . 

Rock . 

Clay.... 

Shell and clay .. 

Rock .. 

Cavity with water 


247-257 

257-265 

265-277 

277-292 

292-372 

372-392 

392-406 


The following is an analysis of the water from the six-incll 
city well at DeLand. Analysis by H. Herzog, Jr., Gainesville, 


Fla.: 

Constituents. ' Parts per million. 

Total solids . 136.29 

Residue after ignition (mineral matter). 76.11 

Gas and ignition (organic matter). 60.17 

Sodium chloride. 11.31 

Free ammonia . .68 

Albuminoid ammonia . .17 

Oxygen (consuming power) . 1.54 

Nitrates . .34 

Nitrites .'. None 

Sulphates . 2.05 

Phosphates . Trace 


ENTERPRISE. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Enterprise, along the shore of 
Lake Monroe, and in areas where the elevation does not exceed 
more than ten or twelve feet above the level of the water in the 
lake. The depth of the wells in this vicinity ranges from 20 to 
200 or more feet, the average depth being between 90 and 110 
feet. The water is hard and is charged with hydrogen sulphide, 
in some instances containing a large amount of salt. A well 
owned by Mr. William S. Thayer was drilled to a depth of 98 
feet. It is two inches in diameter and is cased 45 feet. The 
estimated elevation of this well is 15 feet above the level of the 
water in Lake Monroe. The water is reported to rise to within 
three feet of the surface of the ground. An analysis of the water 
from this well made in the office of the State Chemist showed 
it to contain 140 parts total solids to 1,000,000 parts water. The 
total solids are reported to be composed of calcium carbonate 




















WATER SURREY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FRORIDA. 227 


(lime), sodium chloride (common salt), and magnesium sulphate 
(Epsom salts). 

The following is an analysis of the water of the Benson Min¬ 
eral Spring, located a'bout one-fourth mile west of town, and 
owned by the Misses Emma and Tina Tucker. Analysis made at 
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenm, by W. H. Hollenshead: 


Constituents. 

Potassium.. 

Sodium.. 

Magnesium . 

Calcium .. 

Iron .. 

Chlorine .. 

Bromine . 

Carbon dioxide. 

Sulphuric acid (radical) . 

Silica .. 

Phosphoric acid (radical) 

Boric acid ... 

Organic matter . 

Hydrogen sulphide ....... 


Parts per million. 
..... 27.104 

. 1805.046 

. 213.047 

..... 321.619 

.702 

. 3389.640 

. 103.206 

..... 559.234 

. 541.132 

. 16.989 

.702 

..Heavy trace 
Small amount 
,.. Slight trace 


The above are probably combined in the water as follows: 


Constituents. 
Potassium sulphate 
Calcium sulphate .. 
Sodium bromide .. 
Magnesium chloride 
Sodium phosphate . 

Iron chloride. 

Sodium chloride ... 
Calcium chloride .. 
Calcium bicarbonate 

Silica .. 

Carbonic acid. 

Sodium biborate 
Hydrogen sulphide . 
Organic matter .... 


Parts per million. 

. 60.346 

. 720.043 

. 133.722 

. 819.787 

.994 

. 1.594 

..... 4504.371 
.. . .. 76.701 

..... 330.928 

..... 16.989 

. 379.624 

. .Heavy trace 
.. Slight trace 
Small amount 






























228 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LAKE HELEN. 

Lake Helen lies in the lake region of southern Volusia Count)*. 
The land here is high, rolling pine woods. The elevation of the 
depot at Lake Helen, as recorded by the Florida East Coast Rail¬ 
way, is 70 feet. The wells recorded from this place range in 
depth from 130 to 238 feet. The Bond Sand-Lime Brick Com¬ 
pany own several three-inch wells ranging in depth from 130 to 
140 feet. The water is reported to rise within 28 feet of the 
surface. A well for Mr. G. W. Webster was drilled in 189? - ' by 
Mr. H. C. Haven. This well is 238 feet, four inches in diameter 
and cased 158 feet. The first rock is reported at a depth of 78 
feet. The principal water supply is obtained from a depth of 
210 feet. The water is hard and is only slightly charged with 
hydrogen sulphide. 

NEW SMYRNA. 

The artesian conditions at New Smyrna are essentially the 
same as those given for Daytona. The wells in this vicinity range 
in depth from 108 to 144 feet. The water is hard and is charged 
with hydrogen sulphide and is used to a large extent for irrigating 
purposes. 

The following is an analysis of the water from the well of 
Mr. W. L. Widmeyer, made in the office of the State Chemist, 
B. H. Bridges, analyst: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (Si02> . 27.0 

Chlorine (Cl) . 836.6 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) .. . 7.8 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) . 12.0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 209.8 

Magnesium oxide (MgO) . 108.6 

Calcium oxide (CaO) . 197.7 

Total solids . 1980.0 


The following is a log of a four-inch well drilled by R. C. 
Walker for the Florida East Coast Railway. The record is ob¬ 
tained through the courtesy of Mr. G. A. Miller: 










WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 229 


Feet. 

Coal cinders (filled land). 5 

Coquina rock . 5 " 14 


Sand and shell .. 1®“ 42 

Blue clay . 42 “ 45 

Fine shell. 45_ 64 

Fine shell and sand.*.. 64 “ 80 

Coarse' shell .. 80 " 94 

Rock . 91- 92 

Clay and shell. 92_ 96 

Hard rock . 96-100 

Soft white limestone . 100-156 


The following is a log of a three-inch well drilled by H. Van- 
Dorn, two miles west of New Smyrna, for the Florida East Coast 
Railway. The record is obtained through the courtesy of Mr. 


G. A. Miller: 

Feet 

Sand . 0 - 16 

Rock . 16 - 20y 2 

Shell . 20 y 2 - 24 

Clay. 24-40 

Rock . 40-42 

Clay . 42-44 

Rock . 44- 46 

Clay... 46-79 

Rock .;.. 79-81 

Shell . 81-85 

Rock. 85- 87 

Rock, bearing salty water. 87-103 

Rock, bearing fresh water. 103-124 


OAK HILL. 

Oak Hill is eleven miles south of New Smyrna, on the Florida 
East Coast Railway and about four miles north of the head of 
Indian River. Several flowing wells occur in the vicinity of this 
place. These wells are reported to be about 130 feet deep. The 
water is hard and sulphuretted. Approaching the head of Indian 
River, some four or five miles south of Oak Hill, flowing wells 
of brackish water are obtained. Mr. T. J. Murray owns four 



























230 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


wells, all near the head of Indian River, which are used for stock. 
One of these wells was never satisfactorily completed. Two of 
the wells give a brackis-h flow while the water from the other 
well, which is located about one mile south and west of the head 
of the river, is reported to be fresh. This well, however, is not 
as deep as the other two wells, being only 82 feet deep and ter¬ 
minating before passing through the “bed” or hard rock which 
was encountered at that depth. The two brackish wells are re¬ 
ported to have a depth of 110 feet and to have a head of about 
seven feet above the surface. According to well records this 
seems to be the northern extent of the shallow brackish flowing 
wells, fresh water wells being obtained just a few miles to the 
north. Eastward this salt area presumably extends to the Atlantic 
Ocean. In 1907 Mr. J. W. Griffis had a well sunk one mile north¬ 
west of Shiloh, to a depth of 149 feet. The well at this depth 
flowed just above the surface and furnished a very strong salt 
water. The well is now capped and is not used. The character 
of the artesian water westward in this part of the county is not 
known, records of wells not having been obtained. 

ORANGE CITY. 

The Orange City wells vary in depth from 117 to 890 feet. 
The 890-foot well is owned by Mr. Albert Dickinson and is not 
used. Salt water was encountered at the depth of 890 feet and 
the well was plugged up below 660 feet. The depth of the well 
as now used is 660 feet. The principal use of the artesian wells 
in this vicinity, aside from general domestic purposes, is that of 
irrigation, the Orange City Mineral Spring Company, however, 
have a well 117 feet deep, the water from which is bottled for 
sale. This is a ten-inch well and is reported cased to a depth of 
fifteen feet. The water is said to rise to within twenty feet of 


I 1 

WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 231 


the surface. The following is an analysis of the water from this 
well.* Analyst unknown: 


Constituents. 

Free ammonia . 

Albuminoid ammonia 
Oxygen consumed .. 

Nitrites . 

Nitrates ... 


Parts per million. 

. 0.00 

.. 0.05 

. 1.05 

. 0.00 

. 1.00 


ORMOND. 

Several deep wells have been sunk at Ormond. These deep 
wells all furnish a salt water which cannot be used except in some 
instances where it is used for bathing purposes. A four-inch 
well was drilled by Mr. H. Walker in 1900 at the Plotel Ormond. 
This well reached a depth of 752 feet and is cased 360 feet. At 
a depth of 320 feet salt water was encountered. The water from 
the well is used for bathing purposes. Another well at the Hotel 
Ormond reached the same depth. This well is eight inches in 
diameter and is cased 400 feet, at which depth salt water is re¬ 
ported, continuing to 550 feet. From the depth of 550 feet to 
the total depth of the well, 752 feet, no water was encountered. 

The average depth of the wells snrroundiilg Ormond and vi¬ 
cinity is from 160 to 225 feet. At this depth a hard sulphuretted 
water is obtained. However, in some instances salt water at this 
shallow depth is reported. Mrs. A. M. Watson owns a three- 
inch well which is 180 feet deep and cased 90 feet. The water 
from this well is not used because it contains salt. This well is 
the only one of this depth on record that contains salt, other wells 
of medium depth furnishing an abundant supply of fresh water, 
which is used for domestic and irrigating purposes. The head 
of the wells range from eight to nine feet above the surface or 
about fourteen to fifteen feet above sea. 


*U. S. Geological Survey, Bull. 102, p. 263, 1904. 








232 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


PIERSON. 

Pierson is located on the sandy ridge running through the 
west central portion of Volusia County. The elevation of the 
depot at this place, as recorded by the Atlantic Coast Line Rail¬ 
road, is 78 feet. Records of two deep wells occurring here have 
'been obtained. The N. L. Pierson well is three inches in diame¬ 
ter and 150 feet deep. The water is reported to rise to within 
forty feet of the surface. Its use is general domestic and irriga¬ 
tion purposes. The second well was drilled at the public school 
house and is used for general drinking purposes. 

SEVILLE. 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad owns four artesian wells 
at Seville, used for the railroad boiler supplies. One well is four 
inches in diameter and is reported to be 126 feet deep. The other 
three wells are two inches in diameter. The exact depth is not 
known. The water is said to rise to within 18 feet of the surface. 

About two miles south of Seville and west of the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad is a flowing artesian well. This well is 
owned by J. W. Whitner, and was drilled in 1909. This is a two- 
inch well, 140 feet deep and is cased 90 feet. The elevation at 
the well, as determined by measurement, is sixteen feet above 
Lake George. The well on April 25, 1910, as indicated by the 
pressure gauge, had a pressure of four and one-quarter pounds, 
equivalent to a head of 9.8 feet above the surface or 25.8 feet 
above the level of the water in Lake George. The first flowing 
water was reported at the depth of 80 feet, at which depth hard 
rock was encountered. 

BREVARD COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Brevard County lies between the St. Johns River and the At¬ 
lantic Ocean. It has a total length of 66 miles and, including 
Merritts Island, is about 25 miles wide. It joins Volusia County 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 233 


on the north and St. Lucie 'County on the south. Aside from the 
line of sand dunes running parallel with the coast this county is 
prevailingly of the palmetto flatwoods type of country, although 
extensive prairie and muck lands occur in the interior of the 
county. Lake Washington, in the central part of this county, 
has an elevation of 15.74 feet while Lake Wilmington, the head 
waters of the St. Johns River, in St. Lucie County, has an eleva¬ 
tion of 23.3?'' feet above mean sea level at Indian River Inlet.* 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deep wells in Brevard County enter the Vicks'burg Lime¬ 
stone. At Melbourne this limestone, as indicated by well samples 
kept from the well of Mr. Oliver Gibbs, was reached at the depth 
of 221 feet. At Cocoa, in the well of Mr. H. Bradford, the Vicks¬ 
burg Limestone was recognized at a depth not exceeding 190 feet. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FEOW IN BREVARD COUNTY. 

Although the interior of this county is but thinly settled and 
but few wells have been put down, it is probable that the greater 
part of this county lies within the area of artesian flow. On the 
high sand dune ridge, which lies out three or four miles from the 
•coast, a flow is not to be expected. This is probably also 1 true of 
points within the interior of the county, particularly in the south¬ 
western part. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

CHESTER SHOALS. 

Some fifteen miles from Titusville, through Banana Creek, 
is the Chester Shoals Life Saving Station and Canaveral Club. 
House. At this club house an artesian well was drilled about 
1890. It is a three-inch well and the original depth was 222 feet. 
The amount of casing used could not be learned. The well in 

*Survey made in 1903, under the direction of Captain F. R. Shunk, 
U. S. Army. 



234 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


subsequent years decreased in flow, and in order to get a sufficient 
amount of water for general use it became necessary to deepen 
the well. In 1905 'Captain Alex. Near continued the drilling to 
297 feet. The well now gives an abundance of water strongly 
impregnated with hydrogen sulphide and tasting slightly brackish, 
although not so much so as to condemn it for general purposes. 

CITY POINT. 

Flowing wells are obtained along the shore of Indian River 
at City Point. Between the village on the river and the City 
Point depot, on the Florida East Coast Railway, there is quite 
an elevation, evidently an old sand dune. The elevation of this 
ridge, according to barometric readings, is about fifty feet above 
the level of the water in the river. A well sunk here some years 
ago failed to flow, although the water rose to within a few feet 
of the surface. A well owned by S. Plendry is reported to have 
a depth of about 160 feet. The elevation of the well is approxi¬ 
mately twenty feet above the water in Indian River. The pressure 
of this well, as indicated by the pressure gauge March 5, 1910. 
was five pounds, or sufficient pressure to cause the water to rise 
11.5 feet above the surface, or approximately 31.5 feet above the 
river level. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well. An¬ 
alysis made for the State Survey in the office of the State Chemist, 
A. M. Henry, analyst : 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (Si 0 2 ) . 17.00 

Chlorine (Cl) . 2248.00 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 207.00 

Phosphates (PO 4 ) . 8.00 

Carbonates (CO3) . 0.00 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 168.00 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K). 1174.00 

Magnesium (Mg) . 116.00 

Calcium (Ca) . 440.00 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 1.00 

Loss on ignition . 960.00 

Total dissolved solids . 5053.00 














WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 235 


COCOA. 

The number of artesian wells in and around Cocoa renders it 
impossible to specifically mention more than a few representative 
ones. The artesian wells in this section terminate at a medium 
depth and are sunk without encountering great difficulty in drill¬ 
ing, thus making the cost comparatively slight. The wells ter¬ 
minate in the Vicksburg Limestone, as indicated by the mixed 
samples of drillings from the well of H. Bradford, one mile south¬ 
west of Cocoa. The water is reported in some instances to con¬ 
tain a trace of salt, but only in a very few cases was it found to 
be injurious to vegetation. 

The well of O. K. Key was sunk by the owner in 1908. It is 
a three-inch well and has a depth of 202 feet. The well is cased 
140 feet. The pressure of the well, as indicated by the gauge, 
March 10, 1910, was ten pounds, or a head of 23.1 feet above the 
surface. The elevation of the well above the level of the water 
in the Indian River, as shown by barometric readings, is 15 feet, 
thus giving the well a total head of 38.1 feet above the water 
level in the river. The water has a slight trace of salt and is 
impregnated with hydrogen sulphide gas. 

About one-fourth mile southwest of the city postoffice is the 
well of the Cocoa Ice Company. This well is reported to have 
been drilled in 1888. It is a four-inch well, 325 feet deep, and 
cased about 125 feet. The pressure of this well in 1908 was re¬ 
ported to be twelve and one-quarter pounds. This pressure would 
give the well a head of 28.2 feet above the surface. The esti¬ 
mated surface elevation is about 10 feet above the river, making 
a total head of 38.2 feet above the level of the water in Indian 
River. 

An artesian well one mile southeast of 'Cocoa was completed 
in February, 1910. This well was drilled by J. A. Coward and is 
owned by H. Bradford. It is three inches in diameter, 190 feet 
deep and is cased to a depth of 80 feet. A mixed sample of the 
drillings taken after the completion of the well indicates that the 
Vicksburg Limestone was encountered. The exact depth at which 
this limestone was reached could not be learned. ’The volume of 


236 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


flow, as measured March 10, 1910, was 60 gallons per minute 
and the pressure as indicated by the pressure gauge on the same 
date was five pounds or a pressure sufficient tO' cause the water 
to rise 11.5 feet above the surface. The elevation of the well 
above the level of the water in Indian River, as shown by baro¬ 
metric readings, is 20 feet. This elevation, together with a head 
of 11.5 feet above the surface, gives the well a total head of 31.5 
feet above the river level. The water is the characteristic sulphur 
water common to most of the artesian wells of the State. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well. 
Analysis made for the State Survey in the office of the State 
Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (Si 02 ) . 12 

Chlorine (Cl) . 1082 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 201 

Phosphates (PO 4 ) . 0 

Carbonates (CO 3 ). 0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 152 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K). 536 

Magnesium (Mg) . 77 

Calcium (Ca) . 167 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 4 

Loss on ignition. 470 

Total dissolved solids . 2546 

\ 

EAU GALLIE. 


The first artesian well in Eau Gallie was drilled, in 1887, by 
John McAllister. This well is now owned by George F. Paddison, 
and is 337 feet deep. It is one and one-fourth inches in diameter 

and cased 136 feet. The depth to the water rock was reported 

by the driller, Mr. McAllister, to be 237 feet. The head of this 
well is given as 42 feet above the surface, or approximately 52 
feet above the level of the water in Indian River. Since the 

completion of the above test well, many wells have been sunk in 

and around Eau Gallie, varying in depth from 315 to 500 feet. 
The principal water supply is obtained at a depth of from 230 to 
315 feet. 














WATER SUPPLY OF EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 237 


The East Coast Lumber and Supply Company use two artesian 
wells as a source for power in running a planing mill. They are 
both six-inch wells and are about 500 feet deep. The pressure of 
the wells could not be obtained, but they are reported to have a 
head of 50 feet above the river. The principal use of the sur¬ 
rounding artesian wells is for general domestic purposes and 
irrigation. 

FRONTENAC. 

Mr. Josiah Thompson owns an artesian well at Frontenac. 
This well was reported to be 190 feet deep, and is four inches in 
diameter. The water is strongly impregnated with salt, and is 
used for power to pump water from a shallow fresh water well. 
The pressure of the well could not be obtained, but the head and 
flow were reported to be very good. 

GRANT. 

A four-inch well, now owned by Mr. Charles Christiancy, at 
Grant is the only flowing well in the vicinity. The well is 350 
feet deep and is cased 90 feet. It was drilled, in 1896, by Messrs. 
Near & Taylor. The principal supply of water is said togpome 
from a depth of 256 feet. 

MALABAR. 

Several deep wells have been sunk at Malabar. They vary 
from 300 to 390, or more, feet in depth. The principal use of the 
water is for irrigation purposes. 

MELBOURNE. 

At Melbourne, a record of several deep wells was obtained. 
Mr. W. T. Wells owns an artesian well, which was sunk by Capt. 
Alexander Near in 1898. This well is 389 feet deep and four inches 
in diameter. The pressure, as shown by the pressure gauge on 
March 15, 1910, was eleven and one-quarter pounds. The surface 
elevation was given as about 26 feet above the level of the water 
in Indian River, and this elevation, together with a pressure of 


238 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


eleven and one-quarter pounds, would give the well a head of 51.9 
feet above the river. 

The six-inch well of Capt. J. S. Sammis is 400 feet deep and is 
cased about 73 feet. The pressure of this well was taken on 
March 15, 1910, but since all connections to the well could not be 
shut off, the full pressure could not be obtained. The reading, 
however, was 11 pounds, which was a sufficient pressure to cause 
the water to rise 25.4 feet above the surface, or about 47.4 feet 
above the river; the well being about 22 feet above the river. 

A three-inch well, owned by Mr. Wm. R. Campbell, near Mel¬ 
bourne is used for power purposes and for irrigation. The water 
from the well turns an overshot wheel, which runs a pump, pump¬ 
ing water from a surface well. The surface water is soft and is 
preferred to the hard sulphur water of the deeper well. The well 
is 385 feet deep and was sunk by Messrs. Near & Taylor in 1895. 

A well, one mile west of Melbourne, owned by Mr. H. P. 
Bowden, is six inches in diameter and is 400 feet deep. The well 
was sunk by Capt. Alexander Near in 1907. The pressure, as 
indicated by the pressure gauge March 14, 1910, was 12 pounds, 
or a head of 27.7 feet above the surface. The surface elevation 
of the well, shown by barometer, was 22 feet above the water level 
in Indian River. This would give the well a total head of 49.7 
feet above the river. The water from this well, besides being 
used for general domestic purposes, is used for bathing and for 
power. Two large concrete bathing pools have been built and 
the water flows continually into them. The temperature of the 
water is said to be 77 degrees F. A water wheel, connected near 
the well, is used to pump water from a shallow, soft water i^ell. 

The following is an analysis of the water from this well. 
Analysis made for the State Survey in the office of the State 
Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 


Constituents. 
Silica (SiC> 2 ) .... 
Chlorine (Cl) .... 
Sulphates (SO4) .. 
Phosphates (PO 4 ) 
Carbonates (CO 3 ) 


Parts per million. 

. 18 

. 573 

. 150 

. 0 

. 0 







WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PRORIDA. 239 


Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 156 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K)... 269 

Magnesium (Mg) . 68 

Calcium (Ca) . 123 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 8 

Loss of ignition .. 375 

Total dissolved solids . 1555 


Mr. M. B. Rhodes’ well, near the postoffice, at Melbourne, is 
45 feet deep and furnishes a flow, which rises about three feet 
above the surface. The elevation of the well is about three feet 
above the water level in Indian River. The well is of interest in 
that the water flows at such a shallow depth. The materials 
penetrated in the sinking of this well were approximately as 
follows: 


Feet. 


Sand ... 

“Hardpan”. 

Sand, water... 

“Hardpan,” water . 

Sand . 

Sandy, clay, water, flowing 3 feet above the surface of the 
well ..... 


0 -10 
10 -11 
11 -20 
20 -20Id 
2014-35 

35 -45 


The water is soft and very desirable for all domestic purposes. 

Another such well as the above is owned by Dr. L. A. Peek. 
This well is 52 feet deep, one and one-fourth inches in diameter 
and furnishes a good supply of soft water. 

The well owned by Mr. Oliver Gibbs is located at Melbourne 
Beach, across the Indian River from Melbourne. This is a four- 
inch well drilled, in 1907, by Capt. Alexander Near. It reached 
a total depth of 318 feet and is cased 100 feet. The pressure of 
the well, as indicated by the pressure gauge March 15, 1910, was 
1714 pounds. This gives the well a head of 40.4 feet above the 
surface, or estimating the surface elevation of the well to be 12 
feet above the river level, a total head of 52.4 feet above the level 
-of the water in Indian River. From an examination of a mixed 
sample from the drillings of this well, it is seen that the Vicksburg 
Limestone is reached. From Mr. Gibb’s record made at the time 
the well was drilled, it would appear that this formation was 















240 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


encountered at a depth of 221 feet. The log, as made out by Mr. 


Gibbs, is as follows: 

Feet. 

Surface sands and soil . 0 - 3 

Yellow sand . 3 - 11 

Coquina rock . 11 - 21 

Fine gray sand ......... 21 - 51 

Shell and sand . 51 - 56 

Hard shell rock . 56 -119 

Greenish clay . 119 -173 

Dark colored rock; sharks’ teeth . 173 -17334 

Greenish clay ... 173^-174^ 

Dark colored rock; sharks’ teeth. 17434-175 

Greenish clay . 175 -221 


Vicksburg Limestone. Increase of flow with depth. A 
pressure of 1734 pounds at this depth was shown by 
the gauge March 15, 1910. Mild sulphur water_ 221 -318 

MERRITTS ISLAND. 

From the well records obtained in this locality, it is probable 
that flowing artesian wells can be obtained at any point on Merritt 
Island. Record of wells are on file from every postoffice on the 
island, bordering the Indian River. Also, records have been 
obtained from Artesia, Cape Canaveral Light House, and Cana¬ 
veral Club House, on the peninsula, east of the island; good flows 
being reported from all of these localities. The pressure of two 
of the wells on the southern end of the island was obtained, one 
at Lotus and one at Tropic. The well of L. D. Hancock, one 
mile south of Lotus, has a depth of about 300 feet. The pressure 
of this well March 12, 1910, was 16 pounds. The elevation of the 
well, according to barometric readings, is 10 feet. This, together 
with a pressure of 16 pounds, gives the well a total head of 46.9 
feet above the level of the water in Indian River. The following 
is an analysis of the water from this well. Analysis made for the 
State Survey in the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, 
analyst: 

Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (SiCL) . 12 

Chlorine (Cl) . 642 















WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 241 


Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 178 

Phosphates (PO 4 ) . 0 

Carbonate's (CO 3 ) . 0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 149 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K). 309 

Magnesium (Mg) . 03 

Calcium (Ca) . 132 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al) . ,... 3 

Loss on ignition . 370 

Total dissolved solids ... 1710 


At Tropic Mrs. John W. Merrill has two artesian wells, two 
and three inches respectively. These wells were drilled about 
1885. The depth was not learned. The gauge on the two-inch 
well, March 12, 1910, indicated a pressure of 16^4 pounds, or a 
head of 38.1 feet above the surface, or about 48 feet above the 
water level in Indian River. The wells are used for general 
purposes and give an excellent flow of sulphur water. 

From the records obtained it appears that the pressure of the 
wells on the island increases in passing from north to south. At 
Lotus the pressure was 16 pounds; at Tropic 16J4 pounds, and 
at Melbourne Beach 17 J4 pounds. No measurements of the pres¬ 
sure of the wells north of Lotus were obtained. 

MICCO. 

The wells at Micco have, for the most part, been drilled a 
number of years and, for this reason, no satisfactory records could 
be obtained. The principal use of the water is for irrigating 
purposes. One well, drilled in 1908 for Peter Bertleson by J. L. 
Mobley, was never completed. The well is 3 inches in diameter 
and is cased 180 feet. At a depth of 300 feet the drill was broken 
off and was never recovered. A flow coming just over the top 
of the casing was obtained at this depth. 

ROCKLEDGE. 

The Rockledge wells vary in depth from 150 to 480 feet. These 
wells are the principal source of domestic water supply, as well as 
being used for irrigating purposes. In a few instances the artesian 












242 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


wells are used for power purposes, such as for generating elec¬ 
tricity by means of a water turbine. A ten-inch well, drilled in 
1893 and now owned by Mr. G. M. Houston, about one and one- 
half miles south of Rockledge, is used for this purpose. The well 
has a reported depth of 480 feet. A gauge on the well indicated 
a pressure of 12J4 pounds, March 10, 1910, or a head of 28.8 feet 
above this point. The gauge was estimated to be ten feet above 
the level of the water in the river, thus giving the well a total 
head of 38.8 feet above the river level. The water contains a trace 


of salt, as is common to the wells in this vicinity. 

The well of Mr. H. S. Williams is of particular interest, in that 
it is the only well in this vicinity, of which a log has been obtained. 
It was drilled about 1890 and is 304 feet deep. It is three inches 
in diameter and is cased 130 feet. The following is a log of this 


well, as reported by Mr. Williams: 

Feet. 

Sand and soil . 0 - 10 

Coquina rock . 10 - 30 

Sand . 30 -100 

Sand rock . 100 -140 

Blue clay . 140 -170 

Hard flint rock. At this depth water rose to the surface, 

small stream . 170 -173 

Rock in layer from 3 to 18 inches thick. 173 -269 

Hard rock . 269 -273 

Soft rock . 273 -278% 

Hard rock, good flow of water. 278%-304% 


The first flow in the well, as will be seen by consulting the log, 
was obtained from a depth of 170-173 feet. At this depth 3 feet 
of hard flint rock was encountered and on penetrating this stratum 
the first water-bearing formation was reached. 


SHARPES. 

Several flowing wells occur in and near Sharpes. The water 
here contains salt to such an extent that it can not be used for 
irrigation. The well of J. W. Spafford furnished the following 
record. The well is four inches in diameter and 200 feet deep. 
It is reported cased only about 40 feet, and to have a head of 10 












WATER SUPPL,Y OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 243 


feet above the surface. The first flow was encountered at 70 feet 
and it is reported by the driller, Capt. W. H. Sharpes, that neither 
the head nor the volume increased with the depth. As indicated 
from the well records and from all obtainable information, only a 
small amount of casing was used in the wells in this vicinity, and 
a knowledge as to whether or not fresh water was encountered 
below the stratum of salt water is, therefore, lacking. 

The following is an analysis of the water from the well of J. 
J. Ollif, Sharpes, Fla. This well is near the Spafford well and 
approximately one mile north of the Hendry well, at City Point, 
analysis of which is given on page 234. Analysis made for the 
State Survey in the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, 
analyst: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (SiC> 2 ) . 16 

Chlorine (Cl) . 3120 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 302 

Phosphates (PO4) . 0 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) . 0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 165 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K). 1634 

Magnesium (Mg) . 286 

Calcium (Ca) . 262 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 4 

Loss on ignition . 974 

Total dissolved solids . 6520 


TILLMAN. 

The only deep well at Tillman, of which record has been 
obtained, was drilled by John McAllister, in 1890, and is owned 
by R. A. Conkling. It is 350 feet deep and furnishes an excellent 
flow of water, which is used for general domestic purposes. 

TITUSVILLE. 

Titusville, the county seat of Brevard County, is located on the 
Indian River. Several artesian wells have been sunk at this 
locality, but up to the present time principally salt water has been 














244 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


obtained. A test well, put down about 1890, was drilled to a total 
depth of 864 feet. A salt water stratum was reached at a depth of 
about 100 feet. The well was cased to a depth of about 110 feet, 
but no attempt was made to case off the salt water. Both the 
flow and the head is reported to have increased with increase of 
depth. Several other wells have been subsequently drilled in and 
near the city. One of these, located at the Dixie Hotel, is said to 
have been drilled to a depth of about 400 feet. Another, located 
at the Grand View Hotel, drilled about 1895, is believed to have 
reached the depth of about 200 feet. Two other wells, one located 
at the old plant of the Florida Extract Company, the other at the 
plant of the Titusville Ice Company, were drilled to a depth of 150 
and 145 feet, respectively. Salt water was obtained from all of 
these wells, and in none of them was an attempt made, so far as 
the records indicate, to go through or to case off the salt water 
stratum. Fresh water is obtained from shallow driven wells, 
none of which exceed 100 feet in depth. The water obtained 
from these wells, as a rule, does not flow. In at least one instance, 
however, a small flowing fresh-water well has been obtained at 
a depth of less than 100 feet. The wells, which exceed 100 feet 
in depth, as stated above, have yielded only salt water. 

The following is an analysis of the water of the well of the 
Titusville Ice Company. Analysis made for the State Survey in 
the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, analyst: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Silica (SiC> 2 ) . 8 

Chlorine (Cl) .11879 

Sulphates (SO 4 ) . 547 

Phosphates (PO4) . 0 

Bicarbonates (HCO3) . 177 

Sodium and potassium (Na and K). 6542 

Magnesium (Mg) . 669 

Calcium (Ca) . 637 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 3 

Loss on ignition . 1380 

Total dissolved solids . 23060 


v 













WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PLORIDA. 245 


VALKARIA. 

A record of one deep well, at Valkaria, has been obtained. This 
well was drilled by Mr. W. J. Nesbitt, in 1892, for Mr. E. A. 
Svedelius. It is a 3-inch well, 350 feet deep, and is cased to a 
depth of 90 feet. The water is reported to rise 15 feet or more 
above the surface. At a depth of 320 feet hard rock was en¬ 
countered and, immediately below this rock, the first water, under 
sufficient pressure to cause it to rise to the surface, was obtained. 

ST. LUCIE COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

St. Lucie County lies south of Brevard County. It is 42 miles 
long and from 24 to 42 miles in width. Et. Drum ridge in this 
county has an elevation of 66.74 feet above the mean sea level.* 
The eastern part of the county, aside irom the line of sand dunes 
near the coast, consists largely of palmetto flatwoods. Towards 
the west border the land is more rolling and numerous small lakes 
occur. Some muck lands are found near the headwaters of the 
St. Johns River. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The wells of this county, as elsewhere along the East Coast, 
reach the Vicksburg Limestones. These limestones, however, dip 
in passing to the south and lie at a greater depth in St. Lucie 
County than in the adjoining counties to the north. The wells ofi 
the St. Lucie Ice Company, at Ft. Pierce, are 812 feet deep and, 
probably, reach the Vicksburg Limestone. The first flow from the 
wells, at Ft. Pierce, is reported to have been obtained from the 
depth of 725 to 750 feet. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW OF ST. LUCIE COUNTY. 

Owing to the few wells that have been drilled, the area of 
artesian flow in St. Lucie County is imperfectly determined. 

^Survey made in 1903, under the direction of Captain F. R. Shunk, 
U. S. Army. 



246 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Along the East Coast wells are in use as far as the southern line 
of the county. It is probable that flowing wells can be obtained 
for some miles inland from the coast. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

EDEN. 

A four-inch well at Eden, owned by Mr. Chas. Edison, was 
sunk by Messrs. Fee & Nesbitt and is 870 feet deep. The water is 
used for general and irrigation purposes. It rises 25 feet above 
the surface. It is a hard water and is impregnated with hydrogen 
sulphide. 

FT. PIERCE. 

Two artesian wells occur at Ft. Pierce, the county seat of St. 
Lucie County. These are <?wned by the St. Lucie Ice Company. 
The wells are reported to have a depth of 812 feet. One is six 
inches in diameter, the other 2 inches, and both are reported cased 
200 feet. The first flow is said to have been obtained from lime¬ 
stone, at a depth of from 725 to 750 feet. The last 100 feet of 
the well is said to have been through this limestone. The follow¬ 
ing is an analysis of the water from one of these wells. Analysis 
by the Geo. W. Lord Company, 2238-2250 North Ninth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Chester Alsmere, chemist, reported January 
18, 1907: 


Constituents. Parts per million. 

Organic and volatile matter . 51.311 

Calcium oxide. 70.650 

Magnesium oxide . 31.939 

Sodium oxide . 736.846 

Sulphur trioxide . 241.489 

Chlorine . 446.737 

Carbonic acid (combined) . 204.081 

Silica . 33.979 


As will be seen in the above analysis this water contains a high 
percentage of sodium and chlorine. The water tastes brackish, 
and is used for cooling purposes in the manufacture of ice. The 










WATER SUPPRY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PRORIDA. 247 


principal water supply for domestic purposes, in and around Ft. 
Pierce, is obtained from shallow wells, ranging in depth from 12 
to 50 feet. 

The following is a record of a well drilled at Ft. Pierce by 
H. Walker for the Florida East Coast Railway in 1912. The well 
is 814 feet deep and is cased with eight-inch casing 184 feet and 
9 inches, and with six-inch casing 570 feet and 10 inches. The 
head above the surface is 28 feet and 6 inches. The head above 
Indian River is 46 feet. The well flows 800 gallons per minute at 
the surface. The record has been kindly supplied by Mr. G. A. 
Miller, of the Florida East Coast Railway. 

Feet. 

Yellow sand . 0- 55 

Shell and sand . 55- 75 

Shell and gravel . 75- 85 

Shell, sand and clay . 85-120 

Blue clay and sand. 120-135 

Soft blue clay'and very fine sand. 135-145 

Blue clay and sand. 145-165 

Blue clay . 165-190 

Tough, dry blue clay. 190-200 

Soft sandy, blue clay . 200-250 

Hard sandy, blue clay. 250-300 

Smooth blue clay, no sand. 300-400 

Blue clay, very tough and sticky. 400-460 

Yellow clay, with black streaks in it. 460-500 

Yellow clay, with a few pebbles. 500-520 

Blue clay, tough and sticky. 520-545 

Very hard yellow clay . 545-555 

Blue clay, very sticky . 555-585 

Yellow clay in hard and soft layers. 585-600 

Yellow clay, very dry. 600-647 

Shell and soft rock.;. 647-656 

Tough white clay . 656-662 

Hard white rock . 662-676 

Soft rock, small flow . 676-685 

Soft limestone rock, flow increasing very slowly with 

depth . 685-807 

Hard rock. 807-814 




























248 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well made 
by the American Water Softener Company, Philadelphia, Pa.: 



Grains per 

Parts per 

Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 1.71 

29.31 

Calcium sulphate . 

. 8.34 

142.97 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 9.26 

156.73 

Sodium sulphate . 

. 18.90 

324.00 

Sodium chloride . 

. 43.50 

745.71 

Free carbonic acid . 

. 1.00 

17.14 

Iron, aluminum and silica. 

. 0.28 

4.70 

Incrusting solids ... 

. 19.59 

335.83 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 62.40 

1069.72 

Total solids . 

. 83.00 

1422.86 


NARROWS. 

Two deep wells are reported from Narrows. One is owned 
by Mr. F. Foster, the other by Mr. E. L. Gray. These wells were 
drilled by Mr. W. J. Nesbitt about the year 1892. Both are three 
inches in diameter and 420 feet deep. The height to which the 
water would rise above the surface was not obtained, but the wells 
are reported to have a head of several feet, and to furnish a strong 
flow of water. 

ORCHID. 

Mr. S. K. Michael owns an artesian well at Orchid. This well 
was sunk by Capt. Alexander Near in 1896. It is 480 feet deep, 
four inches in diameter and is cased 85 feet. The well is reported 
to have a head of 40 feet above sea, and to furnish an abundant 
supply of hard, sulphur water. 

ROSELAND. 

The artesian wells at Roseland have been drilled for a number 
of years and, for this reason, no very definite information could 
be obtained. Mr. L. C. Moore owns three wells, located about 
one and one-half miles north of Roseland, on the point between 
the Sebastian and Indian Rivers. These wells range in depth 














WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 249 

from 350 to 453 feet. The water is hard and impregnated with 
hydrogen sulphide and is used for irrigating and general purposes. 

SEBASTIAN. 

There are several flowing artesian wells in and near Sebastian. 
They vary in depth from 365 to 500 feet. At this depth an abun¬ 
dance of hard sulphuretted water is obtained, rising from 16 to 25, 
or more, feet above the surface. A well owned by Mr. J. A. 
Groves, drilled by Mr. J. McAllister, was completed in 1896. This 
well is 460 feet deep, four inches in diameter, and is cased 100 feet. 
The water is reported to have a head of 16 feet above the surface, 
the surface elevation being estimated at 25 feet above the level of 
the water in Indian River. The total head of the well above the 
river is thus 41 feet. The water is used for general and domestic 
purposes and for irrigation. A four-inch well, drilled by Capt. 
Alexander Near, in 1901, owned by the Indian River Cooperage 
Company, is 365 feet deep. The water is reported to rise 25 or 
more feet above the surface. The elevation of the depot at Sebas¬ 
tian, according to levels run by the Florida East Coast Railway, 
is 19 feet. This well has approximately the same elevation as the 
depot, and this, in addition to head of 25 feet above the surface, 
gives the well a total head of 44 feet above sea. The well is now 
abandoned, but, when first sunk, was used for the manufacture 
of ice. 

The Fellsmere Farms Company have recently completed a well, 
about ten miles west of Sebastian (Sec. 22, T. 31 S., R. 37 E.). 
The well is four inches in diameter, 370 feet deep, and is cased 146 
feet. The head, tested September 23, 1910, by Mr. E. H. Every, 
manager, was found to be 25 feet above the surface, and the flow 
185 gallons per minute.* 

The following is the analysis of the water from this well made 
by the State Chemist: 

Constituents. Parts per million. 

Chlorine (Cl) ...'.. 257 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) ... 0 


*Letter to Capt. R. E. Rose, State Chemist, Sept. 23, 1910. 





250 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 177 

Loss on ignition . 245 

Total dissolved solids . 905 


PINELLAS COUNTY. 

t 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Pinellas County lies on the Gulf Coast and includes the penin¬ 
sula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The area of 
the land surface of the county is approximately 260 square miles. 
The surface is prevailingly level, with a gradual rise in passing 
inland from the coast. The county is crossed by the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad, and by the Tampa and Gulf Coast Railroad. 
The elevations recorded by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad are 
as follows: Belleair, 49 feet; Clearwater, 29 feet; Dunedin, 13 
feet; Largo, 50 feet; St. Petersburg, 20 feet; Tarpon Springs, 14 
feet. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deep wells in Pinellas County doubtless terminate in the 
Vicksburg Limestone. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

The flowing area, in this county, includes a narrow strip bor¬ 
dering the coast and extending somewhat north of Dunedin. Flow¬ 
ing wells can probably be obtained along the shore entirely around 
Tampa Bay. The accompanying map shows the area in this 
county, in which it is believed that flowing wells can be obtained. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

CLEARWATER. 

Clearwater is near the center of the county, from north to 
south. The city water supply, at Clearwater, is taken from a well 
250 feet deep. A second well, 270 feet deep, is held in reserve. 
Both wells are eight inches in diameter and are cased about 30 feet. 
When not in use the wells flow, but when either well is being 





WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PLORIDA. 251 


pumped the head is reduced, stopping the flow in the other well. 
The 270-foot well has brackish water. 

The Clearwater Ice Factory has three wells, 46, 52 and 80 feet 
deep. They are all cased 30 feet and the water is reported to 
stand 26 feet from the surface. These wells are located on high 
ground, the difference in elevation being probably sufficient to 
account for the difference in head between these and the city wells. 

DUNEDIN. 

Flowing wells are obtained along the coast at Dunedin. The 
wells range in depth from 55 to 120 feet. C. B. Bowden has a 
six-inch well, 98 feet deep and cased 70 feet, in which the water 
stands 20 feet from the surface. This well is used as a public 
supply. T. J. Zimmerman has a well, at this locality, 68 feet deep, 
in which the water stands 12 feet from the surface. W. C. McLain 
has a flowing artesian well, about two miles north of Dunedin. 
This well is 202 feet deep and is estimated to flow 10 gallons a 
minute. This is the northernmost flowing well in this county. 

ESPIRITU SANTO SPRINGS. 

The Espiritu Santo Springs, located near the north end of 
Tampa Bay, include five springs. The following is an analysis of 
the water from the one known as the drinking spring: Analysis 
by the N. B. Pratt Laboratory, Atlanta, Georgia: 



Grains per 

Parts per 

Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Peroxide of iron and alumina . 

.1692 

2.9007 

Sodium chloride . 

. 137.8520 

2363.2208 

Magnesium chloride . 

.. 25.8768 

443.5292 

Potassium sulphate . 

.. 3.4815 

59.6854 

Calcium sulphate . 

. 19.7172 

338.0297 

Calcium carbonate ... 

. 12.6145 

216.2607 

Silica .. . A ... 

.9972 

17.0958 

Total solids by evaporation. 

. 254.9165 

4370.2629 












252 


FLORIDA STATE). GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


LARGO. 

Several wells have been drilled at Largo. Lewis Johnson has a 
four-inch well, 200 feet deep, which is used as a public well. Joel 
McMullen has a well, about eight miles southwest of Largo, 227 
feet deep, in which the water stands 15 feet from the surface. 

OZONA. 

The wells at Ozona are mostly 50 to 60 feet deep. A two-inch 
well, owned by Wm. Woods, is 80 feet deep and the water stands 
eight feet below the surface. C. R. C. Smith has a well 106 feet 
deep, but the water at this depth is said to be salty. 

PASS-A-GRILLE. 

The following is a log of a four-inch well, 256 feet deep, drilled 
by J. C. Danielson, and is used as a public well. The well is cased 
204 feet and the water rises 14 feet above sea: 


Feet. 

White beach sand . 0- 3 

Shells . 3- 7 

Fine sand . 7- 35 

Coquina . 35- 41 

Quicksand and blue clay. 41- 80 

Hard blue' clay . 80-200 

Limestone, principal flow from 230 feet... 205-256 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well.. 
Analysis made in the office of the State Chemist of Florida, A. M. 
Henry, analyst: 


Milligrams per liter., 
(Parts per million. J 

Si02 . 46.2 

Fe and A1 . 6.2 

Ca. . . 393.8 

Mg. ... 187.0 

Na. ...... 611.9 

K . 10.9 

Cl. 1560.2 

C 0 3 . 0.0- 

















WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PUORIDA. 253 


HCO 3 . 204.4 

SO 4 . 754.7 

P0 4 . 0.0 


Total . 3775.3 

These may be combined as follows: 

KC1. 20.8 

NaCl. 1555.3 

MgCl 2 . 777.9 

CaCl 2 . 25.0 

CaS0 4 . 1068.6 

Ca (HC0 3 ) 2 . 271.6 

CaSi0 3 . 10.7 

Si0 2 . 39.2 

Fe and A1. 6.2 


PINELLAS PARK. 

A six-inch well, drilled at this locality by J. C. Danielson, 
reached a total depth of 325 feet. The water in the well stands 
five feet from the surface. 

ST. PETERSBURG. 

Flowing wells are obtained at St. Petersburg, along the coast, 
the water rising 10 to 14 feet above sea level. A well near the 
dock is four inches in diameter and 100 feet deep. The water 
from this well rises 10 feet above the surface. Another well near 
the bay, about one mile southeast of St. Petersburg, was drilled 
480 feet deep. The water from this well rises about 10 feet above 
the surface and is salty. 

The city supply at St. Petersburg is obtained from one seven- 
inch and two ten-inch wells, variously reported at 135 and 235 
feet deep. These wells are located on the upland, about 31^4 feet 
above the level of the bay. When first drilled, the water is said 
to have stood 22 feet from the surface, but, after being used for 
some time, the water level was reduced to 36 feet from the surface. 
The following is an analysis of the water made by Dearborn Drug 
and Chemical Works, Chicago, Ill., December 11, 1911: 
















254 


FLORIDA STATF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Grains per 

Parts per 

Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Silica . 

.934 

16.012 

Oxide's of iron and alumina . 

.117 

2.005 

Carbonate of lime . 

. 9.900 

169.724 

Chloride of lime . 

. 2.761 

47.334 

Sulphate of lime . 

.405 

6.943 

Carbonate of magnesia . 



Chloride of magnesia . 

. 1.993 

34.167 

Sodium and potassium sulphates. 



Sodium and potassium chlorides. 

. 4.964 

85.102 

Boss, etc.. 

.183 

3.137 

Total soluble mineral solids. 

. 21.257 

364.427 

Suspended matter . 

. 1.168 

20.024 

Organic matter . 



Total soluble incrusting solids.. 

. 16.110 

276.188 

Total soluble non-incrusting solids_ 

. 5.147 

98.239 


The following is analysis of water from one of these wells. 
Analysis made in the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, 
analyst: 

Well water of 155-foot city well of St. Petersburg, Pinellas 


County, Florida: 

Milligrams per liter. 
(Parts per million.) 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . 28.5 

Iron and alumina (Fe and Al). 0.9 

Calcium (Ca) . 92.6 

Magnesium (Mg) . 9.6 

Sodium (Na) . 

Potassium (K) . 

Chlorine (Cl) . 120.6 

Carbonates (CO 3 ) . 0.0 

Bicarbonates (HCO 3 ) . 216.6 

Sulphates (SO4) . 2.1 

Phosphates (PO4) . I- 5 


Total . 580.00 


The following is a log of a six-inch well, 99 feet deep, drilled 
by J. C. Danielson, and owned by the St. Petersburg Investment 
Company. The well was drilled in 1912 and is cased 64^4 feet. 






























WATER SUPrivY OP eastern AND SOUTHERN eeorida. 255 


Feet. 

Casing driven and no record.. 0 -64^4 

Hard lime' rock . 64*4-69>4 

Soft lime rock . 69^4-71 

Close grained lime rock. 71 -86 

Water-bearing rock . 86 -88 

Hard lime rock . 88 -99 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well made 
by the Bird-Archer Company, 90 West Street, New York City: 



Grains per 

Parts per 

Constituents. 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Organic and volatile matter ., 

. 4.717 

80.867 

Sodium chloride . ’... 

. 3.244 

55.614 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 9.529 

163.364 

Magnesium chloride .. 

.. 2.332 

39.979 

Total solids .. 

. 19.822 

339.826 

Free carbonic acid . 

. 9.415 

161.409 

The following is a log of a 

six-inch well, 155 feet 

deep, owned 


and drilled by J. C. Danielson. The well is located on the bay 
shore, two miles north of St. Petersburg. It is cased 76 feet, and 
the water rises about three feet above the surface. The flow is 


estimated at 200 gallons per minute. 

Feet. 

Soil . 0 - 1^4 

Dark colored sand ... 1^4- 9 

Hard pan. 9 - 16 

White water-bearing sand... 16 - 50 

White clay . 50 - 60 

Water-bearing rock . 60 - 66 

Light brown, sticky clay.:. 66 - 76 

Rock, alternating hard and soft strata...... 76 -156 


The following is a log of a four-inch well, 230 feet deep, drilled 
by J. C. Danielson for R. S. Hanna, at Maximo Point, five miles 
southwest of St. Petersburg. The elevation at the well is about 
seven feet above sea and the water rises six feet above the surface, 
or a total head of about thirteen feet above sea. The well is cased 
86 feet. 






















256 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Soil . 

Marl-clay 

Rock 

Quicksand 
Blue clay 
Limestone 


Feet. 

0 - 1 
1 - 2 
2 - 2i/ 3 

2%- 72 
72 - 76 
76 -230 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well. 
Analysis made in the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, 
analyst. Sdmple taken by H. Gunter, May 14, 1912: 


P0 4 . 

SiC>2. 

S0 4 . 

C0 3 . 

HC0 3 . 

Cl. 

Fe and Al.... 

Ca . 

Mg. 

K . 

Na . 

O (calculated) 


Milligrams per liter. 
(Parts per million.) 

. 0.0 

. 42.2 

. 558.6 

0.0 

.. 180.0 

. 1117.0 

. 2.6 

. 328.6 

. 122.8 

. 8.8 

.. 462.2 

7.8 


Total . 2830.6 

These may be combined as follows: 

KC1 . 24.8 

NaCl . 1175.2 

MgCl 2 . 480.9 

CaCl 2 .*. 46 7 

CaS0 4 ..,. 791.7 

Ca (HC0 3 ) 2 . 239.1 

CaSiOs . 569 

Si0 2 . 12.7 

Fe and Al .. 2.6 


Total . 2830.6 

































WATER SURREY OR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 257 


SEMINOLE. 

A number of wells have been drilled in the vicinity of Seminole. 
A four-inch well, owned by Frank Grable, near the locality, drilled 
by T, J Zimmerman, reached a depth of 270 feet. The water is 
reported to stand 16 feet from the surface. 

SUTHERLAND. 

Several wells have been drilled at Sutherland. Those exceed¬ 
ing about 100 feet in depth are reported to reach salt water. 
Fresh water is obtained from 50 to 100 feet. 

TARPON SPRINGS. 

The city supply at Tarpon Springs is obtained from three six- 
inch wells, 80, 108 and 126 feet deep respectively. The water 
stands 20 feet from the surface. The Polar Ice Company also 
have three wells, 82, 90 and 120 feet deep respectively. In the 
deepest of these salt water was reached at 120 feet, and the well 
was plugged at 100 feet. 

Tarpon Springs, at this locality, comes up in a bayou from 
Anciote River. Although covered at high tide, the strong boil 
from the spring can be seen at medium and low tides. 

WALL SPRINGS. 

A well, drilled at Wall Springs by T. J. Zimmerman for W. 
W. Clark, reached a total depth of 313 feet. Fresh water was 
found in this well to a depth of about 90 feet. Below 90 feet 
the water is brackish. Three lines of casing were used in this 
well as follows: eight-inch, six-inch and four-inch. The four- 
inch casing is said to reach 312 feet. The water in the well 
stands 13 feet from the surface. There are a number of wells 
that have been drilled at this locality from 50 to 90 feet deep and 
yield a fresh water. 

Wall Spring, at this locality, has an estimated flow of 3,000 
gallons per minute. The water from this spring is used for 
medicinal purposes. 


258 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


HILLSBORO COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Hillsboro County includes an area of 1,049 square miles. The 
county is crossed by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and by the 
Seaboard Air Line Railway, and their branches, and by the 
Tampa Northern Railroad. The elevation rises in passing inland 
from Tampa Bay and the Gulf. Plant City, near the east line 
of the county, is reported, by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, 
to be 137 feet above sea level. The level given by the Seaboard 
Air Line Railway for this locality is 125 feet above sea level. 
The elevation of other points in this county, along the Seaboard 
Air Line Railway, is as follows: Brandon, 74 feet; Knights, 
117 feet; Turkey Creek, 87 feet. The' elevation of points in this 
county, along the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, is as follows: 
Hillsboro, 35 feet; Seffner, 74 feet, and Thonotosassa, 49 feet 
above sea. The Hillsboro and Alafia Rivers flow across this 
county and enter Hillsboro Bay. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

While no complete set of well drillings has been obtained, 
there is little doubt but that the deep wells of this county termi¬ 
nate in the Vicksburg Limestone. The surface exposures along 
Tampa Bay and along the Hillsboro River, for some miles above 
Tampa, are of the Tampa Limestone, Upper Oligocene, which 
overlies the Vicksburg formation or Lower Oligocene. A full 
description of the exposures of the Tampa formation in this 
county, by George C. Matson and F. G. Clapp, will be found in 
the Second Annual Report of this Survey, pages 84 to 91, 1909. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

Flowing artesian wells are, probably, to be obtained entirely 
around Hillsboro and Tampa Bays. The head is sufficient to 
bring the water about ten to fifteen feet above sea level, and the 
wells will usually flow where the. rise above sea does not exceed 
this elevation. The accompanying’map shows the area in this 
county in which flowing wells can be obtained. 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 259 


LOCAL DETAILS. 

PLANT CITY. 

The public water supply at Plant City is taken from a well 
340 feet deep. This well is cased 260 feet, and the water stands 
33 feet from the surface. 



Fig. 13.— Map showing the flowing area in Hillsboro and De'Soto 
Counties. The area in which flowing wells have been obtained is indicated 
by shading. 


The Plant City Ice and Power Company have a well about 
600 feet deep. The water in this well stands 20 feet from the 
surface. 

The following is a log of the well of the Warnell Lumber 
and Veneer Company, as kept by the drillers, the Hughes 
Specialty Well Drilling Company. The well is 266^ feet deep 
and is cased with eight-inch casing to a depth of 105 feet. The 
water in this well stands 45 feet from the surface. 





























260 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Feet. 

Sand and clay . 1 - 20 

Sand and dark colored marl. 20- 40 

Marl and medium hard rock. 40-100 

Light colored hard rock.. 100-105 

Medium hard rock . 105-175 

Light colored hard rock . 175-190 

Shell-bearing medium hard rock . 190-215 

Soft shell-bearing rock..... 215-266^4 


TAMPA. 

The water supply for the city of Tampa is obtained from 
drilled wells, of which there are twenty-eight at present. The 
wells range in depth from about 200 to 325 feet. Wells at a 
greater depth, as a rule, reach salty water. The wells are mostly 
10 inches in diameter. The casing extends from 52 to 103 feet. 
The elevation above sea varies from 8 to 15^4 feet. The water 
in these wells will rise 15 to 17 feet above sea level, hence most 
of the wells flow at the surface. The following is a log of one 
of the wells taken from the Second Annual Report of this Survey, 


page 89: 

Feet. 

White Pleistocene sand . 0- 2 

Tough yellow clay with no sand, residual clay. 2- 12 

Soft limestone, which disintegrates readily, “Tampa lime¬ 
stone” ... 12- 26 

Chert, “Tampa silex bed”. 26- 30 

Soft limestone, closely resembling that at 12 to 26 feet.... 30- 36 

Tough, plastic, greenish sandy clay. 36- 77 

Base of the Tampa formation: 

Chert . 77- 79 

White’ marl . 79- 85 

Soft limestone ... 85- 90 

Very light colored hard rock . 90-105 

Very hard dark yellow limestone. 105-111 

Gray, porous limestone with some water. 111-126 

Cherty beds . 126-140 

Darker limestone. 

Gray plastic clay. 

Hard yellow rock with chert. 

Gray, porous rock, water-bearing. 

Like preceding. 






















WATER SUPPRY OR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ERORIDA. 261 


The following is a log of the well, located at the southwest 
corner, Lot 2, Block IT, Bouquardez Sub-Division, 233 feet deep: 


Feet. 

Sand .. 0- 8 

Clay .. 8- 12 

Hard gray rock. 12- 36 

Soft gray rock . 36- 48 

Very hard dark flint.... 48- 53 

Blue clay . 53-103 

Gray rock with hard streaks. 103-124 

Dark, hard flint... 124-129 

White lime rock . 129-160 

White clay .. 160-164 

Brownish gray rock. 164-180 

Lime rock . 180-233 


The following is a log of a well at Ybor City. Northwest 
quarter, Section 17, Township 29, Range 19, 355 feet deep. Well 


now abandoned. 

Feet 

Sand ... 0 - 19.4 

Gray rock .. 19.4- 37.6 

Tough gray clay . 37.6- 41.6 

Tough gray clay with streaks of rock. 41.6- 48.2 

Gray, hard, flinty rock... 48.2- 95 

Yellow sand rock with a little water . 95 - 07 

Gray rock, coarse' with dark green streaks . 97 -109.4 

Yellow shell rock .. 109.4-110.4 

Gray hard rock ... 110.4-223 

White sticky clay ... 223 -228 

Gray hard rock ... 228 -240.5 

Soft gray rock, not porous . 240.5-315 5 

Soft gray rock . 315.5-355.5 


Four wells at West Tampa, drilled by W. F. Hamilton, 
formerly used for the public supply, are now used for the manu¬ 
facture of ice. These wells vary in depth from 360 to 760 feet. 
One of these is a six-inch well, 360 feet deep, cased 135 feet. 
Another is a six-inch well, 390 feet deep, cased 93 feet. A third 
well is 406 feet deep and is cased 90 feet. The fourth well was 
drilled at a depth of 760 feet and was cased 412 feet. The water 



























262 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


from this depth was salty and the well was subsequently filled to 
about 400 feet. The casing was broken and fresh water admitted 
at this depth. The water in the wells at this locality is reported 
to stand at about seven feet from the surface. 



Fig 14.— Map showing of artesian flow in Polk County. The area in 
which flowing wells have been obtained is indicated by shading. 


POLK COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Polk County includes a land area of 1,967 square miles. The 
Lake Region crosses the central part of this county, and the 
principal pebble phosphate deposits of the State are found in the 
western part of the county. The following elevations are 
recorded along the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, which crosses 
the county from east to west and from north to south: Auburn- 




































WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 263 


dale, 167 feet; Bartow, 115 feet; Bartow Junction, 165 feet; Ft. 
Meade, 130 feet; Haines City, 157 feet; Homeland, 139 feet; 
Lakeland, 20'6 feet. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deep wells of this county reach the Vicksburg Limestone. 
Some of the more shallow wells, especially in the Lake Region, 
receive their water supply from formations lying above the Vicks¬ 
burg. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

Artesian wells are obtained throughout this county. As a 
rule, however, the surface elevation is such that the wells do not 
flow at the surface. Some of the deep wells, in the vicinity of 
Mulberry, flowed when first drilled, but subsequently ceased to 
flow, owing to the heavy pumping from surrounding wells. Flow¬ 
ing wells may be obtained in the valley of Peace River and in the 
eastern part of the county, in the valley of the Kissimmee River. 
In no part of the world, perhaps, is water from deep wells more 
extensively used than in the pebble phosphate mining section of 
Polk County. The wells in this section range in depth from 500 
to 800 feet. The water rises in the boring to within 20 to 40 feet 
of the surface, depending upon the elevation. Pumping is chiefly 
by air lift. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

BARTOW. 

The city water supply, at Bartow, is taken from a six-inch 
well, 720 feet deep. The well is reported cased to the bottom. 
The water stands 24 feet from the surface. Pumping from this 
well is direct, the pump being lowered in pit to about six feet 
of the water level. 

CARTERS. 

Flowing wells have been obtained at Carters. These flowing 
wells average in depth about 50 feet, and will flow a few feet 
above the surface. 


264 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


lakeland. 

The public water supply of Lakeland is taken from a six- 
inch well, 489 feet deep, drilled by C. E. Reed in 1904. The 
well is cased about 350 feet, and the water stands 79 feet from 
the surface. The well of the Lakeland Refrigerator and Ice 
Company is reported to be 336 feet deep. The water in this well 
stands about 100 feet from the surface. 

MULBERRY. 

The city water supply at Mulberry is taken from an eight-inch 
well, 385 feet deep. The water stands in this well 21 feet from 
the surface. The many wells in this locality, used as a source of 
water supply in phosphate mining, range in depth, as previously 
stated, from 500 to 800 feet. In size they vary from eight to 
fourteen inches. The water stands twenty to forty feet from the 
surface. 

OSCEOLA COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Osceola County includes an area of 1827 square miles. 
Kissimmee River and the chain of lakes from which it takes its 
origin forms most of the western boundary of this county. The 
surface elevation of Kissimmee, at the head of Lake Tohopekaliga, 
according to levels made by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, is 
63 feet above sea. Campbell, a few miles west of this lake, is 
75 feet above sea. St. Cloud, on East Lake Tohopekaliga, is 
63 feet above sea. Narcoossee, also on East Lake Tohopekaliga, 
is 72 feet above sea. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

Pleistocene shell deposits are found in the valley of the 
Kissimmee River, this formation having been recognized at a 
depth of 100 feet in the well of Captain H. Clay Johnson, at Kis¬ 
simmee. The formations beneath the Pleistocene have not been 
determined from well samples, but it is probable that the deep 


WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 265 

'7A 



Fig. 15.—Map showing the area of artesian flow in Osceola County. 
The area in which flowing artesian wells have been obtained is indicated 
by shading. 







































266 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


wells in this county reach and obtain their chief supply from the 
Vicksburg Limestone. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

Flowing artesian wells are obtained in this county in the 
valley of the Kissimmee River. It is probable, also, that flowing 
artesian wells can be obtained in the extreme northeastern part 



Fig. 16.—Map showing the area of artesian flow in Manatee County. 
The area in which flowing artesian wells have been obtained is indicated 
by shading. 

















WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 267 


of the county, near the St. Johns River. The artesian pressure 
in the wells in the Kissimmee River valley is sufficient to bring 
the water from 3 to 7 feet above the surface. These flowing wells 
vary in depth from less than 100 to 500 and 600 feet. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

KISSIMMEE. 

Numerous artesian wells have been drilled in and near Kis¬ 
simmee. These vary in depth from less than one hundred to 
several hundred feet. The height to which the water will rise 
above the surface varies from one to three or four feet. The 
well of the Kissimmee Ice Factory is reported to be 309 feet 
deep. The water in this well will rise four feet above the surface. 
The well of H. W. Thurman, at the Granada Hotel, is 341 feet 
deep and flows at the surface, supplying water for a bathing pool 
and other domestic purposes. The well of F. Vans Agnew, two 
miles southeast of Kissimmee, used for domestic and irrigation 
purposes, is 300 feet deep and yields a strong flow of water at 
the surface. Many other wells have been drilled for stock, 
irrigation and domestic purposes in the Kissimmee River valley, 
and the number is being rapidly increased. 

NARCOOSSEE. 

Several wells have been drilled at Narcoossee. These vary in 
depth from 200 to 415 feet. These wells are non-flowing, the 
elevation here being somewhat greater than at Kissimmee. 

MANATEE COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Manatee County lies, bordering the Gulf Coast, between 
Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. The county includes an area 
of 1,275 square miles. The principal streams of the county are 
the Manatee River, which flows across the county from east to 


2(58 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


west, and enters Tampa Bay and the Myakka River, which flows 
to the south and enters Charlotte Harbor. It is probable that the 
northeastern part of the county, near the headwaters of these 
streams, reaches an elevation of 100 feet above sea. From this 
part of the county the elevation falls off gradually toward the 
coast. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The deep wells of Manatee County are believed to enter the 
Vicksburg Limestone. The more shallow wells terminate in the 
sands and clays before reaching this formation. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

Flowing artesian wells are obtained in Manatee County, along* 
the coast and, for some distance inland, along the Manatee and the 
Myakka Rivers and other streams. The flowing artesian wells, 
along the Manatee River, where a great many have been drilled, 
vary in depth from 200 to 600 feet. At Sarasota, on Sarasota 
Bay, flowing water is obtained at 360 feet. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

BRADENTOWN. 

The city water supply at Bradentown is obtained from 
artesian wells, which vary in depth from 410 to 528 feet. The 
water from these wells will rise about thirteen feet above the 
surface, equivalent to a head of about twenty-nine feet above sea 
level. Numerous other wells have been drilled in and near 
Bradentown, which vary in depth from 200 to 600 feet. 

MANATEE. 

Numerous artesian wells have been drilled in and around 
Manatee for household use, irrigation and other purposes. The 
well of the Excelsior Ice Company, at this locality, is 540 feet 
deep, although a first flow was obtained at a depth of 360 feet. 
Mr. C. H. Davis has a four-and-one-half-inch well, 510 feet deep,. 


WATER SUPPRY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 269 


cased 150 feet. This well, when measured May 21, 1910, showed 
a pressure of eight pounds at the surface, which is equivalent to 
a head of eighteen and one-half feet above the surface. Another 
well at this locality, having a depth of 529 feet, cased 260 feet, 
owned by Mr. Tallant, was found, on the same date, to have a 
pressure of seven and one-half pounds, or a head above the 
surface of seventeen and three-tenths feet. The relative eleva¬ 
tion of these two wells was not determined, but the surface eleva¬ 
tion at the Tallant well is estimated at about six feet above sea. 

palmetto. 

The city water supply at Palmetto is taken from artesian 
wells. In addition to the city supply, several artesian wells have 
been drilled at this locality. These vary in depth from 370 to 600 
feet. The water is reported to rise 20 to 25 feet above the surface. 

SARASOTA. 

The well from which the public water supply is taken at 
Sarasota is reported to have a depth of 450 feet. The water 
rises about twenty feet above the surface. Other wells drilled at 
this locality vary in depth from 360 to 400 feet. A flowing well, 
drilled on Sarasota Key, is reported to be 252 feet deep. The 
water from this well rises 15 feet above the surface. 

DESOTO COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

DeSoto County has an area of 3,755 square miles, and extends 
from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Okeechobee and the Kissimmee 
River. The Lake Region extends into the north central part of 
this county. It is probable that local areas are found in the Lake 
Region of this county which exceed 150 feet in elevation. From 
these high lands the slope is gradual to the Gulf and to Lake 
Okeechobee and to the Kissimmee and the Caloosahatchee 
Rivers. The following elevations are recorded along the Atlantic 


270 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Coast Line Railroad, which crosses the county from north to 
south: Arcadia, 56 feet; Bowling Green, 116 feet; Ft. Ogden, 
37 feet; Nocatee, 38 feet; Wauchula, 107 feet; Zolfo Springs, 61 
feet. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

As elsewhere in Southern Florida, the deep wells obtain 
their water supply from limestones of the Vicksburg formation. 

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

DeSoto County includes a considerable area, in which flowing 
artesian wells can be obtained. This flowing area surrounds 
Charlotte Harbor and in the valley of the Peace River extends 
entirely across the county. Flowing wells are also obtained along 
the Caloosahatchee River to Lake Okeechobee. It is also believed 
that flowing artesian wells may be expected along the west border 
of Lake Okeechobee and in the valley of the Kissimmee River, 



Fig. 17 .—Map showing the area of artesian flow in DeSoto County. 
The area in which flowing artesian wells have been obtained is indicated 
by shading. 




























WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 271 


along the east border of this county. The deep wells at Punta 
Gorda show a pressure of 20 pounds or more, indicating a head 
of 45 to 50 feet above sea. In the interior of the county, where 
the elevation is greater, the rise of the artesian water above the 
surface is correspondingly less. The accompanying map shows 
approximately the area of artesian flow in the county. It is prob¬ 
able that flowing wells can be obtained over a somewhat larger 
area than is here indicated. Owing to the fact that no topographic 
map has been made of this county, and comparatively few wells 
have been drilled, it is impossible to closely outline the flowing 
area. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

ARCADIA. 

The city water supply at Arcadia is taken from an eight-inch 
well, 375 feet deep. The elevation at Arcadia is given by the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad as 56 feet above sea, and the water 
in the city well is reported to rise to within one foot of the surface. 
A number of other wells are reported from the vicinity of Arcadia 
ranging in depth from 215 to 380 feet. The water from these 
wells rises to within one to seven feet of the surface. In the 
valley of the Peace River, near Arcadia, flowing wells are 
obtained, the water rising from seven to ten feet above the surface. 

FT. OGDEN. 

The surface elevation at the depot at Ft. Ogden is given as 37 
feet above sea. A well, 280 feet deep, located one-half mile west 
of Ft. Ogden, and belonging to Carr & Williams, flows six or 
more feet above the surface. The second well, 289 feet deep, 
belonging to Russell & Windsor, is said to flow 14 feet above sea. 

NOCATEE. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Nocatee. A well of the DeSoto 
Fruit Company, one-half mile east of Nocatee, 355 feet deep, 
flows eight feet above the surface. The well of the Nocatee Fruit 


272 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Company, a few miles east of Nocatee, 300 feet deep, also flows 
eight feet above the ground. 

PUNTA GORDA. 

The city water supply at Punta Gorda is taken from a six- 
inch well, 484 feet deep. The well is cased 240 feet. The water 
from this well is reported to rise about 40 feet above the surface. 
An eight-inch well, owned by the DeSoto Manufacturing Com¬ 
pany, is 430 feet deep. Water from this well is reported to rise 
about 50 feet above the surface. Numerous other artesian wells 
have been drilled in and near Punta Gorda, varying in depth from 
265 to 600 feet. 

PALM BEACH COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Palm Beach County extends from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake 
Okeechobee, and includes an area of 2,809 square miles. The 
western part of the county extends into the Everglades of Florida. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

Samples obtained by N. H. Darton, many years ago, from the 
well of C. I. Craigin, at Palm Beach, afford practically the only 
information available regarding the deeper formations of this 
county. The Vicksburg Limestone is believed to have been 
reached in this well between 915 and 1,000 feet. The material 
above this level was scarcely determinable, although apparently 
the Miocene and, presumably, other formations are represented. 
The limestone, lying near the surface in the eastern part of this 
county, is of Pleistocene age, and is known as the Palm Beach 
Limestone.* 


*Second Annual Report, Florida Geol. Surv., p. 209, 1909. 



WATER SUPPLY OE PASTERN AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 273 


AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

Flowing artesian wells have been obtained in Palm Beach 
County, along the coast as far south as Palm Beach. The depth 
to the Vicksburg Limestone, which is the chief water-bearing 
formation, increases in passing south to east, owing to the dip of 
the formation in that direction. The Vicksburg at Palm Beach 
is reached, as previously stated, between 915 and 1,000 feet. In 
the northern and western parts of the county this formation may 
be expected at a lesser depth, and it is probable that flowing 
artesian wells may, ultimately, be obtained throughout all of the 
northern and much of the western parts of Palm Beach County. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

GOMEz. 

A well drilled at Gomez in 1900, by John McAllister, is 
reported to have reached a depth of 1,200 feet. This is a four- 
inch well and is cased 300 feet. The water, which is slightly 
brackish, is reported to flow 20 feet above the surface. 

HOBE SOUND. 

A well near Plobe Sound, belonging to T. A. Snider, and drilled 
in 1895 by Near & Taylor, reached a depth of 1,100 feet. This 
is a four-inch well and the water, which is slightly salty, is 
reported to rise 12 feet above the surface. 

palm beach. 

The following is a log of the artesian well of C. I. Cragin, 
two and one-fourth miles north of Palm Beach. The well is 1,212 
feet deep, four inches in diameter and is cased 846 feet. The 
original four-inch casing having rusted out, is now replaced by a. 
line of 2j4-inch casing. At the depth of 1,140 feet the four-inch 
bore hole was reduced to three inches, making the well three 
inches in diameter from the depth of 1,140 to the bottom of the 
well, 1,212 feet. The well was commenced in 1889 and finished, 
in 1890 by J. A. Durst, driller: 


274 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Feet from surface. Character of material. 


0 

5 . 

. Surface' soil. 

5 

- 7 . 

. Rock. 

7 

- 8 . 

.First sand. 

8 

- 36 . 

.Mostly fine coquina rock. 

36 

- 57.2 . 

.Quicksand and sharp pieces of stone. 

57.2 

- 58 . 

.First really hard rock. 

58 

- 76.10. 

.Coquina, alternating with sandy strata. 

76.10- 78 . 

.Hard rock. 

78 

- 78.6 . 

.Very hard flint. 

78.6 

- 84 . 

.Sand, white and solid, but not hard. 

84 

- 96 . 

.Quicksand bed, mixed with bits of coarser matt rial. 

96 

- 96.6 . 

.Flint rock, thin. 

96.6 

- 97 . 

.Fine sand. 

97 

- 148 . 

.Quicksand bed. 

148 

- 151 . 

. Solid limestone. 

151 

- 169.6 . 

.Soft gray limestone. 

169.6 

- 170 . 

.Hard rock. 

170 

- 171 . 

.Shell stratum. 

171 

- 171.3 . 

.Very hard sandstone. 

171.3 

- 175 . 

.Sandstone. 

175 

- 185 . 

.Alternately hard and soft limestone. 

185 

- 190 . 

.Straw colored sandstone. 

190 

- 238 . 

.Drab colored solid sandstone, gradually deepen¬ 



ing in its color to a final blue at 230 feet, with 
small delicate shells throughout. 

238 

- 238.8 . 

.Bed of small dainty shells. Water level is 3 feet 



4 inches below wooden curb. 

238.6 

- 248 . 

.Very hard drilling, required to move' casing in 



these alternations. Water level above 20 
inches (near 242 feet). Very active quick¬ 
sand. 

248 

- 250 . 

.Took out loads of quicksand. 

250 

- 262 . 

.Sand. Water in this sand ran slowly out of pipe 



at 3 feet 6 inches above ground. 

262 

- 263 . 

.Coquina. 

263 

- 300 . 

.Broken shell and sand, more shell (white and 



pulverized), the last few feet. Water level 
just above ground level. 

300 

- 301.6 . 

.Rock, water stands 2 feet 4 inches above curb in 



this stand. 

301.6 

- 303.6 . 

.Brown ejay, first seen in this well. 

303.6 

- 310 . 

. Sand. 

310 

- 312.4 . 

.Blue sandstone. 


WATER SUPPLY OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 275 


312.4 - 312.10..Blue sand, shells and pieces of rotten sticks. 
312.10- 315.2 ..Blue sandstone. 

315.2 - 320 .. Sand, water in this sand stands 3 feet above wood¬ 

en curb. 

320 - 321 ..Blue sandstone. 

321 - 340 ..Fine shell and sand, coarser broken shell toward 

bottom. 

340 - 340.3 ..Rock. 


340.3 

- 350 

.. Coarse broken shell, blue pebbles and pieces of 
coquina, water 2 feet above curb, runs freely 
at 1 foot above. 

350 

- 357 

..Yellow sandstone, water 2 feet above curb. 

357 

- 359 

. .Broken shell, pebbles, pieces of coquina. 

359 

- 373 

.. Pulverized shell. 

373 

- 374 

.. Gray limestone, with some broken shell lying im¬ 
mediately beneath, water stands 2 feet 4 inches 
above on penetrating this rock. 

374 

- 392 

.. Pulverized shell, water stands at level of wooden 
curb. 

392 

- 400 

..Alternations of rock and blue marl. 

400 

- 409 . 

.Blue marl. 

409 

- 432 

. .Alternations of blue marl and sand which afforded 
the greatest flow to date and the first fresh 
water below 49 feet. 

432 

- 507 

. .Blue marl. 

507 

- 510 

.. Coquina. 

510 

- 542 

. .Proportion of sand in the marl increases very much. 

542 

- 571 

.. Quicksand, below casing, can not drill at all. Pro¬ 
portion of sand in the marl increases. 

571 

- 614 

..Marly sand. Head of water from 9 to 11 feet 
above ground. Water rises so as to dribble 
from a height of IV/2 feet. 

614 

- 618 

. .Quicksand bed. 

618 

- 618.6 

.. Rock. 

618.6 

- 640 

.. Sand or sandstone. 

640 

- 707 

..Fighter colored and runs to greenish marly sand 
all through here. At depth 678-688 more sand, 
water from 690-700, very many tiny spiral 
shells. 

707 

- 710 

..Brown, coarse material. 

710 

- 794.6 

.. Sand with enough marl with it to give a green 
color to the slush as ejected. 

794.6 

- 809 

..Loose sand full of black specks and tiny bivalve 


and spiral shells. 


276 


FLORIDA STATE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


809 

826 

828 

834 

839 


860 

867 

874 

876 

878 

902 

905 


917.6 
917.9 
923 

961 

973 

990.6 
1009 
1012 
1023 
1025 


1088 

1110 


1116 

1174 

1175 
1193 
1195.6 
1196 


- 826 ..Blue marl full of black specks. 

- 828 .. Sand. 

- 834 ..Sandstone. 

- 839 ..Very fine, tough clay, thoroughly impervious. 

- 860 . .Fine grained coquina, get dribble of water at 

depth of about 844 feet 4 inches, casing 
driven to depth of 846 feet, tight in rock. 

- 867 ..Solid hard limestone. 

- 874 . .Fine clay, devoid of grit. 

- 876 ..Hard rock. 

- 878 .. Lots of black specks here. 

- 902 .. Clays, sandy and lots of black specks, no water. 

- 905 ..Dark sand bed; here the water supply is 115,000 

gallons per diem. 

- 917.6 ..Thin block of stone 909 feet, about. This is the 

lowest sand bed with thin block of limestone 
at intervals. Water comes from between 
these thin flakes of limestone. 

- 917.9 ..Limestone. 

- 923 . .Coralline. 

- 961 ..Hard limestone rock at 923, solid rock nearly 39 

feet. 

- 973 . .Gritty marl. 

- 990.6 .. Solid rock. 

-1009 .. Sandy marl, full of tiny spirals. 

-1012 ..Limestone. 

-1023 . .Yellow sandstone. 

-1025 ..Hard rock. 

-1088 ..Rock, first of the regular water strata. Alternat¬ 
ing hard and soft strata. Increase of water 
with depth. At depth of 1042 feet 270,000 
gallons, 1057 feet 300,000 gallons, 1075 feet 
350,000 gallons; water strata found at fre¬ 
quent intervals. 

-1110 ..Gray limestone. 

-1116 ..Gray limestone interspersed with water strata, 

but the flow increases but slightly. At 1160 
feet flow total 400,000 gallons. 

-1174 ..Solid gray limestone. 

-1175 ..Blue limestone. 

-1193 ..All solid. 

-1195.6 ..Blue limestone (?). 

-1196 .. Six inches water stratum. 

-1212 .. Mostly gray limestone, with some hard and some 

water strata, flow increases but little. 


WATER SUPPLY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 277 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well. 
Analysis made in the office of the State Chemist, A. M. Henry, 
analyst. 

Colorless, odorless, slightly salty taste, no sediment. 

Milligrams per liter. 


Si0 2 . 17 

Cl . 1337 

S0 4 . 431 

P0 4 . 3 

CO 3 . 0 

HCO 3 . 195 

Na and K . 835 

Mg .. 112 

Ca . 102 

Fe and A1 . 2 

Loss on ignition . 357 


Total dissolved solids . 3000 


WEST JUPITER. 

The following is an analysis of the water from Weybrecht’s 
well, at West Jupiter, 57 feet deep. Analysis by the American 
Water Softener Company, Philadelphia, Pa., July 23, 1908. 



Grains per 

Parts per 


U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Total solids . 

. 62.50 

1071.49 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 15.75 

270.01 

Calcium sulphate. 

. 3.13 

53.56 

Calcium chloride . 

. 2.47 

42.34 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 5.86 

100.46 

Sodium chloride .. 

. 30.40 

521.17 

Free carbonic acid . 

. 1.22 

29.48 

Iron, alumina and silica. 

. 1.68 

28.80 

Incrusting solids . 

. 28.89 

495.28 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 30.40 

521.17 


YAMATO. 

The following is a log of a well at Yamato, drilled by the 
Florida East Coast Railway. The well is cased 65 feet and the 
water stands nine feet below the surface. 

























278 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Sand. 

Yellow clay .... 
Sand and shell . 

Rock . 

Gravel . 

Rock . 

Gravel and rock 

Quicksand . 

Rock . 

Sand. 

Rock . 


Feet. 


0 

-24 

24 

-34 

34 

-40 

40 

-41. 

41 

-45 

45 

-4654 

46}4 

-6154 

61 l / 2 

-65 

65 

-67 

67 

-74 

75 

-88 


The following is an analysis of the water from this well made 
by the American Water Softener Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
November 3, 1909: 

Grains per Parts per 



U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 7.22 

123.77 

Calcium sulphate. 

. 0.54 

9.25 

Calcium chloride . 

. 0.78 

13.38 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 0.73 

12.51 

Sodium chloride . 

. 0.81 

13.78 

Free carbonic acid . 

. 0.56 

9.60 

Iron, alumina and silica . 

0.23 

3.94 

Incrusting solids . 

. 9.50 

162.87 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 0.81 

13.78 


LEE COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Lee County lies bordering the Gulf of Mexico and extends 
inland to Lake Okeechobee. The area of the county is 4,641 
square miles. The surface elevation in the northeastern part of 
the county approximates 25 feet above sea level. No topographic 
map has been made of the county, but the surface is prevailingly 
level with, in general, a slope toward the coast. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The artesian wells in this county are believed to obtain their 
chief supply from the Vicksburg formation. 






















WATER SURREY OR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EEORIDA. 279 


AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW. 

Flowing wells have been obtained over an extensive area 
throughout the interior of Fee County, as well as along the 
Caloosahatchee River, along the northern border of the county. 
It is believed that almost the whole of this county may be included 
in the artesian flow area. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

BOCA GRANDE. 

Three deep wells have been drilled at Boca Grande, • on 
Gasparilla Island. The first of these, drilled in 1910, is located 
200 feet north of Boca Grande station, and was drilled by G. H. 
Southard. This well is 1,030 feet deep and is reported cased 800 
feet. The well yields a heavy flow of salty water. The second 
deep well at this locality, drilled in 1911 by F. S. Gilbert, is 
located 600 feet south of Boca Grande station. This well is 1,220 
feet deep and yields a flow of 450 gallons per minute of salty 
water. The temperature of the water at 1,220 feet was 89 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The driller, F. S. Gilbert, reports that he cased 
twenty-two times in drilling this well, the casing being driven and 
pulled at each show of water in order to test for fresh water. The 
well, as completed, was cased with six-inch casing to a depth of 
1,200 feet. The third well, also drilled by F. S. Gilbert, is located 
2,700 feet north of the station. This well is 1,812 feet deep and 
is cased 1,500 feet. The water is salty. The temperature was 90 
degrees Fahrenheit at 1,800 feet. The flow from these wells rises 
about fifteen feet above sea level. These wells enter the Vicksburg 
Limestone, and the deepest of the wells apparently does not pass 
through the Vicksburg Limestone. 

RT. MYERS. 

The public water supply at Ft. Myers is taken from drilled 
wells, of which three are in use at present. Three additional wells 
are available as a reserve supply. These latter vary in depth from 


280 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


487 to 587 feet. The water from these wells will rise about 45 
feet above the surface. A well near Ft. Myers, belonging to 
Thomas A. Edison, reaches a depth of 648 feet. The water from 
this well will rise about 45 feet above the surface. Many addi¬ 
tional wells have been drilled in and around Ft. Myers; these vary 
in depth from 400 to 960 feet. The water from these deep wells 
rises 40 to 50 feet above the surface. 

labelle. 

Flowing wells are obtained at Eabelle and elsewhere, along 
the Caloosahatchee River. D. G. McCormick & Company have a 
flowing well, about a mile north of the east end of Lake Flirt (T. 
42, R. 30, S. 19). This is a three-inch well, 490 feet deep. The 
well is cased 450 feet and the water is reported to rise 40 feet 
above the surface. The strong flow reported for this well indicates 
that flowing wells may be expected over a considerable area, north 
of the Caloosahatchee River and west of Lake Okeechobee. 

The keys. 

A number of wells have been drilled on the keys in Lee 
County. Those at Boca Grande, on Gasparilla Island, have 
already been described. Two wells are reported to have been 
drilled on Sanibel Island. One of these belonging to F. P. Bailey, 
reached a depth of 500 or 600 feet. The second well, belonging 
to Harry Bailey, is 500 feet deep. The water from both of these 
wells is said to be brackish. On Useppa Island a fresh water 
well was obtained by W. H. Towles, at a depth of 250 to 300 feet. 
A second well on this island, reaching a depth of'400 feet, was 
said to have been somewhat brackish. 

Two wells are reported from St. James Island. One of these 
is 184 feet deep, the other is 344 feet deep. Both yield fresh water. 
A well on Bucks Key reaches a depth of 600 feet. The water in 
this well is reported to rise 20 feet above the surface. 


WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 281 


DADE COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Dade County lies in Southern Florida, bordering the Atlantic 
Coast. The county includes an area of 2,305 square miles. The 
western part of the county reaches into the Everglades of Florida. 
East of the Everglades the surface formation is chiefly the Miami 
Oolitic Limestone. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The limestones exposed at the surface, in Dade County, are 
of Pleistocene age and it is probable that most of the wells 
terminate without passing through these Pleistocene formations. 
The deepest well recorded in Dade County is a well drilled 
recently at Homestead by the Florida East Coast Railway. This 
well reached a depth of 300 feet, but the age of the formation in 
which it terminated was not determined. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

The water in the wells at the city waterworks, at Miami, 
rises to within fourteen inches of the surface level and flows into 
the collecting basin excavated for that purpose. The possibility 
of getting flowing artesian water from the Vicksburg Limestone, 
which lies at a depth of several hundred feet, has not been tested 
by deep borings. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

DANIA. 

A well has been drilled at Dania by the Florida East Coast 
Railway, to a depth of 5,4 feet. The following is an analysis of 
the water from this well made by the American Water Softener 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa., November 3, 1909: 


282 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Grains per 

Parts per 


U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Total solids . 

. 17.50 

300.01 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 13.70 

234.87 

Magnesium carbonate .. 

. 77 

13.20 

Sodium chloride .... 

. . 2.56 

43.88 

Sodium carbonate'. 

.07 

1.20 

Free carbonic acid . 

. 1.56 

26.74 

Iron, alumina and silica. 

.09 

1.54 

Incrusting solids . 

. 14.56 

249.61 

Non-incrusting solids. 

. 2.63 

45.08 

An analysis of the second sample of water from 

this well. 

made by the Dearborn Drug and Chemical Works, Chicago, Ill., 

July 2, 1910, is as follows: 

Grains per 

Parts per 


U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Silica. 

. 327 

5.506 

Oxide of iron and alumina. 

. 140 

2.400 

Carbonate of lime .. 

. 13.058 

233.865 

Sulphate of lime... 

. None 

None 

Carbonate of magnesia.. 

. 433 

7.423 

Sodium and potassium sulphates. 

. 212 

3.634 

Sodium and potassium chlorides. 

. 2.380 

40.802 

Sodium and potassium carbonates. 

. 369 

6.326 

Loss, etc. ..... 

.307 

5.263 

Total mineral solids.. 

. 17.286 

296.350 

. Organic matter .. 


Trace 

Total incrusting solids . 

. 13.958 

239.294 

Total non-incrusting solids . 

. 3.328 

57.054 


The following is a log of the well at Dania, obtained through 
the courtesy of Mr. G. A. Miller of the Florida East Coast Rail¬ 


way : 

Feet. 

Sand...... 0- 6 

, Hard pan ...... 6- 8 

Shell and rock . 8-20 

White rock . 20-24 

Shell, coarse sand and water. 24-31 

Rock . 31-35 

Sand and shell . 35-40 

Rock . 40-42 
































WATER SUPPL,Y OP EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 283 


Sand and shell 

Gravel . 

Hard rock 


42-52 

52-54 

54-59^ 


HOMESTEAD. 


Aii experimental well was drilled at Homestead by the Florida 
East Coast Railway to a depth of 320 feet. The following is \he 
analysis of the water from this well, at the depth of 16, 46, 66 and 
320 feet. Analyses by the American Water Softener Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

No. 1, sample of water from the depth of 16 feet: 


Total solids . 

Calcium carbonate ... 

Calcium sulphate . 

Calcium chloride . 

Calcium nitrate . 

Magnesium carbonate . 
Iron, alumina and silica 
Incrusting solids . 


rains per 

Parts per 

S. gallon. 

million. 

13.60 

233.15 

9.85 

168.85 

0.22 

3.77 

1.42 

24.34 

0.48 

8.22 

0.91 

15.59 

0.90 

15.42 

13.52 

221.77 


No. 2, sample of water from the depth of 45 feet. May 25, 
1911: 

Grains per Parts per 



U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Total solids . 

. 13.50 

185.24 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 10.14 

173.83 

Calcium sulphate . 

. 0.22 

3.77 

Calcium chloride . 

. 1.32 

22.62 

Magnesium carbonate . 

. 0.45 

7.71 

Sodium chloride . 

. 0.66 

11.31 

Free carbon dioxide . 

. 0.90 

15.42 

Iron, alumina and silica . 

. 0.19 

3.25 

Incrusting solids .. 

. 12.32 

211.21 

Non-incrusting solids . 

. 0.66 

11.31 























284 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


No. 3, sample of water from depth of 66 feet. June 29, 1911: 


Total solids . 

Calcium carbonate ...... 

Calcium sulphate . 

Calcium chloride ...... 

Calcium nitrate .. 

Magnesium carbonate .. 
Free carbon dioxide' ... 
Iron, alumina and silica 
Incrusting solids . 


1911 


Total solids . 

Calcium carbonate ... 
Magnesium carbonate 


Sodium chloride . 

Free carbon dioxide ... 
Iron, alumina and silica 
Incrusting solids . 


Grains per 

Parts per 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

14.00 

240.01 

10.80 

185.15 

0.39 

6.68 

0.77 

13.20 

0.39 

6.68 

0.39 

6.68 

0.53 

9.08 

0.89 

15.25 

. . 13.63 

233.67 

of 320 feet. 

August 

Grains per 

Parts per 

U. S. gallon. 

million. 

57.40 

984.05 

5.08 

87.09 

3.34 

57.26 

14.35 

246.01 

15.76 

270.18 

15.76 

270.18 

0.26 

4.45 

0.25 

4.28 

8.76 

150.18 

45.87 

786.39 


The water at the depth of 320 feet being unsuited for boiler 
use, the well was plugged and a more shallow water is being used. 

The following is a log of this well, supplied by Mr. G. A. 
Miller, of the Florida East Coast Railway: 


Feet. 

Soft rock . 0 - 10 

Hard rock. 20 - 30 

Medium hard rock . 30 - 40 

Hard rock . 40 - 50 

Medium hard rock... 50 - 55^4 

Hard rock .... 5514- 58^4 



























WATER SUPPRY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 285 


Sand ..... 58%- 59 

Soft rock with sand pockets. 59 - 62 

Loose rock and sand . 62 - 66 

Sand. 66 - 81 

Loose sand and rock . 81 - 84 

Marl . 84 - 84% 

Sand ... 84%- 92 

Marl and shell . 92 -115 

Gray clay with small amount of fine sand... 115 -160 

Clay and marl . 160 -167 

Marl containing a small quantity sand and shell. Sand 

increasing with depth. 167 -197 

Marl or soft chalky rock. 197 -204 

Tough slate colored clay. 204 -217 

Marl containing sand, shell and gravel. 217 -232 

Marl or soft chalk-like rock . 232 -237 

Marl and sand . 237 -240 

Slate colored clay . 240 -268 

Clay . 268 -294 

Marl and clay . 294 -298 


MIAMI. 

The public water supply at Miami is taken from seven wells, 
located on the north side of Miami River, about one and one-half 
miles west of the city. The principal supply of fresh water in 
these wells is obtained at a depth of about 85 feet, although some 
water is reported at 30 and at 80 feet. The water rises to within 
14 inches of the surface and flows into a receiving basin. At 90 
feet, in well number 7, recently drilled, salt water was reached. 
This well was plugged and fresh water admitted from above. 
The following notes were made from occasional samples from 
one of these wells. The samples were kept by the Florida East 
Coast Hotel Company: 





















286 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


♦ Depth from which 
sample was obtained. 


Feet. 

Oolitic limestone . 0- 3 

Non-oolitic granular rock, including some clear grains of 

silica... 24-28 

Limestone, fossils, mostly dissolved out and replaced by 

calcite crystals . 28-32 

Limestone, compact and partly crystallized. 64-66 

Hard limestone with few fossils. 66-76 

Limestone, fossils, mostly dissolved out, leaving cavities; 

also a number of rounded or flattened pebbles... 76-88 

Hard limestone, including some water-worn pebbles. 88-99 


The following is an 

analysis of the water from 

the Miami 

wells. Analysis by the 

American Water Softener 

Company, 

Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Grains per 

Parts per 


U. S. gallon. 

million. 

Total solids. 

. 17.50 

300.01 

Calcium carbonate . 

. 12.68 

217.38 

Calcium sulphate. 

. 0.21 

3.60 

Calcium chloride . 

. 0.83 

14.22 

Magnesium carbonate .. 

. 0.59 

10.11 

Sodium chloride . 

.. 2.20 

37.71 

Free carbon dioxide ... 

..... 0.60 

10.28 

Iron, alumina and silica 

.... 0.18 

3.08 

Incrusting solids . 

... 14.99 

156.98 

Non-incrusting solids . . 

. 2.20 

37.71 


MONROE COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES. 

Monroe County lies along the Gulf Coast, at the extreme 
southern end of Florida. The area of the land surface, including 
the numerous keys, is about 1,125 square miles. 

WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS. 

The Key Largo Coralline Limestone and the Key West Oolitic 
Limestone make up the surface formations along the keys. On the 



















WATER SUPPEY OE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ERORIDA. 287 


mainland the LostmatTs River Limestone lies near the surface. 
The deep wells at Key West reach the Vicksburg Limestone. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

No flowing artesian wells have been reported from Monroe 
County. It is probable, however, that flowing wells could be 
obtained in the northern part of the county and along the Gulf 
Coast. Several wells have been drilled on the keys, along the line 
of the Florida East Coast Railway. None of these, however, have 
been successful in obtaining either flowing or fresh water. 

LOCAL DETAILS. 

KEY VACA. 

Two deep wells have been drilled by the Florida East Coast 
Railway at Marathon, on Key Vaca. One of these wells reached 
a depth of 425 feet, the other 700 feet. The following is a com¬ 
bined record of these two wells by Samuel Sanford, who was in 
charge of the drilling. The log is republished from the Second 


Annual Report of this Survey, page 205: 

Feet. 

Reef rock. 0-105 

Hard to soft white limestone, with much white marl. 105-148 

Soft white limestone with shell casts. 148-150 

Medium hard white limestone, shell casts and shell frag¬ 
ments . 150-155 

Soft white limestone with quartz grains, proportion of 
quartz increasing with depth, shell fragments and 
casts . 155-176 


Medium fine quartz-sand containing numerous irregular 

nodules, with yellowish marly sand at 210 to 215 feet. 176-230 
Quartz sand in a varying proportion of limy mud, sand 
grains, colorless mud, yellowish to dark green; 
streaks and beds of friable sandstone containing shell 


casts; bed of oyster shells at 240 feet... 230-300 

Quartz sands or beds of soft, friable sandstone, contain- 
taining shell casts; streaks of dark green, limy clay, 

306-310 feet; beds of shells, few determinable fossils, 
probably Miocene, 378-390 . 300-400 









288 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Quartz sands as below 230 feet, beds of soft friable sand¬ 
stone with shell casts; gravel bed with much worn 
pebbles up to 40 mm. long; tough green, limy clay at 

407 to 410 feet . 400-435 

Quartz sands with little sandstone, tough, dark clay in 

occasional streaks . 435-700 

KEY WEST. 

Two deep wells have been drilled at Key West. The first of 
these, drilled in 1895, is reported to have reached a depth of 2,000 
feet. The water obtained from this well was too salty for drink¬ 
ing purposes, but is used for fire protection. The following is a 
log of this well, taken from the Second Annual Report of this 
Survey, page 206, abbreviated from the detailed description given 


by E. Q. Hovey, of samples from this well: 

Feet. 

Yellowish oolite . 0- 25 

White yellowish or light gray limestone, with oolitic 

lumps .. 50- 175 

Fine white lime-sand rock . 175- 200 

White, porous oolitic and sandy limestone. 200- 275 

White, more or less solid limestone. 300- 375 

Friable soft gray lime-sand rock. 400- 675 

Yellowish to brownish lime-sand rock, Orbitoides , 800 

to 850 feet . 700-1075 

Fight gray, partly dense and partly porous limestone... 1100-1175 

Gray lime-sand rock. 1200-1350 

Yellowish gray lime-sand rock, with some porous lime¬ 
stone . 1375-1450 

Lime-sand rock, varying in color and compactness, with 

strata of dense limestone . 1475-1975 

Yellowish to light brownish-gray limestone, rather 

solid, with porous portions . 1975-2000 


A second deep well was drilled at this locality by J. T. Brown 
for S. O. Johnson. This well is 1,010 feet deep and reached salty 
water. Occasional samples of the drillings from this well to a 
depth of 540 feet were forwarded to the Florida State Geological 
Survey. Below 540 feet only one sample was received, which was 
submitted as representing the material from 800 to 1,010 feet. 
The following partial log is made up from these occasional 
samples: 















WATER SUPPLY OP PASTERN AND SOUTHERN PEORIDA. 28 & 

Depth from which the 

Character of rock. sample was taken. 

Feet. 


Oolitic limestone with she'll fragments. In color the oolitic 
grains vary from light to pinkish. The sample contains 

little or no quartz sand.... 30 

Soft limestone powdered very fine, not so conspicuously 

oolitic as last sample . 50 

Oolite, light and pinkish oolite grains. 70 

Light colored oolitic limestone with fragments of shells. 80 

Oolitic limestone with fragments of shell. Oolite grains vary 

in color, from light to pinkish . 100 


From 100 to 210 feet no fine material was brought up by the 
drill. A salty sulphur water was reached at this depth, 
and the fine material carried away apparently in the water. 
The coarse pieces brought up in this distance were as 
follows: 

Piece of coral and limestone, consisting of fragments of shells 
and other organisms, also pieces of dark-colored lime¬ 


stones . 135 

Pieces of hard crystallized limestone and fragment of coral.. 150 
Rough white limestone pieces with shell fragments, also pieces 
of limestone made up of a mass of shell fragments; also 

oolitic limestone . 175 

Oolitic limestone with shells and shell fragments, also rough 

white limestone and partially crystallized limestone. 200 

Rough white limestone with shell fragments, partially crys¬ 
tallized . 210 

Rough white limestone with shell fragments. 260 

Oolite grains light and pinkish in color; also pieces of rough 

limestone . 270 

Mass of calcium crystals, stained brownish yellow. 325 

Rough light-colored limestone pieces with fragments of shells 

and of corals . 340 

Rough light-colored limestone pieces with fragments of shells, 
corals, worm tubes, and light and pinkish oolite with 

admixture of greenish-gray calcarous material. 350 

Greenish-gray calcareous sand, with occasional oolite grains 

imbedded, but no fossils and no siliceous sand. 370 

Light-colored limestone with fossils and pieces of typical 

oolite . 380 


















290 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


Gray calcareous sand with slight admixture of siliceous sand.. 390 
Same gray calcareous sand with some pieces of impure light- 


colored limestone and with one calcite crystal... 400 

Same as above, gray calcareous sand, with some light-colored 

limestone ..... 425 

Light, rough limestone with fossils and typical oolite. 450 

Gray calcareous sand and light limestone..... 475 

Same gray calcareous sand with light-colored limestone. 515 

Same gray calcareous sand with fine siliceous sand. ........... 530 

Same as above ..... 540 


The sample submitted, as representing the material from 800 
to 1,010 feet, is limestone, apparently of the Vicksburg formation. 









PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN FLORIDA 
DURING 191*; 

E. H. Sellards. 

The production of phosphate rock in Florida which has 
steadily increased during the past several years shows, according 
to statistics collected by the State Geological Survey, a further 
increase during 1912. The output for 1911 was 2,494,572 long 
tons, while during 1912 the output, as reported to the State Geo¬ 
logical Survey by the producers, was 2,579,865 long tons, an 
increase of nearly one hundred thousand tons. The increase 
occurred in both the hard rock and pebble mines. It was greatest, 
however, in the hard rock mines, this being the reverse of the 
preceding few years during which the increase had been most 
rapid in the pebble mines. Thirty companies in all were engaged 
in mining phosphate in Florida during 1912. Of these fourteen 
companies were mining hard rock phosphate while sixteen com¬ 
panies were mining pebble phosphate. 

The foreign shipments of phosphate rock from Florida dur¬ 
ing 1912 amounted to 1,203,005 tons. The amount consigned 
for domestic shipment, as reported by the producers, was 1,219,927 
tons. It thus appears that approximately one-half of the phos¬ 
phate mined in Florida is used in the United States. Hard rock 
phosphate is said to have sold at the mines during 1912 at about 
$6.00 per ton. Pebble phosphate sold at the mines at $2.75 to 
$4.50 per ton, depending upon the grade. 

HARD ROCK PHOSPHATE. 

Notwithstanding a season of unprecedented rain the mining 
of hard rock phosphate progressed actively during 1912, resulting 
in a decided increase in production over the preceding year. The 
production of hard rock during 1911 in Florida was 474,094 tons 
while during 1912 there was mined 536,3^9 tons. The removal of 
overburden by hydraulics is becoming very general in the hard 
rock section and has been an important factor in the increased 
production of rock. Electric lighting and power has made it pos- 


292 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 


sible ,to introduce day and night shifts in the Withlacoochee River 
mines, one or two plants near Dunnellon having been so operated 
during 1912. The total number of plants mining hard rock phos¬ 
phate at the beginning of 1912 was forty-three. Some of these 
worked out deposits or for other reasons closed down, while 
several new plants opened up. Forty plants were operating in 
the hard rock section at the close of the year. 

The domestic shipments of hard rock phosphate during 1912 
ampunted to 15,425 tons, of which 10,449 tons were consigned 
for use in Florida. The amount of hard rock consigned for 
export, as reported by the producers, was 473,639 tons, as against 
462,072 tons during 1911. The amount of hard rock phosphate 
actually loaded for shipment during 1912 at the various ports was 
470,354 tons. 

PEBBLE phosphate. 

The production of pebble phosphate during 1912 shows a 
slight increase over that of 1911. The output of pebble for 1911 
was 2,020,478 tons, while during 1912 the output was 2,043,486 
tons. The number of plants engaged in mining pebble phosphate 
in Florida during 1912 was sixteen, although several mines are 
frequently worked from one plant. The overburden from the 
pebble rock is removed by steam shovel or by hydraulics. The 
rock itself is mined by hydraulics or by steam shovel. Many of 
the pebble mines run day and night shifts. 

The amount of pebble phosphate consigned during 1912 for 
domestic use, as reported by the producers, was 1,204,502 tons, of 
which 32,425 tons were consigned for use in Florida. The amount 
of pebble rock consigned for export during 1912, as reported by 
the producers, was 682,232 tons. The amount of phosphate 
actually loaded and cleared for shipments through the several 
ports during the calendar year 1912, as reported in the American 
Fertilizer, January 25, 1913, was 732,651 tons, from which it 
appears probable that a -small amount of phosphate sold by the 
producers to parties in the United States and hence reported by 
them as domestic shipments, was subsequently exported. The 
amount of phosphate actually loaded at the ports is used in giving 


PRODUCTION OP PHOSPHATE ROCK. 


293 


the total exports'. The statistics on the production of phosphate 
rock have been obtained direct from the producers and are 
complete for all plants operated in Florida. 

PHOSPHATE COMPANIES OPERATING IN FLORIDA DURING 1912. 

Amalgamated Phosphate Co.25 S. Calvert St., Baltimore, Md., 

and Chicora, Fla. 

Armour Fertilizer Works.Bartow, Fla. 

Peter B. and Robert S. Bradley.92 State St., Boston, Mass., and Flo¬ 

ral City, Fla. 

J. Buttgenbach & Co...Holder, Fla. 

Camp Phosphate Co....Ocala and Dunnellon, Fla. 

Central Phosphate Co.Dutton, Fla. 

Charleston, S. C., Mining and Manufacturing Co. Charleston, S. C., and 

Ft. Meade, Fla. 

Compagnie Generale des Phosphates 

de la Floride .Paris, France, and Pembroke, Fla. 

Coronet Phosphate Co.Lakeland, Fla., and 99 Tohn St, New 

York. 

Cummer Lumber Co.Jacksonville and Newberry, Fla. 

The Dominion Phosphate Co.Bartow, Fla. 

The Dunnellon Phosphate Co.Rockwell, Fla. 

Dutton Phosphate Co.Gainesville, Fla. 

Florida Mining Co.165 Broadway, New York, and Mul¬ 

berry, Fla. 

Florida Phosphate Mining Corpora¬ 
tion ...Norfolk, Va., and Bartow, Fla. 

Franklin Phosphate Co. .Newberry, Fla. 

Holder Phosphate Co.Ocala and Inverness, Fla. 

International Phosphate Co.27 State St., Boston, Mass., and Ft. 

Meade, Fla. 

Interstate Chemical Corporation_Charleston, S. C., and Bowling 

Green, Fla. 

Istachatta Phosphate Co.Istachatta, Fla. 

Mutual Mining Co...-.Savannah, Ga., and Newberry, Fla. 

Palmetto Phosphate Co.Baltimore, Md., and Tiger Bay, Fla. 

The Phosphate Mining Co.. .55 Johns St., New York, and Nich¬ 

ols, Fla. 

Pierce Phosphate Co...2 Rector St., New York, and Pierce, 

Fla. 

Prairie Pebble Phosphate Co.165 Broadway, New York, and Mul¬ 

berry, Fla. 

Schilman & Bene ...Ocala, Fla. 

The Southern Phosphate Develop¬ 
ment Co. .Ocala and Inverness, Fla. 

Standard Phosphate Co.Christina, Fla. 

State Phosphate Co...Bartow, Fla. 

T. A. Thompson .Neals, Fla. 






























SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION AND SHIPMENT OF FLORIDA PHOSPHATE FOR THE YEARS 

1908, 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1912 (Long Tons). 

Hard Rock : 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 


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Total recorded shipments 1908 to 1912 inclusive. 10,337,403 tons 

Total amount of phosphate produced in Florida from the beginning of mining in 1888 to 

1912 inclusive.. 23,280,127 tons 





















STATISTICS ON PUBLIC ROADS. 

E. H. Sellards. 

A report on roads and road materials of Florida, including 
statistics, was published by the State Geological Survey in 1911. 
The accompanying tabulated statement is issued to supple¬ 
ment that report and to complete the statistics to the close of 1912. 
While the statistics in regard to mileage and cost of construction 
are necessarily approximate, yet the data are sufficiently accurate 
to give in a general way the present condition of road building 
in the State. The information has been supplied chiefly by 
courtesy of the county officials of the several counties. 

At the close of 1912 the total mileage of improved roads in 
Florida was approximately 2,848 miles. Of this number 857.8 
miles are surfaced with marl or crushed stone; 1,408.75 are sur¬ 
faced with sand-clay; 218 miles are surfaced with shell; 5.2 miles 
with cement; 26.5 miles with gravel; .4 mile with asphalt and 
8.5 miles with brick. 

In addition to the funds available from regular and special 
taxes, the following counties have issued bonds during the past 
two years for road improvement: Alachua, $40,000; Columbia, 
$40,000 ; Dade, $250,000 ; Jackson, $100,000 ; St. Johns, $30,000 ; 
Walton, $70,000. The following counties had previously issued 
■bonds: Duval, $1,000,000; Hillsboro, $400,000; Manatee, 
$250,000; Nassau, $60,000; Palm Beach, $200,000; Put¬ 
nam, $155,000, and St. Lucie, $200,000. The total expenditure 
on public roads in Florida from all sources exceeds one million 
dollars per annum. 


STATISTICS ON PUBLIC ROADS COLLECTED BY THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 1912 


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INDEX. 


PAGlS. 

Anastasia Island, wells on...... 185 

Alachua county, phosphates of ..... 33 

Alum Bluff formation ...... 117 

Apalachicola group ........ 117 

Arcadia, wells at .......... 271 

Areas of artesian flow in Florida... 157 

Armstrong, wells at ....... 187 

Artesian basin ......... 141 

Artesian slope ....... 142 

Artesian water supply, paper on...... 103 

Atlantic coast, flowing area of ... 157 

Baldwin, wells at ... 176 

Bartow, wells at ...... 263 

Bayard, wells at ...... 176 

Boca Grande, wells at ...... 279 

Bostwick, wells at ....... 207 

Boulders, formation of .....60 

Bradentown, wells at . 268 

Brevard county, areas of artesian flow in . 233 

location and surface features of . 232 

water bearing formations of '... 233 

Brown, Lucius P....... 50, 53 

Bunnell, wells at ...... 187 

Callahan, wells at ...... 165 

Carters, wells at ........ 263 

Cause of loss of flow ....... 151 

Cause of movement of underground water.... 133 

Chattahoochee formation ...... 117 

Chester Shoals, wells at __ ...... ..... 233 

Chuluota, wells at ..... 215 

Citrus County, phosphates of .. 35 

City Point, wells at ...... ....... 234 

Clapp, F. G........ 39, 114 

Clay county, areas of artesian flow in .... 200 

location and surface features of . 197 

map of ..... 199 

water bearing formations of .... 198 

Clearwater, wells at ....... 250 

Climate of eastern and southern Florida.... 123 

Cocoa, wells at ...... 235 

Columbia county, phosphates of ..... 32 











































300 


Florida state: geological survey. 


PAGE. 

Conditions necessary; to obtain artesian water ... 140 

Cost of wells . 145 

Cox, E. T. 46, 51 

Crandall, wells at . 167 

Cragin, C. I., well of . 273 

Crescent City, wells at . 207 

Dade county, areas of artesian flow in . 281 

location and surface features of ... 281 

water bearing formations of . 281 

Dali, W. H. 39, 47, 51, 53 

Dania, wells at . 281 

Darton, N. H. 47, 53. 

Davidson, W. B. M. .. 47. 50 

Daytona, wells at . 222 

DeLand, wells at . 225 

Depth of underground water. 134 

DeSoto county, areas of artesian flow in. 270 

location and surface features of . 269 

map of . 270 

water bearing formations of . 270 

Dinner Island, wells at . 187 

Doctors Inlet, wells at ... 200 

Dunedin, wells at . 251 

Dunnellon formation . 31 

Duval county, areas of artesian flow in . 175 

location and surface features of . 172 

map of . 173 

water bearing formations of . 174 

Eau Gallie, wells at . 236 

Eden, wells at . 246 

Eldridge, George H. 40, 48, 51, 53 

Elevations in Florida, list of . 81 

Elkton, wells at . 187 

Enterprise, wells at . 226 

Erosion by underground solution . 55 

Espanola, wells at ... 188 

Espiritu Santo Springs . 251 

Evergreen, wells at . 167 

Federal Point, wells at . 188 

Fernandina, wells at . 167 

Florida, topography of . 83 


/ 













































FIFTH ANNUM REPORT—INDEX. 301 

PAGE). 

Ft. Myers, wells at . 279 

Ft. Ogden, wells at ... 271 

Ft. Pierce, wells at . 246 

Fossils in the hard rock phosphate deposits ... 56 

Frontenac, wells at . 237 

Geneva, wells at . 216 

Geology of eastern Florida. 114 

Gomez, wells at . 273 

Grant, wells at . 237 

Green Cove Springs, wells at . 200 

Gulf coast, flowing areas of.. 158 

Gulf hammock belt . 64 

Hardpan . 128 

Hard rock phosphate belt . 64 

Hard rock phosphate deposits, paper on . 27 

Hastings, wells at . 189 

Hawthorne formation . 117 

Hernando county, phosphates of . 36 

Hibernia, wells at . 202 

Hilliard, wells at . 170 

Hillsboro county, areas of artesian flow in . 258 

location and surface features of . 258 

map of . 259 

water bearing formations of . 258 

Hobe Sound, wells at. 273 

Holy Branch, wells at . 190 

Homestead, wells at . 283 

Hurds, wells at . 191 

Hydrogen sulphide in underground water. 135 

Increased flow with increased depth . 146 

Increased head with increased depth . 146 

Increased temperature with increased depth . 147 

Italia, wells at . 171 

Jacksonville’ formation . 118 

Jacksonville, precipitation at . 126 

temperature at . 123 

wells at . 176 

Johnson, L. C. 41, 44, 50, 51 

Jumeau, L. P. 50, 53 









































302 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PAGE 

Key Vaca, wells on . 287 

Key West, precipitation at . 126 

temperature at ... 124 

wells at . 288 

Kings Ferry, wells at ...... 171 

Kissimmee, wells at ... 267 

Kost, J. .. 43 

Labelle, wells at . 280 

Lake Helen, wells at. 228 

Lakeland, wells at .... 264 

Lake Region . 65 

Largo, wells at . 252 

LeBaron, J. Francis ... 41 

Lee county, areas of artesian flow in... 279 

location and surface features of . 278 

water bearing formations of . 278 

Ledoux, Albert R. 45, 53 

Le'no, wells at . 202 

Lessie, wells at . 172 

Lofton, wells at ..... 172 

Loss of head and reduction in flow . 149 

Magnolia Springs, wells at . 203 

Malabar, wells at . 237 

Manatee, wells at . 268 

Manatee county, areas of artesian flow in . 268 

location and surface features of. 267 

map of . 266 

water bearing formations of . 268 

Mandarin, wells at . 180 

Manhattan Beach, wells at . 181 

Marion county, phosphates of . 34 

Matson, George C. 39, 114 

Maxville, wells at . 182 

Mayport, wells at . 182 

Melbourne, wells at . 237 

Memminger, C. G. 40 

Merritts Island . 240 

Miami, precipitation at . 126 

temperature at . 124 

wells at ..... .... ... 285 

Micco, wells at . 241 











































FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT—INDEX. 303 

PAGE. 

Middleburg, wells at . 203 

Middle Florida hammock belt .. .... 64 

Millar, C. C. Hoyer.....43, 48 

Miocene .118 

Mitchell, A. J. 114 

Monroe county, artesian wells of . 287 

location and surface features of . 286 

water bearing formations of . 286 

Morehead, T. S. 43 

Moultrie, wells at ..... 191 

Mulberry, wells at . 264 

Narcoossee, wells at. 267 

Narrows, wells at . 248 

Nassau county, areas of artesian flow in ... 164 

location and surface features of... 162 

map of . 173 

water bearing formations of .. 162 

Neal, J. C. 40 

New Smyrna, precipitation at . 126 

temperature at . 123 

wells at . 228 

Nocatee, wells at . 271 

Oak Hill, wells at. 229 

Oligocene . 114 

Orange City, wells at . 230 

Orange county, areas of artesian flow in.... 215 

location and surface features of. 214 

map of . 214 

water bearing formations of . 215 

Orange Mills, wells at . 208 

Orchid, wells at . 248 

Orlando, wells at . 217 

Ormond, wells at . 231 

Osceola county, areas of artesian flow in . 266 

location and surface features of. 264 

map of . 265 

water bearing formations of . 264 

Oviedo, wells at ....... 217 

Ozona, wells at . 252 









































304 FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PAGE. 

Palatka, wells at . 209 

Palm Beach county, areas of artesian flow in . 273 

location and surface features of . 272 

water bearing formations of . 272 

Palm Beach, wells at . 273 

Palmetto, wells at ... 269 

Pass-a-Grille, wells at ... 252 

Penial, wells at . 211 

Penrose', R. A. F. 44 

Peoria, wells at . 205 

Phosphate boulders, formation of . 61 

Phosphates of Florida, bibliography on ... 67 

Phosphates, origin of . 37, 52 

paper on . 27 

production of during 1912 ... 291 

Phosphoric acid, source of . 58 

Pickel, J. M. 40 

Picolata, wells at . 192 

Pierson, wells at . 232 

Pinellas county, areas of artesian flow in . 250 

location and surface features of .. 250 

map of . 259 

water bearing formations in ... 250 

Pinellas Park, wells at . 253 

Plant City, wells at .... 259 

Plate rock, origin of. 62 

Pleistocene . 119 

Pliocene .119 

Polk county, areas of artesian flow in . 263 

location and surface features of . 262 

map of . 262 

water bearing formations of. 263 

Pratt, N. H. 40, 48, 50 

Precipitation in eastern and southern Florida . 125 

Public roads, statistics on. 295 

Punta Gorda, wells at . 272 

Putnam county, areas of artesian flow in . 207 

location and surface features of . 206 

map of . 199 

water bearing formations of. 206 










































fifth annual report—index. 305 

page:. 

Rate of movement of underground water.. 133 

Rice Creek, wells at . 211 

. Rivers of eastern Florida . 122 

Riverdale, wells at . 192 

Roads, statistics on . 295 

Rockledge, wells at . 241 

Rodman, wells at . 211 

Roseland, wells at . 248 

Roy, wells at . 193 

Russell, wells at ..... 205 

St. Augustine, wells at .. 193 

St. Johns county, areas of artesian flow in . 185 

location and surface features of . 183 

map of ., .. 4 .. 186 

water bearing formations of . 184 

St. Lucie county, areas of artesian flow in . 245 

location and surface features of . 245 

water bearing formations of . 245 

St. Petersburg, wells at . 253 

Sanford, wells at . 218 

San Mateo, wells at . 212 

Sarasota, wells at . 269 

Satsuma, wells at . 212 

Sebastian, wells at . 249 

Sellards, E. H., paper by... 23, 81, 103 

Seminole, wells at . 257 

Seville, wells at . 232 

Sharpes, wells at . 242 

Shepard, Chas. U. 40, 44 

Silica boulders . 60 

Simmons, C. A. 40 

Slichter, C. S. 150 

Snowden, R. R. 42 

Soils of eastern and southern Florida. 127 

Source of artesian water of Florida . 144 

Source of underground water . 129 

State Chemist, analyses by . 114 

Sulphur deposits formed from hydrogen sulphide . 138 

Sutherland, wells at . 257 

Suwannee county, phosphates of ...:. 32 

Switzerland, wells, at . 196 











































306 FLORIDA STAFF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PAGE. 

Tampa formation .117 

Tampa, precipitation at .' 126 

temperature at . 124 

wells at . 260 

Tarpon Springs, wells at . 257 

Temperatrue in eastern and southern Florida ... 123 

Tillman, wells at . 243 

Titusville, wells at . 243 

Topography of eastern Florida . 121 

Topographic map, explanation of . 82 

Underground circulation of water. 133 

Underground water level, relation of, to phosphate deposits . 59 

Valkaria, wells at . 245 

Vaughn, T. W. 39 

Vicksburg limestone . 114 

Vogt, Albertus . 42 

Volusia county, areas of artesian flow in . 222 

location and surface features of . 221 

map of . 223 

water bearing formations of . 222 

Waggaman, W. H. 44 

Walkill, wells at . 205 

Wall Springs, wells at ....: . 257 

Waste of artesian water. 152 

Water supply, paper on . 113 

Welaka, wells at . 212 

West Jupiter, wells at . 277 

West Tocoi, wells at . 205 

Woodburn, wells at . 213 

Williams Crossing, wells at . 205 

Willis, Edward . 44 

Wyatt, Francis ...45, 50 

Yamato, wells at . 277 

Yelvington, wells at . 196^ 
































































FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


E. H. SELLARDS, Ph. D., STATE GEOLOGIJ 


82° 



LEGEND 


FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SUR\ 

E. H. SELLARDS, PH. D., STATE GEOLOGIST 


MAP OF 

FLORIDA 


SHOWINO 


TOPOGRAPHY, HARD ROCK AND LAN 
PEBBLE PHOSPHATE DEPOSITS, AND 
AREAS OF ARTESIAN FLOW 


Geological Survey 


n, and formed a part 
States Geological Su 
The sources from v« 


lit 


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